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Cottidae

Cottidae

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The Cottidae is a family of demersal fish in the order Scorpaeniformes
Scorpaeniformes
Scorpaeniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, but it has also been called the Scleroparei.They are known as "mail-cheeked" fishes due to their distinguishing characteristic, the suborbital stay: a backwards extension of the third circumorbital bone across the cheek to the preoperculum, to which...

, suborder Cottoidei (or sculpin
Sculpin
A Sculpin is a fish that belongs to the order Scorpaeniformes, suborder Cottoidei and superfamily Cottoidea, that contains 11 families, 149 genera, and 756 species...

s). There are about 300 species in 70 genera of Cottidae (cottids) that are mostly marine
Ocean
An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas.More than half of this area is over 3,000...

 and found in shallow coastal waters in the northern and arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

 regions. The highest diversity is in the North Pacific.

There are also some freshwater
Freshwater
Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and...

 representatives in the family, particularly in the holarctic genus Cottus
Cottus (genus)
Cottus is a genus of the sculpin family Cottidae. It is often referred to as the "freshwater sculpins", as the principal genus of sculpins to be found in fresh water.They are mostly small fish, rarely reaching more than 15 cm in length.-Species:...

, including the spoonhead sculpin
Spoonhead Sculpin
The spoonhead sculpin, Cottus ricei, is a freshwater fish of the Cottidae family that is widely distributed in North America. It is a type of sculpin....

 (Cottus ricei) of North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and the alpine bullhead (Cottus poecilopus) and bullhead
European bullhead
The bullhead is a freshwater fish that is widely distributed in Europe, mainly in rivers. It is a member of the Cottidae family, a type of sculpin...

 (Cottus gobio) of Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. The deepwater sculpin
Deepwater sculpin
The deepwater sculpin is a freshwater sculpin that inhabits the bottoms of cold, deep freshwater lakes of northern North America. Its distribution ranges from the Great Bear Lake of Canada to the Great Lakes...

 and fourhorn sculpin
Fourhorn sculpin
The fourhorn sculpin is a species of fish in the Cottidae family. It is a demersal fish distributed mainly in brackish arctic coastal waters in Canada, Greenland, Russia, and Alaska, and also as a relict in the boreal Baltic Sea...

 (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) inhabit deep cold lakes of North America and Northern Europe, respectively. The latter is also found in brackish water the Baltic
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

 and Arctic seas
Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceanic divisions...

.

Most cottids are small fish, under 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in length, although some, such as the cabezon
Cabezone
The Cabezon or also commonly referred to as the mother-in-law fish to Floridians, Scorpaenichthys marmoratus, is a sculpin native to the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America...

, are much larger, up to 72 centimetres (28.3 in) in length.

Genera

  • Alcichthys Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Andriashevicottus Fedorov, 1990
  • Antipodocottus
    Antipodocottus
    Antipodocottus is a genus of the sculpin family Cottidae.- Species :* Genus Antipodocottus** Antipodocottus elegans Fricke & Brunken, 1984 ** Antipodocottus galatheae Bolin, 1952** Antipodocottus megalops DeWitt, 1969...

    Bolin, 1952
  • Archistes Jordan and Gilbert in Jordan and Evermann, 1898
  • Argyrocottus Herzenstein, 1892
  • Artediellichthys Taranetz, 1941
  • Artediellina Taranetz, 1937
  • Artedielloides Soldatov, 1922
  • Artediellus Jordan, 1885 - hookear sculpins
  • Artedius Girard, 1856
  • Ascelichthys Jordan and Gilbert, 1880
  • Asemichthys Gilbert, 1912
  • Astrocottus Bolin, 1936
  • Atopocottus Bolin, 1936
  • Batrachocottus Berg, 1903
  • Bero Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Bolinia Yabe, 1991
  • Chitonotus Lockington, 1879
  • Clinocottus Gill, 1861 - sharpnose sculpins
  • Cottiusculus Schmidt in Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Cottocomephorus Pellegrin, 1900
  • Cottus
    Cottus (genus)
    Cottus is a genus of the sculpin family Cottidae. It is often referred to as the "freshwater sculpins", as the principal genus of sculpins to be found in fresh water.They are mostly small fish, rarely reaching more than 15 cm in length.-Species:...

    Linnaeus, 1758 - freshwater sculpins, Miller's thumbs

  • Daruma Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Enophrys Swainson, 1839 - stone sculpins
  • Furcina Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Gymnocanthus Swainson, 1839
  • Hemilepidotus Cuvier, 1829
  • Icelinus Jordan, 1885
  • Icelus
    Scaled sculpin
    Scaled sculpins are a group of small benthic fishes living in cold waters. They are mainly found in the North Pacific, with some species in the North Atlantic. They are characterized by a large, laterally compressed head and small spines...

    Krøyer, 1845
  • Jordania
    Jordânia
    Jordânia is a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais. The city belongs to the mesoregion of Jequitinhonha and to the microregion of Almenara. As of 2007 the population was 10,751 in a total area of 549 km²....

    Starks, 1895
  • Leiocottus Girard, 1856
  • Leocottus Taliev, 1955
  • Lepidobero Qin and Jin, 1992
  • Leptocottus Girard, 1854 - Pacific staghorn sculpins
  • Megalocottus Gill, 1861
  • Melletes Bean, 1880
  • Mesocottus Gratzianov, 1907
  • Micrenophrys Andriashev, 1954
  • Microcottus Schmidt, 1940
  • Myoxocephalus
    Myoxocephalus
    Myoxocephalus is a genus of fish in the sculpin family Cottidae.-Species:* Myoxocephalus aeneus — grubby* Myoxocephalus brandtii * Myoxocephalus incitus — Watanabe, 1958...

    Tilesius, 1811

  • Ocynectes Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Oligocottus Girard, 1856 - tidepool johnnies
  • Orthonopias Starks and Mann, 1911
  • Paracottus Taliev in Berg, 1949
  • Paricelinus Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1889
  • Phallocottus Schultz, 1938
  • Phasmatocottus Bolin, 1936
  • Porocottus Gill, 1859 - fringed sculpins
  • Pseudoblennius Temminck and Schlegel, 1850
  • Radulinopsis Soldatov and Lindberg, 1930
  • Radulinus Gilbert, 1890
  • Rastrinus Jordan and Evermann, 1896
  • Ricuzenius Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Ruscarius Jordan and Starks, 1895
  • Scorpaenichthys Girard, 1854 - gabezones
  • Sigmistes Rutter in Jordan and Evermann, 1898
  • Stelgistrum Jordan and Gilbert in Jordan and Evermann, 1898

  • Stlegicottus Bolin, 1936
  • Stlengis Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Synchirus Bean, 1890
  • Taurocottus Soldatov and Pavlenko, 1915
  • Taurulus Gratzianov, 1907
  • Thyriscus Gilbert and Burke, 1912
  • Trachidermus Heckel, 1837
  • Trichocottus Soldatov and Pavlenko, 1915
  • Triglops Reinhardt, 1830
  • Vellitor Jordan and Starks, 1904
  • Zesticelus Jordan and Evermann, 1896