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Codex Campianus

Codex Campianus

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Codex Campianus designated by M or 021 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 72 (von Soden), is a Greek uncial
Uncial
Uncial is a majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. Uncial letters are written in either Greek, Latin, or Gothic.-Development:...

 manuscript
Manuscript
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

 of the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

, dated palaeographically
Palaeography
Palaeography, also spelt paleography is the study of ancient writing. Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of...

 to the 9th century. The manuscript has complex contents.

Description


The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospel
Gospel
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the good news message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John...

s, on 257 parchment leaves and is written in two columns per page, 24 lines per column, in very elegant and small uncial letters, with breathings and accents. The letters are similar to those from Codex Mosquensis II
Codex Mosquensis II
Codex Mosquensis II designated by V or 031 , ε 75 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels, dated palaeographically to the 9th century...

.

Codex Campianus has a number of errors due contemporary changes in the pronunciation of Greek, a phenomenon known as iotacism
Iotacism
Iotacism is the process by which a number of vowels and diphthongs in Ancient Greek converged in pronunciation so that they all sound like iota in Modern Greek....

. It is a beautiful small manuscript. Besides the New Testament text, it contains Epistula ad Carpianum
Epistula ad Carpianum
The Epistula ad Carpianum is the title traditionally given to a letter from Eusebius of Caesarea to a Christian named Carpianus....

, Eusebian tables, Ammonian Sections
Ammonian Sections
Eusebian canons or Eusebian sections, also known as Ammonian Sections, are the system of dividing the four Gospels used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The divisions into chapters and verses used in modern texts date only from the 13th and 16th centuries, respectively...

, Eusebian Canons, Synaxarion, Menologion, (i.e. notes of the Church Lessons), musical notes (in red), some Arabic scrawl on the last leaf, and a note in Slavonic.

Text


The Greek text of this codex
Codex
A codex is a book in the format used for modern books, with multiple quires or gatherings typically bound together and given a cover.Developed by the Romans from wooden writing tablets, its gradual replacement...

 is representative of the Byzantine text-type
Byzantine text-type
The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest...

, with a number of Caesarean readings
Caesarean text-type
Caesarean text-type is the term proposed by certain scholars to denote a consistent pattern of variant readings that is claimed to be apparent in certain Greek manuscripts of the four Gospels, but which is not found in any of the other commonly recognized New Testament text-types; the Byzantine...

. Aland
Kurt Aland
Kurt Aland was a German Theologian and Professor of New Testament Research and Church History. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung in Münster and served as its first director for many years...

 placed it in Category V. Commonly included in Family 1424
Family 1424
Family 1424 is a group of New Testament manuscripts. It is classified to the Byzantine text-type as one of the textual subfamilies of this group, though it has many non-Byzantine readings . Name of the family came from the number of Minuscule 1424 designated by number 1424 according the...

, according to the Claremont Profile Method it creates the textual group M/609 along with the codex 609
Minuscule 609
Minuscule 609 , ε 161 , is a Greek–Arabic diglot minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. It is dated by a colophon to the year 1043. The manuscript is lacunose.- Description :...

.

In Matthew 1:11
Matthew 1:11
Matthew 1:11 is the eleventh verse of the first chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. The verse is part of the section where the genealogy of Joseph, the father of Jesus, is listed...

 it has the addition τον Ιωακιμ, Ιωακιμ δε εγεννεσεν (Ioakim, Ioakim begot) as also found in manuscripts Codex Koridethi
Codex Koridethi
The Codex Koridethi, also named Codex Coridethianus, designated by Θ, 038, or Theta , ε 050 , is a 9th century manuscript of the four Gospels. It is written in Greek with uncial script in two columns per page, in 25 lines per page...

, Σ, f1
Family 1
Family 1 is a group of Greek Gospel manuscripts, varying in date from the 12th to the 15th century. The group takes its name from the minuscule codex 1, now in the Basel University Library. "Family 1" is also known as "the Lake Group", symbolized as f1. Hermann von Soden calls the group Ih...

, 33
Minuscule 33
Minuscule 33 , δ 48 , formerly it was called Codex Colbertinus 2844, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament on parchment, dated palaeographically to the 9th century. The manuscript is lacunose. It has marginalia...

, 258
Minuscule 258
Minuscule 258 , ε 388 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 13th century.- Description :...

, 478
Minuscule 478
Minuscule 478 , α 1126 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 10th century. Scrivener labeled it by number 575...

, 661, 791
Minuscule 791 (Gregory-Aland)
Minuscule 791 , ε464 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament written on paper. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 12th century. The manuscript has complex contents.- Description :...

, 954, 1216, 1230, 1354, 1604, 54
Lectionary 54
Lectionary 54, designated by siglum ℓ 54 . It is a Greek manuscript of the New Testament, on paper leaves. It is dated by a colophon to the year 1470.- Description :...

, syrh and other manuscripts.

In John 6:58 it reads το μαννα οι πατερες υμων for οι πατερες;

It contains the μ1 text of the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11), as do Γ
Codex Tischendorfianus IV
Codex Tischendorfianus IV – designated by Γ or 036 , ε 70 – is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels, dated palaeographically to the 10th century...

, f1
Family 1
Family 1 is a group of Greek Gospel manuscripts, varying in date from the 12th to the 15th century. The group takes its name from the minuscule codex 1, now in the Basel University Library. "Family 1" is also known as "the Lake Group", symbolized as f1. Hermann von Soden calls the group Ih...

, 892
Minuscule 892
Minuscule 892 , ε 1016 . It is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on 353 parchment leaves . It is dated palaeografically to the 9th century.- Description :...

, 1049, 1220, and 2661. In John 8:11 it has the reading: τουτο δε ειπαν πειραζοντες αυτον ινα εχωσιν κατηγοριαν κατ αυτου ("But this they said tempting him, that they might have to accuse him;" a dislocation of verse 6a).

History


The manuscript was called Campianus after François de Camps
François de Camps
François de Camps , who was made abbé of Signy after his nomination to the Bishopric of Pamiers had been vetoed in Rome, was an antiquarian of Amiens whose dissertations on medals were published in the Paris Mercuries of 1719–1723.-Notes:...

 (1643–1723), who gave it to Louis XIV in 1707. It was used by Kuster
Ludolph Kuster
Ludolf Küster was a Westphalian scholar, philologist, textual critic, palaeographer, and editor of Greek ancient texts.Küster was born in Blomberg, Westphalia. He was friends with, and a correspondent of, Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, Cambridge, who assisted him in the production of...

 (as Paris 2). The text was collated by S. P. Tregelles
Samuel Prideaux Tregelles
Samuel Prideaux Tregelles was an English biblical scholar, textual critic, and theologian.- Life :Tregelles was born at Wodehouse Place, Falmouth, of Quaker parents, but he himself for many years was in communion with the Plymouth Brethren and then later in life became a Presbyterian...

. It was examined and described by Montfaucon
Bernard de Montfaucon
Bernard de Montfaucon was a French Benedictine monk, a scholar who founded a new discipline, palaeography; an editor of works of the Fathers of the Church; he is also regarded to be one of the founders of modern archaeology.-Early life:Montfaucon was born January 13, 1655 in the castle of...

 (with a picture), Giuseppe Bianchini
Giuseppe Bianchini
Giuseppe Bianchini was an Italian Oratorian, biblical, historical, and liturgical scholar. Clement XII and Benedict XIV, who highly appreciated his learning, entrusted him with several scientific labors...

, Wettstein
Johann Jakob Wettstein
Johann Jakob Wettstein was a Swiss theologian, best known as a New Testament critic.-Youth and study:...

, Scholz, Tischendorf
Constantin von Tischendorf
Lobegott Friedrich Constantin Tischendorf was a noted German Biblical scholar. He deciphered the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th century Greek manuscript of the New Testament, in the 1840s, and rediscovered the Codex Sinaiticus, a 4th century New Testament manuscript, in 1859.Tischendorf...

, Tregelles
Samuel Prideaux Tregelles
Samuel Prideaux Tregelles was an English biblical scholar, textual critic, and theologian.- Life :Tregelles was born at Wodehouse Place, Falmouth, of Quaker parents, but he himself for many years was in communion with the Plymouth Brethren and then later in life became a Presbyterian...

, and Scrivener
Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener
The Reverend Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener, LL.D. was an important text critic of the New Testament and a member of the English New Testament Revision Committee which produced the Revised Version of the Bible...

.

Synaxarion and Menologion were published by Scholz in the same place as those of Codex Cyprius
Codex Cyprius
Codex Cyprius, designated by Ke or 017 , ε 71 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the four Gospels, on parchment. It was variously dated in the past , currently it is dated to the 9th century. It was brought from Cyprus to Paris...

, and with carelessness.

Currently the codex is located in the Bibliothèque nationale de France
Bibliothèque nationale de France
The is the National Library of France, located in Paris. It is intended to be the repository of all that is published in France. The current president of the library is Bruno Racine.-History:...

 (Gr. 48) in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

.

See also


  • List of New Testament uncials
  • Textual criticism
    Textual criticism
    Textual criticism is a branch of literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of transcription errors in the texts of manuscripts...

  • Biblical manuscript
    Biblical manuscript
    A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. The word Bible comes from the Greek biblia ; manuscript comes from Latin manu and scriptum...


Further reading


External links