Copley Medal

Copley Medal

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Encyclopedia
The Copley Medal is an award given by the Royal Society of London for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science, and alternates between the physical sciences and the biological sciences". Awarded every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society medal still being awarded, having first been given in 1731 to Stephen Gray
Stephen Gray (scientist)
Stephen Gray was an English dyer and amateur astronomer, who was the first to systematically experiment with electrical conduction, rather than simple generation of static charges and investigations of the static phenomena....

, who received it for "his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge". The medal was created following a donation of £
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

100 to be used for carrying out experiments by Sir Godfrey Copley, for which the interest on the amount was used for several years. The conditions for the medal have been changed several times; in 1736, it was suggested that "a medal or other honorary prize should be bestowed on the person whose experiment should be best approved", and this remained the rule until 1831, when the conditions were changed so that the medal would be awarded to the researcher that the Royal Society Council decided most deserved it. A second donation of £1666 13s. 4d
Penny (British pre-decimal coin)
The penny of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, was in circulation from the early 18th century until February 1971, Decimal Day....

. was made by Sir Joseph William Copley in 1881, and the interest from that amount is used to pay for the medal. The medal in its current format is made of silver gilt and awarded with a £5000 prize.

Since its inception, the medal has been awarded to a number of notable scientists, including 52 winners of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

: 17 in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others are the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and...

, 21 in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the field of life science and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will...

, and 14 in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature,...

. These include Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS is an English biochemist and a two-time Nobel laureate in chemistry, the only person to have been so. In 1958 he was awarded a Nobel prize in chemistry "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"...

, who was awarded the Copley Medal in 1977 "[i]n recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids" and is one of four people to have won multiple Nobel Prizes, having won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958 and 1980. John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers
John Theophilus Desaguliers was a natural philosopher born in France. He was a member of the Royal Society of London beginning 29 July 1714. He was presented with the Royal Society's highest honour, the Copley Medal, in 1734, 1736 and 1741, with the 1741 award being for his discovery of the...

 has won the medal the most often, in 1734, 1736 and 1741. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
Dorothy Mary Hodgkin OM, FRS , née Crowfoot, was a British chemist, credited with the development of protein crystallography....

 is as yet the only woman to have won the prize.

Recipients

Year Name Rationale Notes
1731 "For his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge"
1732 "For the Experiments he made for the year 1732"
1733 No Award
1734
}||"In consideration of his several Experiments performed before the Society"||
|-
|1735 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1736 ||||"For his experiments made during the year"||
|-
|1737 ||||"For his Experiment to show the property of a Diet of Madder Root in dyeing the Bones of living animals of a red colour"||
|-
|1738 ||||"For his invention of an Engine for driving the Piles to make a Foundation for the Bridge to be erected at Westminster, the Model whereof had been shown to the Society"||—
|-
|1739 ||||"For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long voyages at Sea"||
|-
|1740 ||||"For his Lectures on Muscular Motion. As a further addition for his services to the Society in the care and pains he has taken therein"||
|-
|1741 ||||"For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year."||
|-
|1742 ||||"For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay"||
|-
|1743 ||||"For his Experiments on the Polypus"||—
|-
|1744 ||||"For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum"||
|-
|1745 ||||"On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments"||
|-
|1746 ||||"On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles"||
|-
|1747 ||||"On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets"||
|-
|1748 ||||"On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion"||
|-
|1749 ||||"On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time"||
|-
|1750 ||||"On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. – containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects."||
|-
|1751 ||||"On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones"||
|-
|1752 ||||"On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society"||
|-
|1753 ||||"On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity"||
|-
|1754 ||||"For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: – which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials"||
|-
|1755 ||||"For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society"||
|-
|1756 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1757 ||||"On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer"||
|-
|1758 ||||"On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society"||
|-
|1759 ||||"On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills"||
|-
|1760 ||||"For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year"||
|-
|1761 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1762 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1763 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1764 ||||"For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids"||
|-
|1765 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1766 ||,
Edward Delaval
Edward Delaval
Edward Hussey Delaval was a scholar and scientist. He shared the 1766 Copley Medal where he was cited for his research on metals and glass. His interest in glass included its use in music. His performances on musical glasses became well-known, and may have inspired Benjamin Franklin's glass...

 and

Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish FRS was a British scientist noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air". He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper "On Factitious Airs". Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and...


||"For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit. (Brownrigg)"
"For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations. (Delaval)"

"For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air. (Cavendish)"
||
|-
|1767 ||||"For his Papers of the year 1767, On the animal nature of the Genus of Zoophytes called Corallina, and the Actinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower, lately found on the sea coasts of the new-ceded Islands"||
|-
|1768 ||||"For his Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, and other substances"||
|-
|1769 ||||"For his Two Papers, entitled, An Account of the Lymphatic System in Amphibious Animals, – and An Account of the Lymphatic System in Fish"||—
|-
|1770 ||||"For his Paper, entitled, An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna"||
|-
|1771 ||||"For his paper entitled, An Enquiry into the value of ancient Greek and Roman Money"||—
|-
|1772 ||||"On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations"||
|-
|1773 ||||"For his Paper on the Torpedo"||
|-
|1774 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1775 ||||"In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, – on Schehallien"||
|-
|1776 ||||"For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public"||
|-
|1777 ||||"On account of his valuable Paper containing directions for making the best Composition for the metals of Reflecting Telescopes; together with a description of the process for grinding, polishing, and giving the best speculum the true parabolic form"||—
|-
|1778 ||||"For his paper, entitled, The force of Fired Gunpowder, and the initial velocity of Cannon Balls, determined by Experiments"||
|-
|1779 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1780 ||||"For his paper, entitled, An investigation of the Principles of Progressive and Rotatory Motion, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1781 ||||"For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this start has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers"||
|-
|1782 ||||"As a reward for the merit of his labours in the science of Chemistry. For his chemical analyses of Salts"||
|-
|1783 || and Thomas Hutchins
Thomas Hutchins (naturalist)
Thomas Hutchins was a British physician and naturalistHutchins was employed as Hudson's Bay Company surgeon at York Factory 1766–73 then chief of Albany fort 1774–82....

||"For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol. (Goodricke)"
"For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation. (Hutchins)"
||
|-
|1784 ||||"For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series"||
|-
|1785 ||||"For his Measurement of a Base on Hounslow Heath"||
|-
|1786 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1787 ||||"For his three Papers, – On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787"||
|-
|1788 ||||"For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions"||
|-
|1789 ||||"For his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1790 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1791 || and
Jean-André De Luc
||"For his Paper on the Rate of Travelling as performed by Camels, printed in the last (81st) volume of the Philosophical Transactions. (Rennell)"
"For his Improvements in Hygrometry. (De Luc)"
||
|-
|1792 ||||"For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat"||
|-
|1793 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1794 ||||"For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani"||—
|-
|1795 ||||"For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates"||
|-
|1796 ||||"For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies"||
|-
|1797 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1798 || and
Charles Hatchett
Charles Hatchett
Charles Hatchett FRS was an English chemist who discovered the element niobium.- Biography:Hatchett was born, raised, and lived in London...


||"For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Evelyn)"
"For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Hatchett)"
||
|-
|1799 ||||"For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers"||
|-
|1800 ||||"For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury"||
|-
|1801 ||||"For his Papers – on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness"||
|-
|1802 ||||"For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1803 ||||"For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1804 ||||"For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1805 ||||"For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1806 ||||"For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1807 ||||"For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||—
|-
|1808 ||||"For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||—
|-
|1809 ||||"For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1810 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1811 ||||"For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons"||
|-
|1812 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1813 ||||"For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||—
|-
|1814 ||||"For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||
|-
|1815 ||||"For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies"||
|-
|1816 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1817 ||||"For his Experiments on the Pendulum"||
|-
|1818 ||||"For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"||—
|-
|1819 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1820 ||||"For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries"||
|-
|1821 || and
John Herschel
John Herschel
Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet KH, FRS ,was an English mathematician, astronomer, chemist, and experimental photographer/inventor, who in some years also did valuable botanical work...


||"For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions. (Sabine)"
"For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Herschel)"
||
|-
|1822 ||||"For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale"||
|-
|1823 ||||"For his various Communications to the Royal Society"||—
|-
|1824 ||||"For his various Communications to the Royal Society"||
|-
|1825 || and Peter Barlow||"For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. (Arago)"
"For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. (Barlow)"
||
|-
|1826 ||||"For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions"||
|-
|1827 || and
Henry Foster
Henry Foster (scientist)
Henry Foster was a British naval officer who took part in expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic and made various notable scientific observations....


||"For his Paper entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general. (Prout)"
"For his magnetic and other observations made during the Arctic expedition to Port Bowen. (Foster)"
||
|-
|1828 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1829 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1830 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1831 ||||"For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, – On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society"||
|-
|1832 || and Simeon Poisson||"For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year. (Faraday)"
"For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire. (Poisson)"
||
|-
|1833 ||No Award||—||—
|-
|1834 ||||"For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune"||
|-
|1835 ||||"For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834"||
|-
|1836 || and Francis Kiernan
Francis Kiernan
Francis Kiernan FRS was an anatomist and physician.He was born in Ireland, the eldest of four children. His father, Francis Kiernan , was also a physician and brought the family to England in the early 19th century...

||"For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works. (Berzelius)"
"For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. (Kiernan)"
||—
|-
|1837 || and
John Frederic Daniell
John Frederic Daniell
John Frederic Daniell was an English chemist and physicist.Daniell was born in London, and in 1831 became the first professor of chemistry at the newly founded King's College London. His name is best known for his invention of the Daniell cell , an electric battery much better than voltaic cells...


||"For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires. (Becquerel)"
"For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836. (Daniell)"
||
|-
|1838 ||
and Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday, FRS was an English chemist and physicist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry....


||"For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism. (Gauss)"
"For his researches in specific electrical induction. (Faraday)"
||
|-
|1839 ||||"For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation"||
|-
|1840 || and
Jacques Charles François Sturm
||"For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals. (Liebig)"
"For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835. (Sturm)"
||
|-
|1841 ||||"For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet"||
|-
|1842 ||||"For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy"||
|-
|1843 ||||"For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements"||—
|-
|1844 ||||"For his various researches in animal electricity"||
|-
|1845 ||||"For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen"||—
|-
|1846 ||||"For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation"||
|-
|1847 ||||"For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825"||
|-
|1848 ||||"For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto"||
|-
|1849 ||||"For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains"||—
|-
|1850 ||||"For his researches in physical astronomy"||
|-
|1851 ||||"On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works"||
|-
|1852 ||||"For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years"||
|-
|1853 ||||"For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth"||—
|-
|1854 ||||"For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin"||
|-
|1855 ||||"For his various researches in experimental physics"||
|-
|1856 ||||"For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology"||—
|-
|1857 ||||"For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours"||
|-
|1858 ||||"For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology"||
|-
|1859 ||||"For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics"||
|-
|1860 ||||"For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches"||
|-
|1861 ||||"For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse"||
|-
|1862 ||||"For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861"||
|-
|1863 ||||"For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire"||
|-
|1864 ||||"For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology"||
|-
|1865 ||||"For his historical and original researches in pure geometry"||
|-
|1866 ||||"For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis"||
|-
|1867 ||||"For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology"||
|-
|1868 ||||"For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism"||
|-
|1869 ||||"For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaries au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours"||
|-
|1870 ||||"For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat"||
|-
|1871 ||||"For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: – 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat"||
|-
|1872 ||||"For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones"||
|-
|1873 ||||"For his researches in physics and physiology"||
|-
|1874 ||||"For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine"||
|-
|1875 ||||"For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia"||
|-
|1876 ||||"For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology"||
|-
|1877 ||||"For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published"||
|-
|1878 ||||"For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry"||
|-
|1879 ||||"For his well-known researches upon heat"||
|-
|1880 ||||"For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics"||
|-
|1881 ||||"For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry"||—
|-
|1882 ||||"For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics"||
|-
|1883 ||||"For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics"||
|-
|1884 ||||"For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science"||—
|-
|1885 ||||"For his researches in organic chemistry"||
|-
|1886 ||||"For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics"||
|-
|1887 ||||"For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller"||
|-
|1888 ||||"For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years"||
|-
|1889 ||||"For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author"||
|-
|1890 ||||"For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy"||
|-
|1891 ||||"For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory"||
|-
|1892 ||||"For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology"||
|-
|1893 ||||"For his researches and discoveries in physical science"||
|-
|1894 ||||"For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry"||
|-
|1895 ||||"For his investigations in pure mathematics"||
|-
|1896 ||||"For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc"||—
|-
|1897 ||||"In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist"||—
|-
|1898 ||||"For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies"||
|-
|1899 ||||"In recognition of his contributions to physical science"||
|-
|1900 ||||"For his brilliant services to chemical science"||
|-
|1901 ||||"For his contributions to mathematical physics"||
|-
|1902 ||||"In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery"||
|-
|1903 ||||"For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'"||
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|1904 ||||"For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects"||
|-
|1905 ||||"For his contributions to chemical and physical science"||
|-
|1906 ||||"On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology"||
|-
|1907 ||||"On the ground of his investigations in optics"||
|-
|1908 ||||"On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection"||
|-
|1909 ||||"On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy"||
|-
|1910 ||||"On the ground of his researches in heredity"||
|-
|1911 ||||"On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects"||
|-
|1912 ||||"On the ground of his researches in mathematics"||
|-
|1913 ||||"On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him"||
|-
|1914 ||||"On the ground of his discoveries in physical science"||
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|1915 ||||"On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system"||
|-
|1916 ||||"For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases"||
|-
|1917 ||||"On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy"||
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|1918 ||||"On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics"||
|-
|1919 ||||"On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics"||
|-
|1920 ||||"On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c"||
|-
|1921 ||||"For his researches in mathematical physics"||
|-
|1922 ||||"For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure"||
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|1923 ||||"For his researches in mathematical physics"||
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|1924 ||||"For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences"||—
|-
|1925 ||||"For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory"||
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|1926 ||||"For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry"||
|-
|1927 ||||"For his distinguished work on neurology"||
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|1928 ||||"For his contributions to engineering science"||—
|-
|1929 ||||"For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory"||
|-
|1930 ||||"For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity"||
|-
|1931 ||||"For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism"||
|-
|1932 ||||"For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory"||
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|1933 ||||"For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man"||
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|1934 ||||"In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering"||
|-
|1935 ||||"For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties"||
|-
|1936 ||||"In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age"||
|-
|1937 ||||"In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems"||
|-
|1938 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure"||
|-
|1939 ||||"For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution"||
|-
|1940 ||||"For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics"||
|-
|1941 ||||"For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart"||
|-
|1942 ||||"For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry"||
|-
|1943 ||||"For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood"||
|-
|1944 ||||"For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications"||
|-
|1945 ||||"For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases"||
|-
|1946 ||||"For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions"||
|-
|1947 ||||"For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years"||
|-
|1948 ||||"For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues"||
|-
|1949 ||||"For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes"||
|-
|1950 ||||"For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron"||
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|1951 ||||"For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes"||
|-
|1952 ||||"In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics"||
|-
|1953 ||||"For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology"||—
|-
|1954 ||||"For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics"||
|-
|1955 ||||"In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology"||
|-
|1956 ||||"In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism"||—
|-
|1957 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine"||
|-
|1958 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations"||
|-
|1959 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology"||
|-
|1960 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy"||
|-
|1961 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles"|| s
|-
|1962 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy"||
|-
|1963 ||||"In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology."||—
|-
|1964 ||||"In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis"||
|-
|1965 ||||"In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology"||—
|-
|1966 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction"||
|-
|1967 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction"||—
|-
|1968 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids"||—
|-
|1969 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance"||
|-
|1970 ||||"In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types"||
|-
|1971 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses"||—
|-
|1972 ||||"In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics"||
|-
|1973 ||||"In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction"||—
|-
|1974 ||||"In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals"||
|-
|1975 ||||"In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology"||
|-
|1976 ||||"In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin"||
|-
|1977 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids"||
|-
|1978 ||||"In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry"||
|-
|1979 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject"||
|-
|1980 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and , in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry"||
|-
|1981 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction"||
|-
|1982 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules"||
|-
|1983 ||||"In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins"||—
|-
|1984 ||||"In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity"||
|-
|1985 ||||"In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them"||—
|-
|1986 ||||"In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials"||—
|-
|1987 ||||"In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis"||—
|-
|1988 ||||"In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics"||
|-
|1989 ||||"In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response"||—
|-
|1990 ||||"In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces"||
|-
|1991 ||||"In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project"||—
|-
|1992 ||||"In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology"||
|-
|1993 ||||"In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome"||
|-
|1994 ||||"In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems"||—
|-
|1995 ||||"In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease"||—
|-
|1996 ||||"In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects"||
|-
|1997 ||||"In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology"||—
|-
|1998 ||||"In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics – analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying – and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing"||
|-
|1999 ||||"In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth"||
|-
|2000||||"In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12"||—
|-
|2001||||"For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells"||—
|-
|2002||||"For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology"||
|-
|2003||||"For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology"||—
|-
|2004||||"in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science"||
|-
|2005||||"for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division."||—
|-
|2006||||"For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology. "||
|-
|2007||||"for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance."||—
|-
|2008|||| "for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang."||—
|-
|2009|||| "for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics."||—
|-
| rowspan=2 | 2010
|||| "for his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics."||
|-
|| || "for his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair."||
|-
|2011|| || "For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates."||
|-
|}