Countries bordering the European Union

Countries bordering the European Union

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This is a list of countries bordering the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, and its predecessor the European Communities
European Communities
The European Communities were three international organisations that were governed by the same set of institutions...

, both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement.

2007 to present


Northern and Eastern border of the EU, north to south:
(bordering Sweden and Finland) (bordering Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Poland) (bordering Latvia, Lithuania and Poland) (bordering Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania) (bordering Romania)

Southeastern border of the EU:
(EU candidate country
Accession of Turkey to the European Union
Turkey's application to accede to the European Union was made on 14 April 1987. Turkey has been an associate member of the European Union and its predecessors since 1963...

; bordering Bulgaria and Greece)

Western Balkans:
(EU candidate country
Accession of Croatia to the European Union
Croatia applied for European Union membership in 2003, and the European Commission recommended making it an official candidate in early 2004. Candidate country status was granted to Croatia by the European Council in mid-2004...

; bordering Slovenia and Hungary) (EU candidate country
Accession of Serbia to the European Union
The accession of Serbia to the European Union is the process of the Republic of Serbia being admitted into the framework of the European Union as a full-fledged member state.Serbia officially applied for European Union membership on 22 December 2009...

; bordering Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria) (EU candidate country; bordering Bulgaria and Greece) (EU potential candidate country
Accession of Albania to the European Union
Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009 and is expected to join in 2015. Officially recognized by the EU as a "potential candidate country", Albania started negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agreement in 2003...

; bordering Greece)

Territories enclaved by EU territory:
Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast is a federal subject of Russia situated on the Baltic coast. It has a population of The oblast forms the westernmost part of the Russian Federation, but it has no land connection to the rest of Russia. Since its creation it has been an exclave of the Russian SFSR and then the...

 (Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

) (bordering Lithuania and Poland) (bordering Austria, Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Austria) (bordering France and Spain) (bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Cyprus:
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are two British-administered areas comprising a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus administered as Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom...

 (UK) (did not join with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

) (recognized only by Turkey)

Bordering Spanish exclaves of Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

:

Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering the French Collectivity of Saint Martin:
(did not join with the Netherlands)

2004 to 2007


Northern and Eastern border of the EU, north to south:
(bordering Sweden and Finland) (bordering Finland, Estonia and Latvia; see also the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) (bordering Latvia, Lithuania and Poland) (bordering Poland, Slovakia and Hungary) (bordering Hungary), subsequently Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 (bordering Hungary) (bordering Hungary and Slovenia)

Bordering Greece:

Enclaves within EU territory:
Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast is a federal subject of Russia situated on the Baltic coast. It has a population of The oblast forms the westernmost part of the Russian Federation, but it has no land connection to the rest of Russia. Since its creation it has been an exclave of the Russian SFSR and then the...

 (Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

) (bordering Lithuania and Poland) (bordering Austria, Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Austria) (bordering France and Spain) (bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Cyprus: Although the whole of Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the EU's acquis communautaire only applies to the southern part of the island which is under the effective control of the internationally recognised Republic of Cyprus. Northern Cyprus has been outside the control of the Republic of Cyprus since the Turkish invasion of 1974
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on 20 July 1974, was a Turkish military invasion in response to a Greek military junta backed coup in Cyprus...

 and is therefore de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

not part of the EU. The 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus
Annan Plan for Cyprus
The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute, reuniting the breakaway Northern Cyprus with the Republic of Cyprus. The proposal was to restructure Cyprus as the "United Cyprus Republic", which would be a federation of two states. It was revised a number of times before...

 which sought to reunify the island before EU accession was accepted by Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots are the ethnic Turks and members of the Turkish-speaking ethnolinguistic community of the Eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The term is used to refer explicitly to the indigenous Turkish Cypriots, whose Ottoman Turkish forbears colonised the island in 1571...

 but rejected by Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community at 77% of the population. Greek Cypriots are mostly members of the Church of Cyprus, an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Orthodox Christianity...

.
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are two British-administered areas comprising a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus administered as Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom...

 (UK) (did not join with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

) (recognized only by Turkey)

Bordering Spanish exclaves of Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

:

Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe:

1995 to 2004


Bordering Sweden and Finland:
(bordering Sweden and Finland) (bordering Finland)

Eastern border of central EU, north to south:
(bordering Germany) (bordering Germany and Austria) (bordering Austria) (bordering Austria) (bordering Austria and Italy)

Bordering Greece:

Enclaves within EU territory:
(bordering Austria, Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Austria) (bordering France and Spain) (bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Spanish exclaves of Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

:

Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe:

1990 to 1995


Eastern border of the EC/EU, north to south:
(bordering Germany), subsequently Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 (bordering Germany) (bordering Germany and Italy) (bordering Germany, France and Italy), subsequently Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

 (bordering Italy)

Bordering Greece:, subsequently Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...



Enclaves within EC/EU territory:
(bordering France and Spain) (bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Spanish exclaves of Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

:

Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe:

1986 to 1990


Eastern border of the EC, north to south:
(bordering the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Greece:

Enclaves within EU territory:
(bordering France and Spain) (bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Spanish exclaves of Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

:

Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe:

1981 to 1986


Southern French border:
Eastern border of the EC, north to south:
(bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Greece:

Enclaves within EU territory:
(bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Gibraltar:
Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe:

1973 to 1981


Southern French border:
Eastern border of the EC, north to south:
(bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Italy)

Enclaves within EU territory:
(bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

:

Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe:

1958 to 1973


Southern French border:
Northern border of the Federal Republic of Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

:

Eastern border of the EC, north to south:
(bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy) (bordering the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy) (bordering Italy)

Enclaves within EU territory:
(bordering France) (bordering Italy) (bordering Italy)

Bordering French Algeria,French Algeria
French Algeria
French Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. From 1848 until independence, the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria was administered as an integral part of France, much like Corsica and Réunion are to this day. The vast arid interior of Algeria, like the rest...

 gained independence from France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 (and thus left the EU) in 1962.
clockwise:
Mali, Mauritania, and Niger were part of French West Africa
French West Africa
French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan , French Guinea , Côte d'Ivoire , Upper Volta , Dahomey and Niger...

 until independence in 1960.
Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975...



Bordering French Guiana:
Bordering Guadeloupe: French Guiana
French Guiana
French Guiana is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department located on the northern Atlantic coast of South America. It has borders with two nations, Brazil to the east and south, and Suriname to the west...

 and Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe is an archipelago located in the Leeward Islands, in the Lesser Antilles, with a land area of 1,628 square kilometres and a population of 400,000. It is the first overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. As with the other overseas departments, Guadeloupe...

 are French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 overseas departments (since 2003 also additionally overseas regions) and as such are fully part of France and the EU. In 2007 Saint Martin broke off from Guadeloupe, but remained part of the EU. The Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
The Netherlands Antilles , also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao , in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint...

 bordered the European Union here until its dissolution, upon which Sint Maarten bordered the EU.


See also


  • History of the European Union
    History of the European Union
    The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that have taken it from 7 member states to 27, a majority of states in Europe....

  • Enlargement of the European Union
    Enlargement of the European Union
    The Enlargement of the European Union is the process of expanding the European Union through the accession of new member states. This process began with the Inner Six, who founded the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952...

  • Geography of Europe
    Geography of Europe
    Europe is traditionally reckoned as one of seven continents. Physiographically, however, it is the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia : Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass and all share a common continental shelf...

  • Extreme points of the European Union
    Extreme points of the European Union
    This is a list of the extreme points of the European Union — the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.-In Europe:* North: Nuorgam, Finland...