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, short for "costume play", is a type of performance art
Performance art
In art, performance art is a performance presented to an audience, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience participation. The performance can be live or...

 in which participants don costumes and accessories
Fashion accessory
Fashion accessories are decorative items that supplement and complement clothes, such as jewelery, gloves, handbags, hats, belts, scarves, wigs, watches, sunglasses, pins, stockings, bow ties, hand fans, leg warmers, leggings, neckties, suspenders, and tights....

 to represent a specific character
Character (arts)
A character is the representation of a person in a narrative work of art . Derived from the ancient Greek word kharaktêr , the earliest use in English, in this sense, dates from the Restoration, although it became widely used after its appearance in Tom Jones in 1749. From this, the sense of...

 or idea. Characters are often drawn from popular fiction in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, but recent trends have included American cartoons and science fiction. Favorite sources include manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

, anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

, tokusatsu
Tokusatsu
is a Japanese term that applies to any live-action film or television drama that usually features superheroes and makes considerable use of special effects ....

, comic books, graphic novels, video games, hentai
Hentai
is a Japanese word that, in the West, is used when referring to sexually explicit or pornographic comics and animation, particularly those of Japanese origin such as anime, manga, and computer games. The word hentai is a kanji compound of 変 and 態...

 and fantasy movies
Film
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

. Any entity from the real or virtual
Cyberspace
Cyberspace is the electronic medium of computer networks, in which online communication takes place.The term "cyberspace" was first used by the cyberpunk science fiction author William Gibson, though the concept was described somewhat earlier, for example in the Vernor Vinge short story "True...

 world that lends itself to dramatic interpretation may be taken up as a subject. Inanimate objects are given anthropomorphic
Anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism is any attribution of human characteristics to animals, non-living things, phenomena, material states, objects or abstract concepts, such as organizations, governments, spirits or deities. The term was coined in the mid 1700s...

 forms and it is not unusual to see genders switched
Crossplay
Crossplay, a portmanteau of crossdressing and cosplay, is cosplay in which the person dresses up as a character of a different gender. Crossplay's origins lie in the anime convention circuit, though, like cosplay, it has not remained exclusive to the genre.-Female-to-male crossplay:In most...

, with women playing male roles and vice versa. There is also a subset of cosplay culture centered around sex appeal, with cosplayers specifically choosing characters that are known for their attractiveness and/or revealing (even explicit) costumes.

Cosplayers often interact to create a subculture
Subculture
In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong.- Definition :...

 centred around role play. A broader use of the term cosplay applies to any costumed role play in venues apart from the stage, regardless of the cultural context.

Terminology


The term cosplay is a portmanteau of the English words costume and play. The term was coined by Nobuyuki Takahashi of the Japanese studio Studio Hard while attending the 1984 Los Angeles Science Fiction Worldcon
Worldcon
Worldcon, or more formally The World Science Fiction Convention, is a science fiction convention held each year since 1939 . It is the annual convention of the World Science Fiction Society...

. He was impressed by the hall and the costumed fans and reported on both in Japanese science fiction
Science fiction
Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...

 magazines. The coinage reflects a common Japanese method of abbreviation
Japanese abbreviated and contracted words
Abbreviated and contracted words are a common feature of Japanese. Long words are often contracted into shorter forms, which then become the predominant forms. For example, the University of Tokyo, in Japanese Tōkyō Daigaku becomes , Tōdai, and "remote control", rimōto kontorōrā , becomes rimokon....

 in which the first two moras
Mora (linguistics)
Mora is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing. As with many technical linguistic terms, the definition of a mora varies. Perhaps the most succinct working definition was provided by the American linguist James D...

 of a pair of words are used to form an independent compound. Costume becomes kosu (コス), and play becomes pure (プレ).

History of Cosplay


From Costume Fandom: All Dressed Up with Some Place to Go! By Dr. John L. Flynn

"For almost 50 years, costume fandom has had a consistent and widespread following with costumers markedly influencing science fiction writers, artists and the media. Costuming, as an innovative, three-dimensional art form, has probed and broken all limits of imagination in SF and fantasy. From the first Worldcon in 1939 to last year's Worldcon in Philadelphia, costume fandom has emerged as a robust and dynamic force within science-fiction fandom.
At the First World Science Fiction Convention in New York in 1939, a 22-year-old Forrest J Ackerman and his friend Myrtle R. Jones appeared in the first SF costumes among the 185 attendees. The future editor of Famous Monsters of Filmland was dressed as a rugged looking star pilot, and his female companion was adorned in a gown recreated from the classic 1933 film Things to Come. Both of them created quite a stir among the somber gathering of writers, artists and fen (plural of fan), and injected a fanciful, imaginary quality into the convention's overly serious nature.
Frederik Pohl, in his book The Way The Future Was, described the couple as "stylishly dressed in the fashions of the 25th century" but feared that they had started an ominous precedent. He was right! So successful were their costumes that the following year, about a dozen fans turned out in their own "scientifiction" apparel.
Now, over a half century later, costume fandom has come to represent a large segment of the hardcore genre audience. Artists like Kelly Freas, Wendy Pini and Tim Hildebrandt, authors like Julian May and L. Sprague de Camp, and fans by the hundreds dress regularly in costume. Groups, such as the U.K.‘s Knights of St. Fantomy, the Society for Creative Anachronism and the International Costumers' Guild, conduct business and ceremony in costume, and the masquerade has become the central event of most large conventions.

Costumes



Cosplay costumes vary greatly and can range from simple outfits to highly detailed "mecha" suits. Cosplay is generally considered different from Halloween
Halloween
Hallowe'en , also known as Halloween or All Hallows' Eve, is a yearly holiday observed around the world on October 31, the night before All Saints' Day...

 and Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
The terms "Mardi Gras" , "Mardi Gras season", and "Carnival season", in English, refer to events of the Carnival celebrations, beginning on or after Epiphany and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday...

 costume wear as the intention is to accurately replicate a specific character, rather than to reflect the culture and symbolism of a holiday event. As such, when in costume, cosplayers will often seek to adopt the affect, mannerisms and body language of the characters they portray (with OoC or, "Out Of Character" breaks).
The characters chosen to be cosplayed may be sourced from any movie, tv series, book, comic book, videogame ,Visual-Kei rock bands, Anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 or Manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

, however the practice of cosplay is most often associated with replicating anime and manga characters.

Most cosplayers create their own outfits, referencing images of the characters in the process. In the creation of the outfits, much time is given to detail and quality, thus the skill of a cosplayer may be measured by how difficult the details of the outfit is and how well they have been replicated. Many cosplayers therefore consider cosplay to be a form of Art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

 and so consider themselves Artist
Artist
An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only...

s, some in the more specific subcatagory of Artisan Crafts. Because of the difficulty of some details and materials to replicate, cosplayers often educate themselves in crafting specialities such as Textile
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

s, sculpture
Sculpture
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

, face paint, fibreglasswork, fashion design
Fashion design
Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social latitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories....

, Woodworking
Woodworking
Woodworking is the process of building, making or carving something using wood.-History:Along with stone, mud, and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans. Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood...

 and other such materials in the effort to render the look and texture of a costume accurately. Almost all cosplayers wear wigs in conjuction to their outfit in order to further improve the resemblance to the character. This is especially necessary for anime and manga characters who often have unnaturally coloured and uniquely styled hair.

More simple outfits may be compensated for their lack of complexity by paying attention to material choice, and overall excellent quality. The process of creation may then be very long and time-consuming, making it a very personal journey and achievement for many. This taxing, and often expensive process is known to unite cosplayers and is considered a part of the culture of cosplay.

Cosplays may also be bought at either conventions, stores or more commonly, from online speciality stores or eBay. However people who have bought their outfits may be subject to criticise by those who have made their outfits. Some cosplayers may choose to custom make outfits by commission and thereby form an income from cosplay.

Purpose


The cosplayer's purpose may generally be sorted into one of three categories, or a mix. Most cosplayers draw characteristics of all three categories.

The first is to express adoration for a character, or in feeling similar to a character in personality, seeking to become that character. This type of cosplayer may be associated with being a Fan (person)
Fan (person)
A Fan, sometimes also called aficionado or supporter, is a person with a liking and enthusiasm for something, such as a band or a sports team. Fans of a particular thing or person constitute its fanbase or fandom...

 and is often labelled as an Otaku
Otaku
is a Japanese term used to refer to people with obsessive interests, particularly anime, manga or video games.- Etymology :Otaku is derived from a Japanese term for another's house or family , which is also used as an honorific second-person pronoun...

. Other characteristics may be an enthusiastic manner and less attention to detail and quality. Such cosplayers are also most likely to adopt the character's personality and are known to criticise other cosplayers for not having a full knowledge of their character, or not also adopting character mannerisms.

The second is those people who enjoy the attention that cosplaying a certain character brings. Within the cultures of anime and manga specifically, as well as science fiction and fantasy, there is a certain level of notoriety that is attached to cosplayers. Such cosplayers are usually characterised by attention to detail in their garments and their choice of popular characters. They are also noted by participation in cosplay competitions.

The third is those who enjoy the creative process, and the sense of personal achievement upon completion. Such people are more likely to have a greater budget dedicated to the project, more complicated and better quality outfits with access to more materials. They are also more likely to engage with professional photographers and cosplay photographers to take high quality images of the cosplayer in their garment posing as the character.

Presentation


Cosplay may be presented in a number of ways and places.

Photography
As mentioned above, some cosplayers choose to have a photographer take high quality images of the cosplayer in their garment posing as the character. This is most likely to take place in a setting relevant to the character's origin, such as churches, parks
Park
A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state, or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Many parks are legally protected by...

, forests
Forest
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

, water features
Water feature
In landscape architecture and garden design, a water feature is one or more items from a range of fountains, pools, ponds, cascades, waterfalls, and streams. Before the 18th century they were usually powered by gravity, though the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon are described by Strabo as...

 and abandoned/run-down sites. Such cosplayers are likely to exhibit their work online, on blogs or artist websites, such as DeviantArt.com
DeviantArt
deviantART is an online community showcasing various forms of user-made artwork. It was first launched on August 7, 2000 by Scott Jarkoff, Matthew Stephens, Angelo Sotira and others. deviantArt, Inc...

. They may also choose to sell such images, or print the images as postcards and give them as gifts. Because of the rising popularity of cosplay photography, some photographers may choose to work exclusively as a cosplay photographer.

Conventions



The most popular form of presenting a cosplay is by wearing it to a convention. Conventions dedicated to anime, manga, comics, TV shows, video games, science fiction and fantasy may be found all around the world. The US alone features nearly a hundred conventions across the country each year. The single largest event featuring cosplay is the semi-annual doujinshi market, Comiket
Comiket
, otherwise known as the , is the world's largest self-published comic book fair, held twice a year in Tokyo, Japan. The first Comiket was held on December 21, 1975, with only about 32 participating circles and an estimated 600 attendees. Attendance has since swelled to over a half million people....

. This event, held in Japan during summer and winter, attracts hundreds of thousands of manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

 fans. Thousands of cosplayers congregate on the roof of the exhibition center. The largest event for cosplayers outside Asia is the annual San Diego Comic-Con. The biggest event in the UK is the London MCM Expo
London MCM Expo
The London MCM Expo is a multi-genre fan convention held in the London Borough of Newham twice yearly, usually on the last weekend in May and October...

 at ExCeL London.

Competitions


As the popularity of cosplay has grown, many conventions have come to feature a contest surrounding cosplay that may be the main feature of the convention. Contestants present their cosplay, and often to be judged for an award, the cosplay must be self-made. The contestants may choose to perform a skit, which may consist of a short performed script or dance with optional accompanying audio, video and/or images shown on a screen overhead. Other contestants may simply choose to pose as their characters. Often contestants are briefly interviewed on stage by an MC
Master of Ceremonies
A Master of Ceremonies , or compere, is the host of a staged event or similar performance.An MC usually presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the event moving....

. The audience is given a chance to take photos of the cosplayer(s) Cosplayers may compete solo or in a group.
Award are presented, and these awards may vary greatly. Generally there will be a Best Cosplayer award, and Best Group award, with runner-up prizes as well. Awards may also go to the best skit, and a number of cosplay skill subcategories, such as Master Sewist, Master Weapon-Maker, Master Armourer, etc.


Harajuku



In Japan teenagers gather with like-minded friends in places like Tokyo's Harajuku
Harajuku
Harajuku is the common name for the area around Harajuku Station on the Yamanote Line in the Shibuya ward of Tokyo, Japan....

 district to engage in cosplay. Since 1998 Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

's Akihabara
Akihabara
, also known as , is an area of Tokyo, Japan. It is located less than five minutes by rail from Tokyo Station. Its name is frequently shortened to in Japan...

 district has contained a large number of cosplay café
Café
A café , also spelled cafe, in most countries refers to an establishment which focuses on serving coffee, like an American coffeehouse. In the United States, it may refer to an informal restaurant, offering a range of hot meals and made-to-order sandwiches...

s, catering to devoted anime and cosplay fans. The waitresses at such cafés dress as game or anime characters; maid
Maid
A maidservant or in current usage housemaid or maid is a female employed in domestic service.-Description:Once part of an elaborate hierarchy in great houses, today a single maid may be the only domestic worker that upper and even middle-income households can afford, as was historically the case...

 costumes are particularly popular.

Miscellaneous Events


Groups of cosplayers may choose to hold small gatherings, at any number of venues, including café's, parks, nightclubs and amusement parks. They may join to have an excuse to cosplay, to compare work, share tips or any other person reason.

Gender roles


Portraying a character of the opposite sex is "crossplay
Crossplay
Crossplay, a portmanteau of crossdressing and cosplay, is cosplay in which the person dresses up as a character of a different gender. Crossplay's origins lie in the anime convention circuit, though, like cosplay, it has not remained exclusive to the genre.-Female-to-male crossplay:In most...

." The practicality of crossplay and crossdress stems in part from the abundance in manga of male characters with delicate and somewhat androgynous features. Such characters, known as bishōnen
Bishonen
is a Japanese term literally meaning "beautiful youth ". The equivalent English concept is a "pretty boy".The term describes an aesthetic that can be found in disparate areas in East Asia: a young man whose beauty transcends the boundary of gender or sexual orientation...

(lit. "pretty boy"), are an Asian version of the elf
Elf
An elf is a being of Germanic mythology. The elves were originally thought of as a race of divine beings endowed with magical powers, which they use both for the benefit and the injury of mankind...

 in boy archetype
Archetype
An archetype is a universally understood symbol or term or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated...

 represented in Western tradition by figures such as Peter Pan
Peter Pan
Peter Pan is a character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J. M. Barrie . A mischievous boy who can fly and magically refuses to grow up, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood adventuring on the small island of Neverland as the leader of his gang the Lost Boys, interacting with...

 and Ariel
Ariel (The Tempest)
Ariel is a spirit who appears in William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. Ariel is bound to serve the magician Prospero, who rescued him from the tree in which he was imprisoned by Sycorax, the witch who previously inhabited the island. Prospero greets disobedience with a reminder that he saved...

.

The animegao
Animegao
A doller is a cosplayer who performs a variant of kigurumi cosplay. The face is fully covered with a mask, usually meant to look like a human cartoon character, and the costume of the character is worn. In Japan most cosplayers refer to this style as...

, or "dollers", represent a niche group in the realm of cosplay. Their approach makes them a subgroup of what is called in Japan kigurumi
Kigurumi
is the Japanese name for costumed performers who represent cartoon characters, often animals. The name comes from the Japanese verb and noun . These performers appear at shopping malls, theme parks, and anime conventions...

--that is, "mascot"-style role players. Dollers are often male cosplayers representing female characters. Female dollers are also found who represent male characters, especially male characters that lend themselves to the treatment, such as robots, space aliens and animals. Dollers wear bodysuit
Bodysuit
In clothing, a bodysuit, body-liner, or body is a unisex form-fitting garment that covers the torso. The bodysuit often has sleeves and varying collars. A bodysuit is distinguished from the similar leotard by the use of snaps or hooks at the crotch. A bodysuit may be worn as a top for the smooth...

s and masks that completely hide their real features so that the original appearance of their characters may be reproduced as literally as possible. Their costumes display all the abstractions and stylizations characteristic of the cartoon art, such as the oversized eyes and tiny mouths so often encountered in manga.

Cosplay in Japan


Cosplayers in Japan refer to themselves as ; pronounced "layer". Those who photograph players are called cameko, short for "Camera Kozō" or "Camera Boy". Originally the cameko give prints of their photos to players as gifts. Increased interest in cosplay events both on the part of photographers and cosplayers willing to model for them have led to formalisation of procedures at events such as Comiket. Photography takes place within a designated area removed from the exhibit hall.

Cosplay at fan events likely originated in Japan in 1978. Cosplay nevertheless gets a mixed reception in Japan even today. Events in districts such as Akihabara draw many cosplayers, yet there is no shortage of people in Japan who regard cosplay as a frivolous endeavor.

Cosplay in Western Culture


The popularity of cosplay in Japan encourages the misconception that cosplay is specifically a Japanese or Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

n hobby. The term "cosplay", though Japanese in origin, described a phenomenon which was witnessed in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. For almost fifty years, costuming has had a widespread following and continues to experience growing popularity in North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, and has more recently spread throughout South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

  and Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

.

Western cosplay's origins are based primarily on science fiction and historical fantasy as opposed to animation. It is more common for Western cosplayers to recreate characters from live-action series such as Star Trek
Star Trek
Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment franchise created by Gene Roddenberry. The core of Star Trek is its six television series: The Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, and Enterprise...

, Star Wars
Star Wars
Star Wars is an American epic space opera film series created by George Lucas. The first film in the series was originally released on May 25, 1977, under the title Star Wars, by 20th Century Fox, and became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon, followed by two sequels, released at three-year...

, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a time-travelling humanoid alien known as the Doctor who explores the universe in a sentient time machine called the TARDIS that flies through time and space, whose exterior...

, The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings is a high fantasy epic written by English philologist and University of Oxford professor J. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's earlier, less complex children's fantasy novel The Hobbit , but eventually developed into a much larger work. It was written in...

, and Harry Potter
Harry Potter
Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter and his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry...

than it is for Japanese cosplayers. Similarly, animated series may be the origin for many recreations. Western costumers also include subcultures of hobbyists who participate in Renaissance faires or the Society for Creative Anachronism
Society for Creative Anachronism
The Society for Creative Anachronism is an international living history group with the aim of studying and recreating mainly Medieval European cultures and their histories before the 17th century...

, and historical re-enactments such as Civil War battles.

The increasing popularity of Japanese animation outside of Asia during the late 1990s led to an increase in American and other Western cosplayers who portray Japanese characters. Anime conventions have become more numerous in the West in the last decade. They now compete with science fiction, comic, and historical conferences in attendance. At these gatherings, cosplayers, like their Japanese counterparts, meet to show off their work, take photos, and compete in costume contests. Anime conventions attendees are mostly seen dressed up as Japanese animated characters, but many others dress up as famous Western comic book characters, or as famous characters from movies like Star Wars, Predator, and Pirates of the Caribbean. It is quite common to see many dress up as Disney, Final Fantasy and other characters like the Heartless from the game series Kingdom Hearts (キングダム ハーツ Kingudamu Hātsu?)
Kingdom Hearts
is an action role-playing game developed and published by Square in 2002 for the PlayStation 2 video game console. The first game in the Kingdom Hearts series, it is the result of a collaboration between Square Enix and The Walt Disney Company. The game combines characters and settings from Disney...

. Cosplayers also dress as popular characters from other games such as The Legend of Zelda, Mario Brothers, and Halo
Halo (series)
Halo is a multi-million dollar science fiction video game franchise created by Bungie and now managed by 343 Industries and owned by Microsoft Studios. The series centers on an interstellar war between humanity and a theocratic alliance of aliens known as the Covenant...

.

Differences in taste still exist across cultures. Some costumes that are worn without hesitation by Japanese cosplayers tend to be avoided by Western cosplayers, such as outfits that evoke Nazi-era uniforms.

Trends


The appearance of cosplayers at manga events makes such events a popular draw for photographers
Photography
Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film...

. As this became apparent in the late 1980s a new variant of cosplay developed in which cosplayers attended events mainly for the purpose of model
Model (person)
A model , sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed to display, advertise and promote commercial products or to serve as a subject of works of art....

ing their characters for still photography rather than engaging in continuous role play. Rules of etiquette were developed to minimize awkward situations involving boundaries. Cosplayers pose for photographers in designated areas removed from the exhibit hall. Photographers do not press them for personal contact information or private sessions, follow them out of the area or take photos of exhibits in the hall itself without permission. The rules allow the symbiotic relationship between photographers and cosplayers to continue with the least inconvenience to each.

Recent cosplay events in Asia show an increase in the popularity of non-Asian fantasy
Fantasy
Fantasy is a genre of fiction that commonly uses magic and other supernatural phenomena as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. Many works within the genre take place in imaginary worlds where magic is common...

 and science fiction
Science fiction
Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...

 characters. This reflects the international success of film
Film
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

s such as The Dark Knight
The Dark Knight (film)
The Dark Knight is a 2008 superhero film directed, produced and co-written by Christopher Nolan. Based on the DC Comics character Batman, the film is part of Nolan's Batman film series and a sequel to 2005's Batman Begins...

, The Matrix
The Matrix
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction-action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski, starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano, and Hugo Weaving...

, Star Wars
Star Wars
Star Wars is an American epic space opera film series created by George Lucas. The first film in the series was originally released on May 25, 1977, under the title Star Wars, by 20th Century Fox, and became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon, followed by two sequels, released at three-year...

and Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
The Lord of the Rings is an epic film trilogy consisting of three fantasy adventure films based on the three-volume book of the same name by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. The films are The Fellowship of the Ring , The Two Towers and The Return of the King .The films were directed by Peter...

and their associated books.

Cosplay in Taiwanese Culture

  • Beginning–1990
Taiwan's first cosplays with the form similar to present day was started in 1990, but only temporarily and without specialization. Not many details were recorded due to the small number of participants.
  • 1991–1997
Most cosplayers started to make their costumes themselves, though professionals still lacked in this field.

During 1992–1993, the time was harsh, but it allowed them to make costumes by themselves, including accessories.

In 1994 to 1997, the environment of cosplay began to grow. There were almost several hundred cosplayers in Taiwan.

In 1997, the biennial doujin event started, and cosplay grew in popularity.

  • 1998–2005
Cosplay becomes more popular and well-known. Cosplayers' community rises sharply. Most of them start to go private to photo takings, other than public events. The Yam blog
Blog
A blog is a type of website or part of a website supposed to be updated with new content from time to time. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in...

 and Wretch blog
Blog
A blog is a type of website or part of a website supposed to be updated with new content from time to time. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in...

 for assembling people with the same interest rise abruptly. At the same time there is the launch of the discussion on the differences between several splendid attire culture such as cosplay dressing and various styles of lolita fashion
Lolita fashion
is a fashion subculture originating in Japan that is based on Victorian-era clothing as well as costumes from the Rococo period, but the style has expanded greatly beyond these two. The Lolita look began primarily as one of modesty with a focus on quality in both material and manufacture of garments...

.Since 2002, Fancy Frontier(FF) and Petit Fancy(PF) start to be held in National Taiwan University and Kaohsiung. Not only many young Taiwanese cosplayers, but many Japanese cosplayers join the biggest ACG(Animation, Comics, Games) festival in Taiwan nation.
  • 2006–present
A magazine introducing cosplay COSmania was first published in 2006 February. Cosplay becomes much more popular.

Cosplay in Chinese culture


As anime is becoming more popular in China, Chinese have started to become involved in cosplay, as the Japanese and the Western countries.

Hong Kong


The cosplay sphere in Hong Kong are separated as two sides, with one mainly including Chinese
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 citizens (sometimes Japanese also included) and one mainly including non-Chinese citizens (such as Europeans and Americans). The ambiance between two sides are different at all, since the status of Chinese-citizen-mainly side has been turning.
  • 1990s
For local Chinese citizens, cosplay first showed up in a form similar to that of the present in Hong Kong in 1993, when a group of people rented a kiosk and one of them wore a costume on some animations to attract people passing by. Since 1997, more and more local events are held, such as Comic World
Comic World
Comic World is an anime-oriented festival that is held in South Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.-South Korea:Because there are few amateur circle conventions in Korea, this convention is considered to be not only the biggest anime convention, but also the Comiket of Korea. Along with ACA festival, it...

 HK
.

  • 2000–present
After the 1990s, the multimedia
Multimedia
Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which use only rudimentary computer display such as text-only, or...

 started to keep an eye on cosplays. Most of the universities in Hong Kong also launched their own cosplay events, and the most popular one is the Cosplay Party by Hong Kong University. Nowadays there are almost 20 events held with cosplay sessions every year in Hong Kong.

With an aid of easy accessibility of multimedia
Multimedia
Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which use only rudimentary computer display such as text-only, or...

 and the Internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

, cosplay has been being far more popular and familiar. The number of people taking part in cosplay has also increased sharply.

However, some of the conservative cosplayers think that, the standard and behaviour of the new-coming cosplayers with less experiences or morals are unacceptable, and consider those are interfering the conservatives' public image. Some of those conservatives began to do attack in speech, even creating violent rebellions or triad-society-like behaviors to approach their external political purposes. Moreover, someone created several biased words to describe for those who cosplay with the discrepancy between the appearance of the cosplayer and the character, and for those who cosplay without able to understand the character that he/she is impersonating, even unilaterally fabricating themselves-centred inflexible so-called definitions of cosplay to force all the people to obey it without condition.

This makes the conflict among some cosplayers, and threatens the harmonious and rational environment of Chinese-citizen-mainly side cosplay sphere in Hong Kong. Such the conditions have been criticized by other cosplayers, netizen
Netizen
The term Netizen is a portmanteau of the English words internet and citizen. It is defined as an entity or person actively involved in online communities and a user of the internet, especially an avid one. The term can also imply an interest in improving the internet, especially in regard to open...

s and some citizens. Some of the Hong-Kong-resided cosplayers even change to participate the cosplay events in other cities, such as in Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

 and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

.


Mainland China



The topics of cosplay in mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 are mainly from Chinese classical issues and modern Japanese anime issues. Sometimes other exotic issues are also included. In 2002, the YACA animation organization was founded, and began a stage for cosplay. After on, there are some public cosplay events held every year in Guangzhou.

In 2009, at the 2nd China International Copyright Expo, a China Cosplay Competition was held in Beijing. There were initial internet video trials, then the finals were held at the expo.

In 2010, a few cosplay shows organized by internet media had been held in Beijing and two more in October, 2010.

Singapore

  • Commercial events
    • Cosfest

The biggest cosplay convention in Singapore. It host the World Cosplay Singapore, and the Asia Cosplay Meet. It is held in Downtown East NTUC Club Resort
    • EOY (End-of-Year)

This event has been running officially since 2001. Prior to this, the initial organizer, the Miyuki Animation Club, used to hold informal cosplaying get-togethers at their home Community Club. The first EOY event was held at Suntec City in December 2001. Subsequent locations changed to the Singapore Expo when it was co organized by the Miyuki Animation Club and Singapore Cosplay Club. The event was take over by Shiro Tsubasa Animation Club later. In year 2009, Black Alice took over the event and it moves to the National Library at Victoria Street. In 2010 the event moves to Republic Polytechnic.
    • Anime Festival Asia
      Anime Festival Asia
      Anime Festival Asia is an anime convention that is organized by Sozo and Dentsu. It was first organized in 2008, during which singers Ichirou Mizuki and May'n were invited as the star highlights...


The first AFA was held at Suntec City in 2008, with Ichirou Mizuki and May'n as the invited guests. This event has grown to include Danny Choo, Alodia Gosiengfiao, JAM Project, Scandal and AKB48 as performing guests. Much cosplaying actually takes place outside the event venue, on the empty space on level 3.
    • Singapore Toy Game and Comic Convention
    • The Games Xpo

  • Events held in schools
    • SOY (Start-of-Year)

This event is organized by the Ngee Ann Polytechnic's Japanese Tsubasa Club, and held in their lecture halls.

Related phenomena


The Internet has enabled many cosplayers to create "social networks" and web sites centred around cosplay activities. Forums allow them to share stories, photographs, news and tips.

The exponential growth in the number of people picking up cosplay as a hobby since 1990 has made the phenomenon influential in popular culture. This is particularly the case in Asia where cosplay influences Japanese street fashion
Japanese street fashion
Japan began to emulate Western fashion during the middle of the 19th century. By the beginning of the 21st century it had altered into what is known today as 'street fashion'. The term 'street fashion' is used to describe fashion where the wearer customizes outfits by adopting a mixture of current...

 and popular culture
Japanese popular culture
Japanese popular culture not only reflects the attitudes and concerns of the present but also provides a link to the past. Japanese cinema, cuisine, television programs, manga, and music all developed from older artistic and literary traditions, and many of their themes and styles of presentation...

. Businesses increasingly seek to cater to cosplayers' interest in apparel, accessories, and collectibles.

Magazines


Japan is home to two especially popular cosplay magazines, Cosmode
Cosmode
COStume MODE Magazine is a Japanese-language magazine about cosplay. Each issue contains color images of cosplayers from conventions and various events...

(コスモード) and Dengeki Layers (電撃Layers). Cosmode has the largest share in the market. An English digital version of Cosmode has been created.
Another magazine growing in popularity that is aimed at a broader, word-wide audience is CosplayGen:

Film and television


MTV has produced an episode of the documentary series True Life, focusing on fandom and cosplay.

A film titled "Cosplayers: The Movie" was released in 2009 by Martell Brothers Studios. The film explores the anime subculture in North America with footage from anime conventions and interviews with fans, voice actors and artists. According to the creator's website the film is available for free viewing on both Youtube
YouTube
YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos....

 and Crunchyroll
Crunchyroll
Crunchyroll is an American website and international online community focused on streaming East Asian media including anime, manga, drama, music, electronic entertainment, and auto racing content...

.

According to cosplayfilm.com, a new feature length documentary film will be released in late 2010 and will focus on the personal lives of a small band of cosplayers. As of Jan 2010, the film is casting in the Chicago area. The filmed is tentatively titled: Cosplay, Cosplay!

The documentary titled My Other Me: A Film About Cosplayers http://www.myotherme.ca/ chronicles a year in the life of three different cosplayers: a veteran cosplayer whom launched a career from cosplay, a young fourteen year old first timer, and a transgender whom found himself through cosplay. The documentary will cover everything from each different cosplayers home life, to their costume process, their journey through the convention circuit, and the profound effect cosplay is making on each of their lives as it grows with them.

"My Other Me" is expected to be released in 2012.

Apparel


Cosplayers obtain their apparel through many different methods. Manufacturers produce and sell packaged outfits for use in cosplay, in a variety of qualities. These costumes are often sold online, but also can be purchased from dealers at conventions. There are also a number of individuals who work on commission, creating custom costumes, props or wigs designed and fitted to the individual; some social networking sites for cosplay have classified ad sections where such services are advertised. Other cosplayers, who prefer to create their own costumes, still provide a market for individual elements, accessories, and various raw materials, such as unstyled wigs or extensions, hair dye, cloth and sewing notions, liquid latex body paint, face paint, shoes, costume jewellery
Jewellery
Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to...

 and prop weapons. Most cosplayers engage in some combination of methods to obtain all the items necessary for their costume; for example they may commission a prop weapon, sew their own clothing, buy character jewelry from a cosplay accessory manufacturer, and buy a pair of off-the-rack shoes and modify them to match the desired look.

In order to look more like the character they are portraying many cosplayers also engage in various forms of body modification. Contact lenses that match the color of their character's eyes are a common form of this, especially in the case of characters with particularly unique eyes as part of their trademark look. Another form of body modification cosplayers engage in is to copy any tattoo or special marking that their character might have. Henna tattoos, permanent marker, body paint and in rare cases having a permanent tattoo done are all methods used by cosplayers to achieve the desired look. Permanent and temporary hair dye, spray-in colouring, and specialized extreme styling products are all utilized by some cosplayers whose natural hair can achieve the desired hairstyle.

In addition to making items specifically for use by cosplayers, the fashion industry has taken inspiration from the world of cosplay in popularising looks such as the Gothic Lolita, based on clothing worn by popular period characters.

Models


Cosplay has influenced the Japanese advertising industry more than it has the commodity market.

Print media increasingly retain cosplayers as models. Good cosplayers are increasingly viewed as fictional characters in the flesh, in much the same way that film actors come to be identified in the public mind with specific roles. Cosplayers have modeled for print magazines like Cosmode
Cosmode
COStume MODE Magazine is a Japanese-language magazine about cosplay. Each issue contains color images of cosplayers from conventions and various events...

, cosplay photography studios,

ADV Films has retained cosplayers for event work previously assigned to agency models. The ability of cosplayers to re-create their chosen characters with accuracy and vitality plays a part in this trend, as does the ability of cosplayers to appeal to an already existing market. E3 was occupied by a mix of both agency girls and cosplayers.

Japan's burgeoning anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 industry has been home to the professional cosplayers since the rise of Comiket
Comiket
, otherwise known as the , is the world's largest self-published comic book fair, held twice a year in Tokyo, Japan. The first Comiket was held on December 21, 1975, with only about 32 participating circles and an estimated 600 attendees. Attendance has since swelled to over a half million people....

, Tokyo Game Show
Tokyo Game Show
The , commonly known as TGS, is a video game expo / convention held annually in the Makuhari Messe, in Chiba, Japan. It is presented by the Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association and the Nikkei Business Publications, Inc...

, and other such powerhouse conventions.

A cosplay model, also known as a Cosplay Idol, is a promotional model who models cosplay costumes for anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

, manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

, or video game companies. A successful cosplay model can become the brand ambassador
Brand ambassador
A Brand Ambassador is a person employed by a company to be the sales rep and physical representative of the company with respect to sales and marketing. The Brand Ambassador is meant to embody the corporate image in appearance, demeanor, values, and ethics....

 for companies like Cospa
Cospa
is a Japanese clothing company specializing in the production of cosplay costumes and other apparel for the otaku fan base. The company started in May 1995 as the child company of Broccoli. The name "Cospa" comes from an acronym for .-External links:* **...

. The phenomenon is most apparent in Japan but exists to some degree in other countries as well.

Notable cosplayers

  • Francesca Dani
    Francesca Dani
    Francesca Aurora Dani is an Italian cosplayer, net idol and model.- Career :Dani began her cosplay career after entering a contest while she was under age as Sailor Moon. Her website, launched in October 1998, turned into a pay website on 14 April 2002...

    , an Italian cosplayer, net idol
    Net idol
    A Net Idol is a Japanese term that is someone who achieves celebrity status through the internet. Unlike an Internet celebrity, a net idol is more focused on Japanese pop culture.-History:...

     and model.
  • Daisuke Enomoto
    Daisuke Enomoto
    is a Japanese businessman and former livedoor executive who hoped to become the fourth space tourist. He had trained at Star City, Moscow in Russia to fly with two members of Expedition 14 on board Soyuz TMA-9, which was launched on September 18, 2006....

    , a Japanese entrepreneur, was scheduled to be the fourth private citizen to be taken into space by Space Adventures
    Space Adventures
    Space Adventures, Ltd. is a Virginia, USA-based space tourism company founded in 1998 by Eric C. Anderson. , offerings include zero-gravity atmospheric flights, orbital spaceflights , and other spaceflight-related experiences including cosmonaut training, spacewalk training, and launch tours...

     in October 2006. He intended to dress for the ride wearing the Gundam
    Gundam
    The is a metaseries of anime created by Sunrise studios that features giant robots called "Mobile Suits" ; usually the protagonist's MS will carry the name Gundam....

    costume of Char Aznable
    Char Aznable
    , born is a fictional character from the Gundam franchise. He is originally one of the main antagonists in Mobile Suit Gundam and later becomes one of the protagonists of Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam. In his final appearance in Char's Counterattack, he assumes leadership of the Neo Zeon movement,...

    . He failed to pass physical examinations.
  • Alodia Gosiengfiao
    Alodia Gosiengfiao
    Alodia Almira Arraiza Gosiengfiao is a Filipina cosplayer model, artist and host. She graduated in 2009 from Ateneo de Manila University with a BFA Information Design Degree...

    , Filipina cosplayer and model. She was Animax's
    Animax Asia
    Animax Asia is the Japanese anime TV network Animaxs English language feeds in Southeast Asia and South Asia, as well as its feeds across other regions of mainland Asia, including Hong Kong and Taiwan...

     first Levi's Kawaii girl winner in the last episode of Mad Mad Fun
    Mad Mad Fun
    Mad Mad Fun was a youth lifestyle/music show produced by Animax Asia for Philippines. This weekly half hour show is hosted by Lupin star Rhian Ramos and features interviews and wacky stunts with top Pinoy bands. Bands on the show have include Sandwich, Up Dharma Down, Sugarfree, Imago, Chicosci,...

    . She ranked no. 87 in FHM Philippines 2009 poll of the Sexiest Women in the World and was named as one of Philippine's most influential women by UNO Magazine.
  • Liana Kerzner, Canadian co-hosts the talk show Ed's Night Party
    Ed's Night Party
    Ed & Red's Night Party is a former Canadian talk variety show. It was hosted by Steven Joel Kerzner as Ed the Sock and Kerzner's real-life wife Liana K...

    . Famous for her sexy character-based costumes, she is often a special guest at fan conventions across North America.
  • Yuichiro "Jienotsu" Nagashima
    Yuichiro Nagashima
    is a Japanese welterweight kickboxer, and a Cosplayer, fighting out of Nishinomiya, Hyogo, currently competing at K-1. His rank is black belt of 2nd dan of Nippon Kempo.-Early life:...

    , Japanese kickboxer and martial artist. One of Japans top ranked Kickboxers, Yuichiro Nagashima makes all his entrances and publicity appearances for K-1
    K-1
    K-1 is a defunct world-wide kickboxing promotion based in Tokyo, Japan founded by Kazuyoshi Ishii, a formerKyokushin karate practitioner. K-1 combines stand up techniques from Muay Thai, Karate, Taekwondo, Savate, San Shou, kickboxing, western-style boxing, and other martial arts...

     dressed as different female anime characters, accompanied by cosplaying girls.
  • Lee Teng-hui
    Lee Teng-hui
    Lee Teng-hui is a politician of the Republic of China . He was the 7th, 8th, and 9th-term President of the Republic of China and Chairman of the Kuomintang from 1988 to 2000. He presided over major advancements in democratic reforms including his own re-election which marked the first direct...

    , the first popularly elected president of the Republic of China (Taiwan)
    President of the Republic of China
    The President of the Republic of China is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China . The Republic of China was founded on January 1, 1912, to govern all of China...

    , dressed up as the fictional character Edajima Heihachi of the anime series Sakigake!! Otokojuku
    Sakigake!! Otokojuku
    by Akira Miyashita is a comedy martial arts manga that was originally serialized at the Weekly Shōnen Jump from 1985 to 1991. It is staged in a private boy's school that teaches ōendan to troubled teenagers. The students are trained to "revive the Spirit of Japan" and mainly engage in fighting or...

    .

See also

  • Cosplay restaurant
    Cosplay restaurant
    , are theme restaurants and pubs that originated in Akihabara, Tokyo, Japan around the year 1999. They include and , where the service staff dress as elegant maids, or as butlers. Such restaurants and cafés have quickly become a staple of Japanese otaku culture. Compared with service at normal...

  • Costume party
    Costume party
    A fancy dress party or a costume party , mainly in contemporary Western culture, is a type of party where guests dress up in a costume.-Fancy dress parties in Britain:...

  • Crossplay
    Crossplay
    Crossplay, a portmanteau of crossdressing and cosplay, is cosplay in which the person dresses up as a character of a different gender. Crossplay's origins lie in the anime convention circuit, though, like cosplay, it has not remained exclusive to the genre.-Female-to-male crossplay:In most...

  • Live action role-playing game
    Live action role-playing game
    A live action role-playing game is a form of role-playing game where the participants physically act out their characters' actions. The players pursue goals within a fictional setting represented by the real world, while interacting with each other in character. The outcome of player actions may...

  • Net idol
    Net idol
    A Net Idol is a Japanese term that is someone who achieves celebrity status through the internet. Unlike an Internet celebrity, a net idol is more focused on Japanese pop culture.-History:...

  • Lolita Fashion
    Lolita fashion
    is a fashion subculture originating in Japan that is based on Victorian-era clothing as well as costumes from the Rococo period, but the style has expanded greatly beyond these two. The Lolita look began primarily as one of modesty with a focus on quality in both material and manufacture of garments...

  • Society for Creative Anachronism
    Society for Creative Anachronism
    The Society for Creative Anachronism is an international living history group with the aim of studying and recreating mainly Medieval European cultures and their histories before the 17th century...

  • Real-life superhero
    Real-life superhero
    Real-life superheroes are people who engage in different forms of activism using the thematic device of the costumed superhero, many of them adopting pseudonyms and wearing custom-made outfits. They perform services that they believe benefit the community in a variety of ways, but which may be...


External links