Convention of Kutahya

Convention of Kutahya

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The Convention of Kutahya, also known as the Peace Agreement of Kutahya, ended the Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833)
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833)
The First Egyptian-Ottoman War, First Turco-Egyptian War or First Syrian War was brought about by Muhammad Ali Pasha's demand to the Ottoman Empire for control of Arab Greater Syria, as reward for his assistance in Crete against Greece...

 in May 1833.

At the Convention, the Ottoman provinces of Syria and Adana were ceded to Egypt, and Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces was when he was merely a teenager...

 became governor-general of the two provinces. But the settlement of the Peace Agreement was not satisfactory to either party, resulting in the Second Ottoman-Egyptian War
Second Turko-Egyptian War
The Second Egyptian–Ottoman War or Second Turco-Egyptian War lasted from 1839 until 1841 and was fought mainly in Syria, whence it is sometimes called the Syrian War....

 in 1839–1841.


Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha was a commander in the Ottoman army, who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan...

, ostensibly only a vassal
A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including the grant of land held...

 state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, was seeking to increase his personal power and gain control over Palestine, Syria and Arabia. In late 1831, he took his newly-reformed army into a war against the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II
Mahmud II
Mahmud II was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. He was born in the Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, the son of Sultan Abdulhamid I...

, and easily defeated Ottoman forces and threatened Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 itself. While Britain and France were sympathetic to Muhammad Ali, Nicholas I
Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I , was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 20 million square kilometers...

 sent a Russian army to the assistance of the Turks. This intervention brought about peace by May 1833, which left Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali is an American former professional boxer, philanthropist and social activist...

in control of Syria and Arabia.