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Coronation of Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof

Coronation of Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof

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Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (see also: Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (many variations as well as spellings: "Maad" or "Maat Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof"; "Mad a Sinig" ; "Maat Sine Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf" ; "Maat Sin Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf";...

 - many variations as well as spellings: “Maad” or “Maat Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof”; “Mad a Sinig” ; “Maat Sine Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf” ; “Maat Sin Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf”; also “Buur Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof”; “Bur Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof”; “Bour Sine Koumba Ndoffène Famak Diouf” , “Coumba N’Doffène Diouf” or “Coumba N’Doffène Diouf I”) (c.
Circa
Circa , usually abbreviated c. or ca. , means "approximately" in the English language, usually referring to a date...

1810 - 23rd August 1871.was the King of the Serer
Serer people
The Serer people along with the Jola people are acknowledged to be the oldest inhabitants of The Senegambia....

 Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
The Kingdom of Sine was a pre-colonial Serer kingdom along the north bank of the Saloum River delta in modern Senegal. Much of the kingdom's population was and still is Serer.-History:...

 in modern day Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

. “Maat Sine” or “Buur Sine” or “Mad a Sinig” means King of Sine. He ruled from 1853 until his death on 23rd of August 1871. He was the son of Buur Souka Ndella Joof and Lingeer Gnilane Jogoy Joof. His father “Souka Ndella” came from the Royal House of Buur Semou Njekeh Joof who was the founder of the third and last Royal House of The Joof Paternal Dynasty of Sine and Saloum in the 18th century.His paternal family ruled three Kingdoms: Sine, Saloum and previously Baol
Baol
The Kingdom of Baol or Bawol in central Senegal was one of the ancient kingdoms of the Serer people pre-the Jolof Empire, an Empire it would later join voluntarily just like the other States. However it gained prominence after the split-up of the Empire in 1555...

 – they were the descendants of Buur Ndaah Njemeh Joof the 13th century King of Lâ in Baol
Baol
The Kingdom of Baol or Bawol in central Senegal was one of the ancient kingdoms of the Serer people pre-the Jolof Empire, an Empire it would later join voluntarily just like the other States. However it gained prominence after the split-up of the Empire in 1555...



His mother Gnilane Jogoy Joof, came from the Maternal Dynasty of Guelowar
Guelowar
The Guelowar was a Serer and Mandinka dynasty between 1350 to 1969. The dynasty was formed through marriage between the Serer paternal dynasties such as Joof or Diouf, Faye and Ndiaye and the Mandinka maternal Guelowar dynasty of Kaabu in modern day Guinea Bissau who escaped the Battle of...

. The Geulowars had ruled two Senegambian Kingdoms: Sine and Saloum. They had also provided two Kings of Jolof  and heirs to the thrones of Cayor
Cayor
The Kingdom of Cayor was the largest and most powerful kingdom that split off from the Empire of Jolof , in what is now Senegal. Cayor was located in north and central Senegal, southeast of Waalo, west of the kingdom of Jolof and north of Baol and the Kingdom of Sine.In 1549, the king, or...

 and Baol
Baol
The Kingdom of Baol or Bawol in central Senegal was one of the ancient kingdoms of the Serer people pre-the Jolof Empire, an Empire it would later join voluntarily just like the other States. However it gained prominence after the split-up of the Empire in 1555...

. They originated from the royal family of Kaabu in the 14th century who were granted asylum by the Serer nobility of Sine following the Battle of Turubang (1335) in Kaabu
Kaabu
The Kaabu Empire was a Mandinka Kingdom of Senegambia that rose to prominence in the region thanks to its origins as a former province of the Mali Empire...

. The name “Famak” (also “Fa mak”) means “the elder” in the Serer language. He should not be confused with his successor Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Fandeb Joof  (also known as "Coumba N’Doffène Diouf II") who reigned from 1897 to 1924. The name “Fandeb” (also “Fa ndeb”) means “the younger” in the Serer-Sine language.

Succession to the throne


Kumba Ndoffene Famak came to the throne in 1853 following the early death of the young King of Sine Maat Sine Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof – one of the most charismatic Kings of Senegambia. Highly fluent in several languages including European and African languages
African languages
There are over 2100 and by some counts over 3000 languages spoken natively in Africa in several major language families:*Afro-Asiatic spread throughout the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel...

, he lived a very colourful life and was immortalised in a portrait
Portrait
thumb|250px|right|Portrait of [[Thomas Jefferson]] by [[Rembrandt Peale]], 1805. [[New-York Historical Society]].A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness,...

 by L'abbé David Boillat in 1850, three years before his death. Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof therefore, had a very tough act to follow when he succeeded his cousin in 1853.

Kumba Ndoffene Famak’s family along with Sanou Moon Faye’s (who would become his "Buumi" (heir apparent
Heir apparent
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting, except by a change in the rules of succession....

) and later become King of Sine (Maat Sine Sanou Moon Faye) family lodge their applications before the Jaraff (head of The Noble Council of Electors responsible for electing the Kings from the Royal Family - according to custom, though there were exceptions) for their respective sons to inherit the throne
Throne
A throne is the official chair or seat upon which a monarch is seated on state or ceremonial occasions. "Throne" in an abstract sense can also refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, and is also used in many expressions such as "the power behind the...

. The Jaraff decided that it was Kumba Ndoffene’s family that lodged his application first but after examining the family status and welfare of each candidate, made his choice having consulted the Members of The Noble Council of Electors.
Although Sanou Moon Faye and Kumba Ndoffene Famak shared the same date of birth - according to tradition, Kumba Ndoffene's birth was reported first to the Grand Jaraff. As a result, Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof was declared Buumi (heir apparent
Heir apparent
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting, except by a change in the rules of succession....

) of Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof (reign: 1847 to 1853), "first come first serve" though there were exceptions as can be seen above. The Jaraff and The Council must satisfy themselves about the family status and welfare of each candidate.

The coronation


Kumba Ndoffene was declared heir apparent
Heir apparent
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting, except by a change in the rules of succession....

 of the reigning King of Ama Joof and in September 1853 after taking the sacred bathing, Kumba Ndoffene’s moment came to be crowned as King of Sine. In the presence of the Government of Sine made up of notables from various parts of Sine, the people and his paternal and maternal family, the Great Jaraff presided over the sacred ceremony.

After the religious rituals, prayers and oath, The Crown was placed on his head and the Jaraff greeted the Monarch with the words “Dali” (Your Majesty). He was Crowned King Kumba Ndoffene Joof from The Royal House of Semou Njekeh. The Jaraff made his usual speech directed to the Monarch:
"From today, you are King… We greet you with hundred..." (in order words, for the King’s reign to last for one hundred years).


The King then turned to his paternal family and made the usual proclamation:
"Now I am the King. Get off your horses and give them to me."


He then turned to his maternal family and made a similar proclamation. The paternal family gave gifts and several horses to the overseers of the Ceremony including the Jaraff. The maternal family gave gifts and slightly less horses. The King then crowned his sister (Lingeer Nadi Joof) as "Lingeer" (Queen). Had his mother been alive, she would have been Crowned "Lingeer" (Queen
Queen regnant
A queen regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king. An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire....

 or Queen Mother in her case) and not Nadi Joof the King’s sister. Note that the King’s sister was not married to the King (her own brother). The "Lingeer" was only crowned in order to honor the maternal clan they both belonged. The Lingeer was the Queen of all women and presided over all women cases. She had her own palace and army just like the King.
The King then gave gifts to the organizers of the Ceremony and then directed his message to his subjects, telling them how his predecessor had ruled. After that, the King appointed his Government.

See Also

  • Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
    Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
    Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (many variations as well as spellings: "Maad" or "Maat Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof"; "Mad a Sinig" ; "Maat Sine Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf" ; "Maat Sin Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf";...

  • Serer people
    Serer people
    The Serer people along with the Jola people are acknowledged to be the oldest inhabitants of The Senegambia....

  • Kingdom of Sine
    Kingdom of Sine
    The Kingdom of Sine was a pre-colonial Serer kingdom along the north bank of the Saloum River delta in modern Senegal. Much of the kingdom's population was and still is Serer.-History:...

  • Kingdom of Saloum
  • Kingdom of Baol
  • History of Senegal
    History of Senegal
    The History of Senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era.- Paleolithic :...

  • History of The Gambia
    History of the Gambia
    The modern-day Gambia was once part of the Ghana, Mali and Songhai Empires.-Early history:The first written accounts of the region come from records of Arab traders in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. In medieval times the area was dominated by the trans-Saharan trade...


English Language Bibliography

Martin A. Klein. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine- Saloum 1847-1914. Published by Edingburg University Press (1968). ISBN: 85224 029 5. Also see footnote on that page: A letter

French Language Bibliography

Mahawa Diouf. L’INFORMATION HISTORIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DU SIIN. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991 Alioune Sarr,Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987 L’EPOPEE DE SANMOON FAY. “La famille JUUF”. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991. Oumar Ndiaye Leyti. “Le Djoloff et ses Bourba.” Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN: 2723608174 David Boilat. Esquisses Sénégalaises , Paris, Karthala, 1984.