Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(Modern ; Official Crimean Tatar name (Uniform Turkic Alphabet
The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was a Latin alphabet used by non-Slavic peoples of the USSR in the 1930s. The alphabet used ligatures from Jaŋalif as it was also a part of the uniform alphabet. The uniform alphabet utilized Latin ligatures, excluding "w." Some additional ligatures were also introduced...
): Qrьm Avonomjalь Sotsialist Sovet Respublikasь
; - Krymskaya Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika
) was created on October 18, 1921 as Crimean Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of RSFSR in place of Taurida Governorate
The Taurida Governorate or Government of Taurida was a historical governorate of the Russian Empire. It included the Crimean peninsula and the mainland between the lower Dnieper River and the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov It was formed after the defunct Taurida Oblast in was abolished in...
and within the Crimean Peninsula, with its capital being Simferopol
-Russian Empire and Civil War:The city was renamed Simferopol in 1784 after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire by Catherine II of Russia. The name Simferopol is derived from the Greek, Συμφερόπολις , translated as "the city of usefulness." In 1802, Simferopol became the...
. The official languages were Crimean Tatar
The Crimean Tatar language is the language of the Crimean Tatars. It is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea, Central Asia , and the Crimean Tatar diasporas in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria...
and Russian. On December 5, 1936 by the VIII Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of USSR the republic was renamed into the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
A significant part of its population were Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans are a Turkic ethnic group that originally resided in Crimea. They speak the Crimean Tatar language...
, who were stripped of their property and civil rights and forcibly resettled to Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...
in 1944. (Their constitutional rights were restored in 1967.) However, they were not allowed to return until the last days of the Soviet Union.
On June 30, 1945 by the decree of the both Presidiums of the Supreme Soviet of USSR and the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR (published on May 26, 1946) it was converted into the Crimean Oblast
The Crimean Oblast was an oblast of the former Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR , which was at the time part of the Soviet Union. Its capital was the city of Simferopol....
of RSFSR, which was transferred to Ukrainian SSR
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or in short, the Ukrainian SSR was a sovereign Soviet Socialist state and one of the fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union lasting from its inception in 1922 to the breakup in 1991...
Following a referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...
held on January 20, 1991 the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was reestablished on February 12, 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is Ukraine's parliament. The Verkhovna Rada is a unicameral parliament composed of 450 deputies, which is presided over by a chairman...
. Today it is officially named the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
Chairmen of Revkom
- November 16, 1920 - February 20, 1921 Bela Kun
Béla Kun , born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist politician and a Bolshevik Revolutionary who led the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.- Early life :...
- February 20, 1921 - November 7, 1921 Mikhail Poliakov (become the one of NKVD troika
NKVD troika or Troika, in Soviet Union history, were commissions of three persons who convicted people without trial. These commissions were employed as an instrument of extrajudicial punishment introduced to circumvent the legal system with a means for quick execution or imprisonment...
Leaders of Republican Council
Central Executive Committee
- November 7, 1921 - August 1924 Yuriy Gaven (Janis Daumanis)
- August 1924 - January 28, 1928 Veli Ibraimov
- January 28, 1928 - February 20, 1931 Memet Kubayev
- February 20, 1931 - September 9, 1937 Ilyas Tarkhan (arrested on September 8, 1937)
- September 9, 1937 - July 21, 1938 Abdul-Celil Menbariyev
- July 21, 1938 - May 18, 1944 Abdul-Celil Menbariyev (deported to Middle Asia
Middle Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west, to Mongolia in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north. The geographical term has appeared sometime prior to the 20th century in the Russian Empire and was closely associated with the Russian Turkestan and the...
- May 18, 1944 - June 30, 1945 N.Sachiova (acting)
after fall of Soviet Union
- March 22, 1991 - May 9, 1994 Nikolay Bagrov
Heads of Government
Soviet of People's Commissars was created by the I session of Central Executive Committee
- November 11, 1921 - May 16, 1924 Sakhib-Garey Said-Galiyev
- May 16, 1924 - May 1924 I.Goncharov (acting)
- May 1924 - March 21, 1926 Osman Deren-Ayerly
- March 21, 1926 - May 1929 Emir Shugu
- May 1929 - September 16, 1937 Abduraim Samedinov (arrested September 17, 1937)
- 1937 - April 5, 1942 Memet Ibraimov
- April 5, 1942 - May 18, 1944 Ismail Seyfullayev
- May 18, 1944 - June 30, 1945 Aleksandr Kabanov
Soviet of Ministers
- March 22, 1991 - May 20, 1993 Vitaliy Kurashik
- until April 1921 Mikhail Vikhman (later in Chernihiv)
- April 1921 - June 1921 Smirnov
- June 20, 1921 - 1921 Fyodor Fomin (transferred to Kiev)
- November 11, 1921 - February 1922 Aleksandr Rotenberg
- February 1922 - September 11, 1922 Aleksandr Rotenberg
- September 11, 1922 - April 25, 1923 Stanislav Redens
- April 25, 1923 - June 9, 1924 Stanislav Redens
- May 20, 1924 - July 29, 1925 Sergei Szwarz (transferred to the Special department of the Black Sea Navy)
- 1925 Aleksandr Toropkin (transferred to Ural)
- October 1926 - April 26, 1928 Ivan Apeter (transferred to the Special department of the Black Sea Navy)
- April 26, 1928 - December 1929 Grigoriy Rapoport (transferred to Belarus Military District)
- January 23, 1930 - July 10, 1934 Eduard Salins (Eduards Saliņš)
Directorate of NKVD
- July 15, 1934 - December 17, 1934 Eduard Salins (transferred to Omsk)
- January 2, 1935 - February 16, 1937 Tite Lordkipanidze
- February 16, 1937 - June 29, 1937 Tite Lordkipanidze (perished in 1937)
- June 29, 1937 - October 20, 1937 Karp Pavlov
- October 20, 1937 - August 4, 1938 Artur Mikhelson (transferred to Moscow-Omsk river transportation)
- August 4, 1938 - December 18, 1938 Lavrentiy Yakushev (also Babkin)
- December 19, 1938 - February 26, 1941 Grigoriy Karanadze
- February 26, 1941 - July 31, 1941 Pyotr Fokin (transferred to the IV department and then the Operational-chekist group)
- July 31, 1941 - December 17, 1942 Grigoriy Karanadze
- October 5, 1943 - July 5, 1945 Vasiliy Sergiyenko