County of Tyrol

County of Tyrol

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The '''County of Tyrol''', [[Princes of the Holy Roman Empire|Princely]] County from 1504, was a [[Imperial State|State]] of the [[Holy Roman Empire]], from 1814 a province of the [[Austrian Empire]] and from 1867 a [[Cisleithania]]n crown land (''Kronland'') of [[Austria-Hungary]]. Today its territory is divided between the Italian region of [[Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol]], a small part of the Italian region of [[Veneto]] ([[Cortina d'Ampezzo]] and other villages) and the Austrian state of [[Tyrol (state)|Tyrol]]. Both regions are today associated again in the [[Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino]]. == History == [[File:Tirol Schloss 01.jpg|thumb|left|[[Castle Tyrol]] was the seat of the Counts of Tyrol and gave the region its name]] {{main|History of Tyrol}} === Birth of Tyrol === In 1027 Emperor [[Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor|Conrad II]] split off the [[Bishopric of Trent]] from the former Lombard [[Kingdom of Italy (medieval)|Kingdom of Italy]]. He attached it to the [[History of Bavaria|stem duchy of Bavaria]], which was then under the rule of his son [[Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor|Henry III]]. From the 12th century on, the counts residing in [[Castle Tyrol]] near [[Merano]] held the office of ''[[Vogt]]'' (bailiff) in the Trent diocese and also in the [[Bishopric of Brixen]]. They extended their territory over much of the region and came to surpass the power of the bishops, who were nominally their [[feudal]] lords. After the deposition of [[Henry X, Duke of Bavaria|Henry X the Proud]] as Bavarian duke in 1138, the Counts of Tyrol strengthened their independence from Bavaria under his son [[Henry the Lion]]. When the [[House of Welf]] was again enfeoffed with the Bavarian duchy by Emperor [[Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor|Frederick Barbarossa]] at the 1154 [[Reichstag (Holy Roman Empire)|Reichstag]] of [[Goslar]], her possessions no longer comprised the Tyrolean lands. The Counts maintained that independence under the rising Bavarian [[House of Wittelsbach|Wittelsbach dynasty]]. ===Gorizia-Tyrol=== In 1253 Count [[Meinhard I of Gorizia-Tyrol|Meinhard]] of [[County of Görz|Gorizia]] ''(Görz)'' inherited the Tyrolean lands by marriage to Adelheid, daughter of the last Count Albert III of Tyrol. When their sons divided their estate in 1271, the elder [[Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol|Meinhard II]] took Tyrol, for which he was recognized as an [[Imperial immediacy|immediate]] lordship. He supported the German king [[Rudolph I of Germany|Rudolph of Habsburg]] against his rival King [[Ottokar II of Bohemia]]. In reward, he received the [[Duchy of Carinthia]] with the [[March of Carniola|Carniolian march]] in 1286. In 1307 Meinhard's son [[Henry of Bohemia|Henry]] was elected [[Kingdom of Bohemia|King of Bohemia]], After his death, he had one surviving daughter, [[Margaret, Countess of Tyrol|Margaret Maultasch]], who could gain the rule only over Tyrol. In 1342 she married [[Louis V, Duke of Bavaria|Louis V of Wittelsbach]], then [[Margraviate of Brandenburg|Margrave of Brandenburg]]. The red eagle in Tyrol's coat of arms may derive from the [[Coat of arms of Brandenburg|Brandenburg eagle]] at the time when she and her husband ruled Tyrol and Brandenburg in [[personal union]], though the Tyrolean eagle had already appeared in the 13th century. Louis V died in 1361, followed by Margaret's son [[Meinhard III of Gorizia-Tyrol|Meinhard III]] two years later. Lacking any descendants to succeed her, she bequeathed the county to [[Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria|Rudolph IV of Habsburg]], Duke of [[Archduchy of Austria|Austria]] in 1363. He was recognized by the House of Wittelsbach in 1369. From that time onward, Tyrol was ruled by various lines of the Austrian [[House of Habsburg|Habsburg dynasty]], who held the title of [[List of rulers of Austria|Count]]. ===Austria=== [[File:Oostr1477.png|thumb|Map of the County of Tyrol and the [[Austrian Circle]] during the 15h century]] After the Habsburg hereditary lands had been divided by the 1379 [[Treaty of Neuberg]], Tyrol was ruled by the descendants of Duke [[Leopold III, Duke of Austria|Leopold III of Austria]]. After a second division within the [[Leopoldinian line]] in 1406, Duke [[Frederick IV, Duke of Austria|Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets]] ruled them. In 1420 he made [[Innsbruck]] the Tyrolean residence. In 1490 his son and heir [[Sigismund, Archduke of Austria|Sigismund]] renounced Tyrol and [[Further Austria]] in favour of his cousin German king [[Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor|Maximilian I of Habsburg]]. By then Maximilian I had re-united all Habsburg lands under his rule. In 1500 he also acquired the remaining Gorizia (''Görz'') territories around [[Lienz]] and the [[Puster Valley]]. When Emperor [[Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand I of Habsburg]] died in 1564, he bequeathed the rule over Tyrol and Further Austria to his second son Archduke [[Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria|Ferdinand II]]. Both territories thereafter fell to the younger sons of the Habsburg Emperors: Archduke [[Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor|Matthias]] in 1608 and [[Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria|Maximilian III]] in 1612. After the death of Archduke [[Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Further Austria|Sigismund Francis]] in 1665, all Habsburg lands were again under the united rule of the Emperor [[Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor|Leopold I]]. [[File:Tirol Donaumonarchie.png|thumb|left|Austria-Hungary in 1914, Tyrolean crown land in red]] From the time of [[Maria Theresa of Austria]] (1740−1780) onward, Tyrol was governed by a central government of the [[Habsburg Monarchy]] at [[Vienna]] in all matters of major importance. In 1803 the lands of the Bishoprics of [[Bishopric of Trent|Trent]] and [[Bishopric of Brixen|Brixen]] were [[German Mediatisation|secularised]] and incorporated into the county. === Napoleonic Wars === [[File:Tirolerlandsturm.jpg|thumb|Andreas Hofer led the [[Tyrolean Rebellion 1809]] against the invading [[Napoleon I]]]] Following defeat by [[Napoleon]] in 1805, Austria was forced to cede Tyrol to the [[History of Bavaria|Kingdom of Bavaria]] in the [[Peace of Pressburg]]. Tyrol as a part of Bavaria became a member of the [[Confederation of the Rhine]] in 1806. The Tyroleans rose up against the Bavarian authority and succeeded three times in defeating Bavarian and French troops trying to retake the country. Austria lost the war of the [[Fifth Coalition]] against France, and got harsh terms in the [[Treaty of Schönbrunn]] in 1809. Glorified as Tyrol's national hero, [[Andreas Hofer]], the leader of the uprising, was executed in 1810 in [[Mantua]]. His forces had lost a third and final battle against the French and Bavarian forces. Tyrol remained under Bavaria and the [[Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)|Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy]] for another four years. In 1814, by decisions of the [[Congress of Vienna]], Tyrol was reunified and returned to [[Austria]]. It was integrated into the [[Austrian Empire]]. From 1867 onwards, it was a ''Kronland'' (Crown Land) of [[Cisleithania]], the western half of [[Austria-Hungary]]. [[File:Tirol-Suedtirol-Trentino.png|thumb|230px|The former crown land of Tyrol today. {{legend|#fe7f7f|[[File:Tirol Wappen.PNG|15px|Coat of arms of Tyrol]] [[Tyrol (state)|State of Tyrol]] ([[Austria]])}} {{legend|#f7b77b|[[File:Suedtirol CoA.svg|15px|Coat of arms of South Tyrol]] [[South Tyrol]] ([[Italy]])}} {{legend|#7b7bf7|[[File:Trentino CoA.svg|15px|Coat of arms of Trento]] [[Trentino]] (Italy)}} ]] === End of the County=== {{main|History of South Tyrol|State of Tyrol|Trentino}} After [[World War I]], the victors settled border changes. The [[Treaty of Saint-Germain]] of 1919 ruled according to the 1915 [[Treaty of London (1915)|London Pact]], that the southern part of the Austrian crown land of Tyrol had to be ceded to the [[Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)|Kingdom of Italy]], including the territory of the former Trent bishopric, roughly corresponding to the modern-day [[Trentino]], as well as the south of the medieval Tyrol county, the present-day province of [[South Tyrol]]. Italy thus took control of the strategically important Alpine [[water divide]] at the [[Brenner Pass]] and over the south of Tyrol proper with its large German-speaking majority. Since 1949 both parts form the autonomous Italian [[Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol]] region. The northern part of Tyrol retained by the [[First Austrian Republic]] today forms the Austrian [[Tyrol (state)|State of Tyrol]] with its [[East Tyrol]] exclave. In 1945 following [[World War II]], Austrian attempts and South Tyrolean petitions to reunite German-speaking South Tyrol with Austria were not successful. Italy kept control. From 1972 onwards, the Italian Republic has granted further autonomy to the Alto Adige/Südtirol province. ==Counts of Tyrol== * Albert I 1028–1140 * Albert II 1140–1165 * Berthold 1165–1180 * Henry I 1180–1190 * Albert III 1202–1253, son . Male line extinct. === House of Meinhardin === [[File:Margarethe Tirol.jpg|thumb|[[Margaret, Countess of Tyrol]], heiress of the Meinhardin dynasty]] County bequeathed to Albert's son-in-law: * [[Meinhard I of Gorizia-Tyrol|Meinhard I]] 1253–1258, also [[Meinhardiner|Count of Gorizia]] since 1231 * [[Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia|Meinhard II]] 1258–1295, also Count of Gorizia until 1271, [[Duchy of Carinthia|Duke of Carinthia]] and [[March of Carniola|Margrave of Carniola]] from 1286, jointly with his brother ** [[Albert I of Gorizia|Albert]] 1258-1271, also Count of Gorizia until 1304 * [[Henry of Bohemia|Henry II]] 1295-1335, son of Meinhard II, also Duke of Carinthia, [[List of rulers of Bohemia|King of Bohemia]] 1306 and 1307-1310, jointly with his brothers ** Albert, until 1292 ** Louis, until 1305 ** [[Otto III of Carinthia|Otto]], until 1310 Male line extinct, Countess [[Margaret, Countess of Tyrol|Margaret]], daughter of Henry II, married to: * [[John Henry, Margrave of Moravia|John Henry]] of [[House of Luxembourg|Luxembourg]] 1335–1341; divorced, secondly to: * [[Louis V, Duke of Bavaria|Louis]] of [[House of Wittelsbach|Wittelsbach]] 1341–1361, also [[List of rulers of Brandenburg|Margrave of Brandenburg]] 1323-1351, [[List of rulers of Bavaria|Duke of Bavaria]] from 1347, succeeded by * [[Meinhard III of Gorizia-Tyrol|Meinhard III]] 1361–1363, son. Line extinct. === House of Habsburg === County bequeathed to * [[Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria|Rudolph IV]] of [[House of Habsburg|Habsburg]] 1363–1365, also [[List of rulers of Austria|Duke of Austria]], [[Duchy of Styria|Styria]] and Carinthia since 1358, [[Duchy of Carniola|Duke of Carniola]] from 1364 * [[Leopold III, Duke of Austria|Leopold I]] 1365–1386, brother, also Duke of Austria until 1379, Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola ([[Inner Austria]] according to the 1379 [[Treaty of Neuberg]]), jointly with his brother ** [[Albert III, Duke of Austria|Albert IV]] until 1379, sole Duke of Austria from 1379 * [[William, Duke of Austria|William]] 1386–1406, son of Leopold I, also ruler of Inner Austria, jointly with his brother ** [[Leopold IV, Duke of Austria|Leopold II]] 1396–1406, [[regent]] of Tyrol and [[Further Austria]] (until 1402), regent of Austria from 1406 * [[Frederick IV, Duke of Austria|Frederick of the Empty Pockets]] 1406–1439, brother, also regent of Further Austria since 1402 * [[Sigismund, Archduke of Austria|Sigismund]] 1439–1490, son, also ruler of Further Austria, deposed Line extinct, Habsburg lands re-unified under * [[Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor|Maximilian I]] 1490–1519, [[List of German monarchs|King of Germany]] ([[King of the Romans]]) since 1486, Archduke of Austria from 1493, [[Holy Roman Emperor]] ("Emperor-elect") from 1508. [...] [[Image:Giovanni Maria Morandi 002.jpg|thumb|Archduke Sigismund Francis, last of the Tyrolean line of the Habsburg dynasty]] Habsburg regents of Tyrol and Further Austria: * [[Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria|Ferdinand II]] 1564–1595, second son of Emperor [[Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand I]] * [[Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria|Maximilian III]] 1612–1618, son * [[Leopold V, Archduke of Austria|Leopold V]] 1619–1632, younger brother of Emperor [[Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand II]] * [[Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria|Ferdinand Charles]] 1632-1662, son, with his mother ** [[Claudia de' Medici]] 1632–1646, as regent * [[Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Austria|Sigismund Francis]] 1663–1665, brother Line extinct, Habsburg lands re-unified under * [[Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor|Leopold I]] 1665–1705, Holy Roman Emperor since 1658. [...] == External links == {{commonscat-inline}} {{Austrian Circle}} {{Provinces of the Austrian Empire}} {{coord missing|Austria}} {{DEFAULTSORT:County Of Tyrol}}