Councils of Toledo

Councils of Toledo

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Councils of Toledo. From the 5th century to the 7th century, about thirty synods, variously counted, were held at Toledo
Toledo, Spain
Toledo's Alcázar became renowned in the 19th and 20th centuries as a military academy. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 its garrison was famously besieged by Republican forces.-Economy:...

 in what would come to be part of Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

. The earliest
First Council of Toledo
The First Council of Toledo was held in Toledo, Spain, from September 7, 397 to 400. Its primary purpose was to condemn the Priscillian heresy and uphold the Nicene Creed. It would be another 127 years before a council met again in Toledo. 19 Hispanic bishops were participants, including Lampius,...

, directed against Priscillianism
Priscillianism
Priscillianism is a Christian doctrine developed in the Iberian Peninsula in the 4th century by Priscillian, derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis, and later considered a heresy by the Orthodox Church.-History:Priscillian was described as "a man...

, assembled in 400. The "third" synod of 589
Third Council of Toledo
The Third Council of Toledo marks the entry of Catholic Christianity into the rule of Visigothic Spain, and the introduction into Western Christianity of the filioque clause...

 marked the epoch-making conversion of King Reccared
Reccared
Reccared I was Visigothic King of Hispania, Septimania and Galicia. His reign marked a climactic shift in history, with the king's renunciation of traditional Arianism in favour of Catholic Christianity in 587.Reccared was the younger son of King Liuvigild by his first wife Theodosia...

 from Arianism
Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

 to orthodox Catholicism
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

. The "fourth
Fourth Council of Toledo
The Fourth Council of Toledo occurred in 633. It was held at the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo.Probably under the presidency of the noted Isidore of Seville, the council regulated many matters of discipline, decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the Visigothic kingdom and took stringent...

," in 633, probably under the presidency of the noted Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
Saint Isidore of Seville served as Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and is considered, as the historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "le dernier savant du monde ancien"...

, regulated many matters of discipline, decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the kingdom. The British Celts
Britonia
Britonia is the historical name of a settlement in Galicia which was settled in the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD by Romano-Britons escaping the advancing Anglo-Saxons who were conquering Britain at the time...

 of Galicia accepted the Latin rite and stringent measures were adopted against baptized Jews who had relapsed into their former faith. The "twelfth" council in 681
Twelfth Council of Toledo
The Twelfth Council of Toledo was initiated on 9 January 681 by the new King Erwig. One of its first actions was to release the population from the laws of Wamba and recognise Erwig, anathematising all who opposed him...

 assured to the archbishop of Toledo the primacy of Hispania
Hispania
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis....

 (present Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

). As nearly one hundred early canons
Canon law
Canon law is the body of laws & regulations made or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Catholic Church , the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the Anglican Communion of...

 of Toledo found a place in the Decretum Gratiani
Decretum Gratiani
The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian. It forms the first part of the collection of six legal texts, which together became known as the Corpus Juris Canonici...

, they exerted an important influence on the development of ecclesiastical law.

The later synod of 1565 and 1566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of Trent
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was the 16th-century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trent between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods...

; and the last council of Toledo, that of 1582 and 1583, was so guided in detail by Philip II
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

 that the pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 ordered the name of the royal commissioner to be expunged from the acts.

The seventh century is sometimes called, by Spanish historians, the Siglo de Concilios, or "Century of Councils".

Councils



  • First Council of Toledo
    First Council of Toledo
    The First Council of Toledo was held in Toledo, Spain, from September 7, 397 to 400. Its primary purpose was to condemn the Priscillian heresy and uphold the Nicene Creed. It would be another 127 years before a council met again in Toledo. 19 Hispanic bishops were participants, including Lampius,...

     (400)
  • Second Council of Toledo
    Second Council of Toledo
    The Second Council of Toledo was held by the bishops of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo in the city of Toledo in 527, under the presidency of the local bishop Montanus . The chief issue with which the synod dealt was Arianism.-Sources:...

     (527)
  • Third Council of Toledo
    Third Council of Toledo
    The Third Council of Toledo marks the entry of Catholic Christianity into the rule of Visigothic Spain, and the introduction into Western Christianity of the filioque clause...

     (589)
  • Fourth Council of Toledo
    Fourth Council of Toledo
    The Fourth Council of Toledo occurred in 633. It was held at the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo.Probably under the presidency of the noted Isidore of Seville, the council regulated many matters of discipline, decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the Visigothic kingdom and took stringent...

     (633)
  • Fifth Council of Toledo
    Fifth Council of Toledo
    The Fifth Council of Toledo was convoked by King Chintila and opened on 30 June 636 in the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo. It was attended by twenty two bishops and two episcopal representatives. The bishops of Narbonensis were absent for political reasons...

     (636)
  • Sixth Council of Toledo
    Sixth Council of Toledo
    The Sixth Council of Toledo was the second council convoked by King Chintila and opened on 9 January 638. It was attended by fifty three bishops, including those from Narbonensis who had not participated in the prior council for political reasons. The council was thus a reunion of the whole church...

     (638)
  • Seventh Council of Toledo
    Seventh Council of Toledo
    The Seventh Council of Toledo commenced on 18 November 646 and was attended by forty one bishops either personally or by delegation. It was the first of Chindasuinth's two councils....

     (646)
  • Eighth Council of Toledo
    Eighth Council of Toledo
    The Eighth Council of Toledo commenced on 16 December 653 in the church of the Holy Apostles in Toledo. It was attended by fifty two bishops personally — including the aged Gavinio of Calahorra, who had assisted at the Fourth Council — and another ten by delegation, ten abbots, and the archpriest...

     (653)
  • Ninth Council of Toledo
    Ninth Council of Toledo
    The Ninth Council of Toledo was a provincial synod of bishops of Carthaginiensis. It began on 2 November 655 under the auspices of King Reccesuinth. It ended on November 24 in the Church of Santa María....

     (655)

  • Tenth Council of Toledo
    Tenth Council of Toledo
    The Tenth Council of Toledo was summoned to meet on 1 December 656 by King Reccesuinth. In November 655, the bishops of Carthaginiensis had held a provincial synod in Toledo, the Ninth Council of Toledo...

     (656)
  • Eleventh Council of Toledo
    Eleventh Council of Toledo
    The Eleventh Council of Toledo convened first on 7 November 675 attended by seventeen bishops and two deacons representing the sees of Segovia and Ergávica as well as five abbots....

     (675)
  • Twelfth Council of Toledo
    Twelfth Council of Toledo
    The Twelfth Council of Toledo was initiated on 9 January 681 by the new King Erwig. One of its first actions was to release the population from the laws of Wamba and recognise Erwig, anathematising all who opposed him...

     (681)
  • Thirteenth Council of Toledo
    Thirteenth Council of Toledo
    The Thirteenth Council of Toledo opened on 4 November 683. It was called by Erwig and consisted of 77 bishops, 5 abbots, 3 church dignitaries, and 27 palatine functionaries....

     (683)
  • Fourteenth Council of Toledo
    Fourteenth Council of Toledo
    The Fourteenth Council of Toledo first met on 14 November 684 under King Erwig. It was called in response to a letter from Pope Leo II directing the king, a Count Simplicius, and the recently-deceased Quiricus, metropolitan of Toledo, to call a general council to confirm the decisions of the...

     (684)
  • Fifteenth Council of Toledo
    Fifteenth Council of Toledo
    The Fifteenth Council of Toledo first met on 11 May 688 under King Egica. It was the king's first of three councils.In 680-681, the sixth ecumenical council, the Third Council of Constantinople, had repudiated monothelitism and affirmed the doctrine of dythelitism, that Christ had two wills...

     (688)
  • Sixteenth Council of Toledo
    Sixteenth Council of Toledo
    The Sixteenth Council of Toledo first met on 25 April 693, the second of Egica's three councils.In 692, the archbishop of Toledo, Sisebert, led a rebellion with many nobles to install one Suniefred as king...

     (693)
  • Seventeenth Council of Toledo
    Seventeenth Council of Toledo
    The Seventeenth Council of Toledo first met on 9 November 694 under King Egica. It was the king's third council and primarily directed, as was the Sixteenth, against the Jews, of whom Egica seems to have had a profound distrust and dislike....

     (694)
  • Eighteenth Council of Toledo
    Eighteenth Council of Toledo
    The Eighteenth Council of Toledo was the last of the councils of Toledo held in Visigothic Spain before the Moorish conquest and perhaps the last of the Siglo de Concilios, that is, the seventh century...

    (ca. 702)