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Codex Athous Dionysiou

Codex Athous Dionysiou

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Codex Athous Dionysiou, designated by Ω or 045 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 61 (von Soden), is a Greek uncial
Uncial
Uncial is a majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. Uncial letters are written in either Greek, Latin, or Gothic.-Development:...

 manuscript
Manuscript
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

 of the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

. The codex is dated palaeographically
Palaeography
Palaeography, also spelt paleography is the study of ancient writing. Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of...

 to the 9th century.
It has marginalia
Marginalia
Marginalia are scribbles, comments, and illuminations in the margins of a book.- Biblical manuscripts :Biblical manuscripts have liturgical notes at the margin, for liturgical use. Numbers of texts' divisions are given at the margin...

.

Description


The codex contains almost a complete text of the four Gospel
Gospel
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the good news message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John...

s 259 thick parchment leaves (22 cm by 16 cm), with only one small lacuna
Lacuna (manuscripts)
A lacunaPlural lacunae. From Latin lacūna , diminutive form of lacus . is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work...

 in Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
The Gospel According to Luke , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension.The...

 1:15-28. The text is written in two columns per page, 19-22 lines per page, 13-15 letters per line. Ink is brown. The letters are large, first lines in red ink. It has breathings and accents.

It contains lists of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each Gospel, the τιτλοι at the top, the Ammonian Sections
Ammonian Sections
Eusebian canons or Eusebian sections, also known as Ammonian Sections, are the system of dividing the four Gospels used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The divisions into chapters and verses used in modern texts date only from the 13th and 16th centuries, respectively...

 (in Mark 234 Sections), references to the Eusebian Canons, lectionary equipment on a margin, pictures, Synaxarion, Menologion, subscriptions at the end of each Gospel, and numbers of στιχοι
Stichometry
Stichometry is a term applied to the measurement of ancient texts by στίχοι or verses of a fixed standard length.It was the custom of the Greeks and Romans to estimate the length of their literary works by measured lines...

. It contains breathings and accents. It has errors of itacism
Iotacism
Iotacism is the process by which a number of vowels and diphthongs in Ancient Greek converged in pronunciation so that they all sound like iota in Modern Greek....

, full of hiatus and another errors.

The texts of Matthew 10:37, Matthew 16:2b–3, and Luke 22:43-44
Christ's agony at Gethsemane
Christ's agony at Gethsemane is a passage in the Gospel of Luke , describing a prayer of Jesus, after which he receives strength from an angel, on the Mount of Olives prior to his betrayal and arrest...

 are marked by obeli
Obelus
An obelus is a symbol consisting of a short horizontal line with a dot above and below. It is mainly used to represent the mathematical operation of division. It is therefore commonly referred to as the division sign.- History :The word "obelus" comes from the Greek word for a sharpened stick,...

 on a margin. It contains texts of John 5:3-4 and the Pericope Adulterae obelised in the margin. Matthew 21:20 was omitted but added to the margin by the original scribe.

Text


The Greek text of this codex
Codex
A codex is a book in the format used for modern books, with multiple quires or gatherings typically bound together and given a cover.Developed by the Romans from wooden writing tablets, its gradual replacement...

 is a representative of the Byzantine text-type
Byzantine text-type
The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest...

, with some Alexandrian readings. According to Hermann von Soden it is one of the three oldest manuscripts that present the earliest variety of the Byzantine text-type (after S and V). Soden included it to the textual family K1
Family K1
Family K1 is a small group of the New Testament manuscripts. It belongs to the Byzantine text-type as one of the textual families of this group. It has five uncials, and several early minuscules. It is one of the smallest subfamilies of the Byzantine text-type, but one of the oldest.- Description...

. Kurt Aland
Kurt Aland
Kurt Aland was a German Theologian and Professor of New Testament Research and Church History. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung in Münster and served as its first director for many years...

 placed it in Category V.

According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx
Family Kx
Family Kx is a large group of the New Testament manuscripts. It belongs to the Byzantine text-type as one of the textual families of this group. It includes uncials, and although hundreds of minuscules, no early ones.- Description :...

 in Luke 1, Luke 10, and Luke 20. It creates cluster with Minuscule 584
Minuscule 584
Minuscule 584 , ε 1010 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 10th century. The manuscript is lacunose. It was labelled by Scrivener as 453....

.

In John 1:29 it lacks ο Ιωαννης along with manuscripts Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible. It is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in the 4th century in uncial letters on parchment. Current scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of...

, Alexandrinus
Codex Alexandrinus
The Codex Alexandrinus is a 5th century manuscript of the Greek Bible,The Greek Bible in this context refers to the Bible used by Greek-speaking Christians who lived in Egypt and elsewhere during the early history of Christianity...

, Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
The Codex Vaticanus , is one of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Greek Bible , one of the four great uncial codices. The Codex is named for the residence in the Vatican Library, where it has been stored since at least the 15th century...

, Cyprius
Codex Cyprius
Codex Cyprius, designated by Ke or 017 , ε 71 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the four Gospels, on parchment. It was variously dated in the past , currently it is dated to the 9th century. It was brought from Cyprus to Paris...

, Campianus
Codex Campianus
Codex Campianus designated by M or 021 , ε 72 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated palaeographically to the 9th century...

, Petropolitanus Purpureus
Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus
Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus, designated by N or 022 , ε 19 , is a 6th century Greek New Testament codex gospel book. Written in majuscules , on 231 parchment leaves, measuring 32 x 27 cm...

, Vaticanus 354
Codex Vaticanus 354
Codex Vaticanus, designated by S or 028 , ε 1027 , formerly called Codex Guelpherbytanus, is a Greek manuscript of the four Gospels which can be dated to a specific year instead of an estimated range. The colophon of the codex lists the date as 949...

, Nanianus
Codex Nanianus
Codex Nanianus, designated by siglum U or 030 , ε 90 , is a Greek uncial manuscripts of the New Testament on parchment, dated palaeographically to the 9th century. The manuscript has complex contents, with full marginalia . The codex is named after its last owner...

, Macedoniensis
Codex Macedoniensis
Codex Macedoniensis or Macedonianus designated by Y or 034 , ε 073 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels, dated palaeographically to the 9th century. The manuscript is lacunose....

, Sangallensis, Koridethi
Codex Koridethi
The Codex Koridethi, also named Codex Coridethianus, designated by Θ, 038, or Theta , ε 050 , is a 9th century manuscript of the four Gospels. It is written in Greek with uncial script in two columns per page, in 25 lines per page...

, Petropolitanus, Athous Lavrensis, 047
Uncial 047
Uncial 047 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels. The codex is dated paleographically to the 8th century. Formerly the codex was designated by Hebrew letter ב...

, 0141
Uncial 0141
Uncial 0141 , CL13 , is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated palaeographically to the 10th century.- Description :...

, 8
Minuscule 8
Minuscule 8 , ε 164 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament on parchment. It is dated palaeographically to the 11th century. The manuscript has complex contents. It has complex contents anbd full marginalia.- Description :The codex contains the complete text of the four Gospels, on...

, 9
Minuscule 9
Minuscule 9 , ε 279 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 12th century, but according to the colophon it was written in the year 1167....

, 565
Minuscule 565
Minuscule 565 , ε 93 , also known as the Empress Theodora's Codex. It is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on purple parchment, dated palaeographically to the 9th century...

, 1192;

In John 5:25 it has "Son of Man" instead of "Son of God". Nazareth
Nazareth
Nazareth is the largest city in the North District of Israel. Known as "the Arab capital of Israel," the population is made up predominantly of Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel...

 is transcribed in two ways as Ναζαρεθ (Alexandrian) and Ναζαρετ (Byzantine), Mose
Mose
Mose or Mosè is a given name, and may refer to:In music:* Mose Allison, American jazz pianist and singer* Mose Rager, guitar player from KentuckyIn sports:* Mose Navarra, former tennis player from Italy...

 as Μωυσης (Alexandrian) and Μωσης (Byzantine). In John 1:28 it has the Alexandrian variant βηθανια (Bethany).

History


It was collated by Mary W. Winslow, and edited by Kirsopp Lake
Kirsopp Lake
Kirsopp Lake was a New Testament scholar and Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School. He had an uncommon breadth of interests, publishing definitive monographs in New Testament textual criticism, Greek palaeography, theology, and archaeology...

 and Silva New.

The codex is now located at the Dionysiou monastery
Dionysiou monastery
Dionysiou monastery is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece in southwest part of Athos peninsula. The monastery ranks fifth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries...

 (10) 55, on Mount Athos
Mount Athos
Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. A World Heritage Site, it is home to 20 Eastern Orthodox monasteries and forms a self-governed monastic state within the sovereignty of the Hellenic Republic. Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the...

.

Further reading


Collation
  • Kirsopp Lake
    Kirsopp Lake
    Kirsopp Lake was a New Testament scholar and Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School. He had an uncommon breadth of interests, publishing definitive monographs in New Testament textual criticism, Greek palaeography, theology, and archaeology...

    and Silva New, Six Collations of New Testament Manuscripts Harvard Theological Studies, XVII, (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1932; 2007), pp. 3–25.

Articles
  • Russell Champlin, Family E and Its Allies in Matthew (Studies and Documents, XXIII; Salt Lake City, UT, 1967).
  • J. Greelings, Family E and Its Allies in Mark (Studies and Documents, XXXI; Salt Lake City, UT, 1968).
  • J. Greelings, Family E and Its Allies in Luke (Studies and Documents, XXXV; Salt Lake City, UT, 1968).
  • Frederik Wisse, Family E and the Profile Method, Biblica 51, (1970), pp. 67–75.