Cluj-Napoca

Cluj-Napoca

Overview
Cluj-Napoca (ˈkluʒ naˈpoka; ; , Hungarian pronunciation: ˈ k; Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors,...

: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; , Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 and the seat of Cluj County
Cluj County
Cluj ; is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.-Demographics:In 2007, it had a population of 692,316 and a population density of 104/km².*Romanians – 80%*Hungarians – 17.5%*Roma – 2.5%-Geography:...

 in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

 (441 km / 276 mi), Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 (409 km / 256 mi) and Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

 (465 km / 291 mi).
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Cluj-Napoca (ˈkluʒ naˈpoka; ; , Hungarian pronunciation: ˈ k; Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors,...

: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; , Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 and the seat of Cluj County
Cluj County
Cluj ; is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.-Demographics:In 2007, it had a population of 692,316 and a population density of 104/km².*Romanians – 80%*Hungarians – 17.5%*Roma – 2.5%-Geography:...

 in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

 (441 km / 276 mi), Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 (409 km / 256 mi) and Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

 (465 km / 291 mi). Located in the Someşul Mic River
Somesul Mic River
The Someșul Mic River is a river in north-western Romania . It is formed at the confluence of two rivers, Someșul Cald and Someșul Rece, that come from the Apuseni Mountains...

 valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province
Historical regions of Romania
At various times during the late 19th and 20th centuries, Romania extended over the following historical regions:Wallachia:*Muntenia or Greater Wallachia: as part of Wallachia, joined Moldavia in 1859 to create modern Romania;...

 of Transylvania
Transylvania
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

. In 1790–1848 and 1861–1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.

As of 2010, 305,636 inhabitants live within the city limits, marking a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is a metropolitan area founded in December 2008. It has a population of 379,705 and, besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes 17 communes: Aiton, Apahida, Baciu, Bonţida, Borşa, Căianu, Chinteni, Ciurila, Cojocna, Feleacu, Floreşti, Gârbău, Gilău, Jucu, Petreştii de Jos,...

 has a population of 379,705 people, while the population of the peri-urban area (Romanian: zona periurbană) exceeds 400,000 residents. The new metropolitan government of Cluj-Napoca became operational in December 2008. Lastly, according to the 2007 data provided by the County Population Register Service, the total population of the city is as high as 392,276 people. However, this number does not include the floating population of students and other non-residents—an average of over 20,000 people each year during 2004–2007, according to the same source.

The city spreads out from St. Michael's Church in Unirii Square
Unirii Square, Cluj-Napoca
Piaţa Unirii is the largest and most important plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. The square is one of the largest in Romania, with dimensions of 220 m by 160 m. The centre of the city spreads out from this square. The St. Michael's Church, with the highest church tower in Romania , is...

, built in the 14th century and named after the Archangel Michael
Michael (archangel)
Michael , Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; , Mikhaḗl; or Míchaël; , Mīkhā'īl) is an archangel in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic teachings. Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Lutherans refer to him as Saint Michael the Archangel and also simply as Saint Michael...

, the patron saint
Patron saint
A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

 of Cluj-Napoca. The boundaries of the municipality contain an area of 179.52 square kilometres (69.3 sq mi). An analysis undertaken by the real estate agency Profesional Casa indicates that, because of infrastructure development, communes
Communes of Romania
A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2686 communes in Romania. The commune is the rural subdivision of a county .There is no clear restriction on the population of a commune, even though when a commune...

 such as Feleacu, Vâlcele, Mărtineşti, Jucu and Baciu will eventually become neighbourhoods of the city, thereby enlarging its area.

Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor of the time, Gheorghe Funar
Gheorghe Funar
Gheorghe Funar is a nationalist Romanian politician, who rose to fame as mayor of Cluj-Napoca between 1992 and 2004-Biography:...

. Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural, industrial and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the country's largest university, Babeş-Bolyai University
Babes-Bolyai University
The Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca is an university in Romania. With almost 50,000 students, the university offers 105 specialisations, of which there are 105 in Romanian, 67 in Hungarian, 17 in German, and 5 in English...

, with its famous botanical garden
Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden
The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden, officially Alexandru Borza Cluj-Napoca University Botanic Garden , is a botanical garden in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was founded in 1920 by Alexandru Borza....

; nationally renowned cultural institutions; as well as the largest Romanian-owned commercial bank. According to the American magazine InformationWeek
InformationWeek
InformationWeek is a weekly print magazine, an online site with corresponding face-to-face and virtual events, and research. It is headquartered in San Francisco, California and was first published in 1979 by CMP Media, later called CMP Technology. On February 29, 2008, CMP Technology was...

, Cluj-Napoca is quickly becoming Romania's technopolis.

Etymology



Cluj


The first written mention of its name – as a Royal Borough – was in 1213 under the Latin name Castrum Clus. Despite the fact that Clus as a county name was recorded in the 1173 document Thomas comes Clusiensis, it is believed that the county's designation derives from the name of the castrum, which might have existed prior to its first mention in 1213, and not vice versa. With respect to the name of this camp, it is widely accepted as a derivation from the Latin term clausa – clusa, meaning "closed place", "strait", "ravine". Similar senses are attributed to the Slavic term kluč and the German Klause – Kluse (meaning mountain pass or weir). An alternative hypothesis relates the name of the city to its first magistrate, Miklus – Miklós / Kolos.

The Hungarian form, first recorded in 1246 as Kulusuar, underwent various phonetic changes over the years (uar/vár means "castle" in Hungarian); the variant Koloswar first appears in a document from 1332. Its Saxon name Clusenburg/Clusenbvrg appeared in 1348, but from 1408 the form Clausenburg was used. The Romanian name of the city used to be spelled alternately as Cluj or Cluş, the latter being the case in Mihai Eminescu
Mihai Eminescu
Mihai Eminescu was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet. Eminescu was an active member of the Junimea literary society and he worked as an editor for the newspaper Timpul , the official newspaper of the Conservative Party...

's Poesis. However, the city's name was finally changed to Cluj-Napoca in 1974 by the Romanian Communist authorities
Communist Romania
Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

.

In Yiddish
Yiddish language
Yiddish is a High German language of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, spoken throughout the world. It developed as a fusion of German dialects with Hebrew, Aramaic, Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages...

 it is known as (Klazin) or (Kloyznburg).

Napoca


Possible etymologies for Napoca or Napuca include the names of some Dacia
Dacia
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Getae as they were known by the Greeks—the branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range...

n tribes such as the Naparis or Napaei, the Greek term napos (νάπος), meaning "timbered valley" or the Indo-European root *snā-p- (Pokorny
Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch
The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny...

 971-2), "to flow, to swim, damp". Independent of these hypotheses, scholars agree that the name of the settlement predates the Roman conquest (AD 106).

History


The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 conquered Dacia
Dacia
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Getae as they were known by the Greeks—the branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range...

 in AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan
Trajan
Trajan , was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117 AD. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, in Spain Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in Spain, in 89 Trajan supported the emperor against...

, and the Roman settlement Napoca, established thereafter, is first recorded on a milestone discovered in 1758 in the vicinity of the city. Trajan's successor Hadrian
Hadrian
Hadrian , was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in...

 granted Napoca the status of municipium
Municipium
Municipium , the prototype of English municipality, was the Latin term for a town or city. Etymologically the municipium was a social contract between municipes, the "duty holders," or citizens of the town. The duties, or munera, were a communal obligation assumed by the municipes in exchange for...

as municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napocenses. Later, in the 2nd century AD, the city gained the status of a colonia
Colonia (Roman)
A Roman colonia was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of Roman city.-History:...

as Colonia Aurelia Napoca. Napoca became a provincial capital of Dacia Porolissensis and thus the seat of a procurator
Promagistrate
A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. A legal innovation of the Roman Republic, the promagistracy was invented in order to provide Rome with governors of overseas territories instead of having to elect...

. The colonia was evacuated in 274 by the Romans. There are no references to urban settlement on the site for the better part of a millennium thereafter.


At the beginning of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, two groups of buildings existed on the current site of the city: the wooden fortress at Cluj-Mănăştur
Manastur
Mănăştur is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Nicolae Ceauşescu's systematisation programme on the site of an older settlement. Its population as of 2007 is approximately 126,600...

 (Kolozsmonostor) and the civilian settlement developed around the current Piaţa Muzeului (Museum Place) in the city centre. Although the precise date of the conquest of Transylvania by the Hungarians is not known, the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. In any case, after that time, the city became part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

. King Stephen I made the city the seat of the castle county of Kolozs, and King Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary founded the abbey of Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor), destroyed during the Tatar invasions in 1241 and 1285. As for the civilian colony, a castle and a village were built to the northwest of the ancient Napoca no later than the late 12th century. This new village was settled by large groups of Transylvanian Saxons
Transylvanian Saxons
The Transylvanian Saxons are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania from the 12th century onwards.The colonization of Transylvania by Germans was begun by King Géza II of Hungary . For decades, the main task of the German settlers was to defend the southeastern border of the...

, encouraged during the reign of Crown Prince Stephen
Stephen V of Hungary
Stephen V , was King of Hungary from 1270 to 1272.-Early years:...

, Duke of Transylvania. The first reliable mention of the settlement dates from 1275, in a document of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary, when the village (Villa Kulusvar) was granted to the Bishop of Transylvania. On August 19, 1316, during the rule of the new king, Charles I of Hungary
Charles I of Hungary
Charles I , also known as Charles Robert , was the first King of Hungary and Croatia of the House of Anjou. He was also descended from the old Hungarian Árpád dynasty. His claim to the throne of Hungary was contested by several pretenders...

, Cluj was granted the status of a city (Latin: civitas), as a reward for the Saxons' contribution to the defeat of the rebellious Transylvanian voivode, Ladislaus Kán.


Many craft guilds were established in the second half of the 13th century, and a patrician stratum based in commerce and craft production displaced the older landed elite in the town's leadership. Through the privilege granted by Sigismund of Luxembourg
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxemburg KG was King of Hungary, of Croatia from 1387 to 1437, of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411...

 in 1405, the city opted out from the jurisdiction of voivodes, vice-voivodes and royal judges, and obtained the right to elect a twelve-member jury every year. In 1488, King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
Matthias Corvinus , also called the Just in folk tales, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458, at the age of 14 until his death...

 (born in Klausenburg in 1440) ordered that the centumvirate—the city council, consisting of one hundred men—be half composed from the homines bone conditiones (the wealthy people), with craftsmen supplying the other half; together they would elect the chief judge and the jury. Meanwhile, an agreement was reached providing that half of the representatives on this city council were to be drawn from the Hungarian, half from the Saxon population, and that judicial offices were to be held on a rotating basis. In 1541, Klausenburg became part of the independent Principality of Transylvania after the Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 occupied the central part of the Kingdom of Hungary; a period of economic and cultural prosperity followed. Although Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,747, located on the Mureş River. Since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania...

 (Gyulafehérvár) served as a political capital for the princes of Transylvania, Klausenburg enjoyed the support of the princes to a greater extent, thus establishing connections with the most important centres of Eastern Europe at that time, along with Košice
Košice
Košice is a city in eastern Slovakia. It is situated on the river Hornád at the eastern reaches of the Slovak Ore Mountains, near the border with Hungary...

 (Kassa), Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

, Prague and Vienna.

In terms of religion, Protestant
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 ideas first appeared in the middle of the 16th century. During Gáspár Heltai
Gáspár Heltai
Gáspár Heltai was a Transylvanian Saxon writer and printer of Saxon descent. His name possibly derives from the village Heltau...

's service as preacher, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

 grew in importance, as did the Swiss doctrine of Calvinism
Calvinism
Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life...

. By 1571, the Turda
Turda
Turda is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the Arieş River.- Ancient times :The city was founded by Dacians under the name Patavissa or Potaissa...

 (Torda) Diet had adopted a more radical religion, Ferenc Dávid
Ferenc Dávid
Ferenc Dávid was a Transylvanian Nontrinitarian and Unitarian preacher, the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania.-Life:Born in Kolozsvár to a Hungarian family, he studied in Wittenberg and Frankfurt...

's Unitarianism
Unitarianism
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being....

, characterised by the free interpretation of the Bible and denial of the dogma of the Trinity
Trinity
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity defines God as three divine persons : the Father, the Son , and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct yet coexist in unity, and are co-equal, co-eternal and consubstantial . Put another way, the three persons of the Trinity are of one being...

. Stephen Báthory founded a Catholic Jesuit
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 academy in Klausenburg in order to promote an anti-Reform movement; however, it did not have much success. For a year, in 1600–1601, Cluj became part of the personal union
Personal union
A personal union is the combination by which two or more different states have the same monarch while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct. It should not be confused with a federation which is internationally considered a single state...

 of Michael the Brave. Under the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699, Klausenburg became part of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

.


In the 17th century, Cluj suffered from great calamities, suffering from epidemics of the plague and devastating fires. The end of this century brought the end of Turkish sovereignty, but found the city bereft of much of its wealth, municipal freedom, cultural centrality, political significance and even population. It gradually regained its important position within Transylvania as the headquarters of the Gubernium and the Diets between 1719 and 1732, and again from 1790 until the revolution of 1848
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many of the European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas...

, when the Gubernium moved to Hermannstadt
Sibiu
Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

 (now Sibiu). In 1791, a group of Romanian
Romanians
The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

 intellectuals drew up a petition, known as Supplex Libellus Valachorum
Supplex Libellus Valachorum
Supplex Libellus Valachorum Transsilvaniae is the name of two petitions sent by the leaders of the ethnic Romanians of Transylvania to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, demanding equal political rights with the other ethnicities of Transylvania and a share of the Transylvanian Diet proportional...

, which was sent to the Emperor in Vienna. The petition demanded the equality of the Romanian nation in Transylvania in respect to the other nations (Saxon and Hungarian) governed by the Unio Trium Nationum
Unio Trium Nationum
Unio Trium Nationum Unio Trium Nationum Unio Trium Nationum (Latin for "Union of the Three Nations" was a pact of mutual aid formed in 1438 by three Estates of Transylvania: the (largely Hungarian) nobility, the Saxon (i.e. German) burghers, and the free Szeklers...

, but it was rejected by the Cluj Diet.

Beginning in 1830, the city became the centre of the Hungarian national movement within the principality. This erupted with the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many of the European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas...

. At one point, the Austrians were gaining control of Transylvania, trapping the Hungarians between two flanks. But, the Hungarian army, headed by the Polish
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

 general Józef Bem
Józef Bem
Józef Zachariasz Bem was a Polish general, an Ottoman Pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European nationalisms...

, launched an offensive in Transylvania, recapturing Klausenburg by Christmas 1848. After the 1848 revolution, an absolutist
Absolutism
The term Absolutism may refer to:* Absolute idealism, an ontologically monistic philosophy attributed to G.W.F. Hegel. It is Hegel's account of how being is ultimately comprehensible as an all-inclusive whole...

 regime was established, followed by a liberal regime that came to power in 1860. In this latter period, the government granted equal rights to the ethnic Romanians, but only briefly. In 1865, the Diet in Cluj abolished the laws voted in Sibiu, and proclaimed the 1848 Law concerning the Union of Transylvania with Hungary. Before 1918, the city's only Romanian-language schools were two church-run elementary schools, and the first printed Romanian periodical did not appear until 1903.
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Klausenburg and all of Transylvania were again integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary. During this time, Kolozsvár was among the largest and most important cities of the kingdom and was the seat of Kolozs
Kolozs
Kolozs is the name of a historic administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is presently in north-western Romania...

 County. Ethnic Romanians in Transylvania suffered oppression and persecution. Their grievances found expression in the Transylvanian Memorandum
Transylvanian Memorandum
The Transylvanian Memorandum was a petition sent in 1892 by the leaders of the Romanians of Transylvania to the Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King Franz Joseph, asking for equal ethnic rights with the Hungarians, and demanding an end to persecutions and Magyarization attempts.-Status:After the Ausgleich...

, a petition sent in 1892 by the political leaders of Transylvania's Romanians to the Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King Franz Joseph
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

. It asked for equal rights with the Hungarians and demanded an end to persecutions and attempts at Magyarisation. The Emperor forwarded the memorandum to Budapest—the Hungarian capital. The authors, among them Ioan Raţiu and Iuliu Coroianu, were arrested, tried and sentenced to prison for "high treason" in Kolozsvár/Cluj in May 1894. During the trial, approximately 20,000 people who had come to Cluj demonstrated on the streets of the city in support of the defendants. A year later, the King gave them pardon upon the advice of his Hungarian prime minister, Dezső Bánffy
Dezso Bánffy
Dezső Baron Bánffy de Losoncz was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1895 to 1899.-Biography:...

. In 1897, the Hungarian government decided that only Hungarian place names should be used and prohibited the use of the German or Romanian versions of the city's name on official government documents.


In the autumn of 1918, as World War I drew to a close, Cluj became a centre of revolutionary activity, headed by Amos Frâncu. On October 28, 1918, he made an appeal for the organisation of the "union of all Romanians". Thirty-nine delegates were elected from Cluj to attend the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania
Union of Transylvania with Romania
Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia.The national holiday of Romania, the Great Union Day occurring on December 1, commemorates this event...

 in Alba-Iulia on December 1, 1918, later acknowledged internationally by the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement signed in 1920, at the end of World War I, between the Allies of World War I and Hungary . The treaty greatly redefined and reduced Hungary's borders. From its borders before World War I, it lost 72% of its territory, which was reduced from to...

. The interwar years
Interwar period
Interwar period can refer to any period between two wars. The Interbellum is understood to be the period between the end of the Great War or First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe....

 saw the new authorities embark on a "Romanianisation" campaign: a Capitoline Wolf statue donated by Rome was set up in 1921; in 1932 a plaque written by historian Nicolae Iorga
Nicolae Iorga
Nicolae Iorga was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright. Co-founder of the Democratic Nationalist Party , he served as a member of Parliament, President of the Deputies' Assembly and Senate, cabinet minister and briefly as Prime Minister...

 was placed on Matthias Corvinus' statue, emphasising his Romanian (paternal) ancestry; and construction of an imposing Orthodox
Orthodox Christianity
The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to:* the Eastern Orthodox Church and its various geographical subdivisions...

 cathedral began in a city where only about a tenth of inhabitants belonged to the Orthodox state church. This endeavour had only mixed results: by 1939, Hungarians still dominated local economic (and to a certain extent) cultural life: for instance, Cluj had five Hungarian daily newspapers and just one in Romanian. In 1940, Cluj, along with the rest of Northern Transylvania
Northern Transylvania
Northern Transylvania is a region of Transylvania, situated within the territory of Romania. The population is largely composed of both ethnic Romanians and Hungarians, and the region has been part of Romania since 1918 . During World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as...

, was awarded Miklós Horthy
Miklós Horthy
Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya was the Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary during the interwar years and throughout most of World War II, serving from 1 March 1920 to 15 October 1944. Horthy was styled "His Serene Highness the Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary" .Admiral Horthy was an officer of the...

's Hungary through the Second Vienna Award
Second Vienna Award
The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards arbitrated by the Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Rendered on August 30, 1940, it re-assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.-Prelude and historical background :After the World War I, the multi-ethnic...

 imposed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 and Fascist Italy
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
The Kingdom of Italy was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was its legal predecessor state...

. After the Germans occupied Hungary in March 1944 and installed a puppet government under Döme Sztójay
Döme Sztójay
Döme Sztójay born Demeter Sztojakovich was a Hungarian soldier and diplomat of Serb origin, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary during World War II.- Biography :...

, they forced large-scale antisemitic measures in the city. The headquarters of the local Gestapo
Gestapo
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

 were located in the New York Hotel. That May, the authorities began the relocation of the Jews to the Iris ghetto. Liquidation of the 16,148 captured Jews occurred through six deportations to Auschwitz in May–June 1944. Despite facing severe sanctions from the Hungarian administration, some Jews escaped across the border to Romania with the assistance of intellectuals such as Emil Haţieganu
Emil Hatieganu
Emil Haţieganu was a Romanian politician and jurist, a prominent member of the Romanian National Party and of its successor, the National Peasants' Party ; he was physician Iuliu Haţieganu's brother...

, Raoul Şorban
Raoul Sorban
Raoul Şorban was a Romanian painter, journalist, writer, essayist, art historian, academic, and memoirist.-Biography:...

, Aurel Socol and Miskolczy Dezső, and various peasants from Mănăştur. On October 11, 1944 the city of Cluj was captured by Romanian and Soviet
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 troops. It was formally restored to the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was the Romanian state based on a form of parliamentary monarchy between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania...

 by the Treaty of Paris
Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
The Paris Peace Conference resulted in the Paris Peace Treaties signed on February 10, 1947. The victorious wartime Allied powers negotiated the details of treaties with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland .The...

 in 1947. On January 24, March 6 and May 10, 1946, the Romanian students who had come back to Cluj after the restoration of northern Transylvania rose against the claims of autonomy made by nostalgic Hungarians and the new way of life imposed by the Soviets, resulting in clashes and street fights.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 produced a powerful echo within the city; there was a real possibility that demonstrations by students sympathizing with their peers across the border could escalate into an uprising. The protests provided the Romanian authorities with a pretext to speed up the process of "unification" of the local Babeş (Romanian) and Bolyai (Hungarian) universities, allegedly contemplated before the 1956 events. Hungarians remained the majority of the city's population until the 1960s. Then Romanians began to outnumber Hungarians, due to the population increase as a result of the government's forced industrialisation of the city and new jobs. During the Communist period
Communist Romania
Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

, the city recorded a high industrial development, as well as enforced construction expansion. On October 16, 1974, when the city celebrated 1850 years since its first mention as Napoca, the Communist government
Communist Romania
Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

 changed the name of the city by adding "Napoca" to it.

During the Romanian Revolution of 1989
Romanian Revolution of 1989
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a series of riots and clashes in December 1989. These were part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several Warsaw Pact countries...

, Cluj-Napoca was one of the scenes of the rebellion: 26 were killed and approximately 170 injured. After the end of totalitarian rule, the nationalist politician Gheorghe Funar
Gheorghe Funar
Gheorghe Funar is a nationalist Romanian politician, who rose to fame as mayor of Cluj-Napoca between 1992 and 2004-Biography:...

 became mayor and governed for the next 12 years. His tenure was marked by strong Romanian nationalism and acts of ethnic provocation against the Hungarian-speaking minority. This deterred foreign investment; however, in June 2004
Politics of Cluj-Napoca
The last general local election was hold in 1 June 2008. The threshold was 5%. On the 15 February 2009, a by-election was held for the office of Mayor of Cluj-Napoca, following the nomination of the previous Mayor, Emil Boc as Prime-Minister.- List of mayors :...

, Gheorghe Funar was voted out of office, and the city entered a period of rapid economic growth. From 2004 to 2009, the mayor was Emil Boc
Emil Boc
Emil Boc is the Prime Minister of Romania, having served since December 2008. In June 2004, he was elected Mayor of Cluj-Napoca, the largest city in Transylvania. Boc is also the president of the Democratic Liberal Party, who designated him as Prime Minister in 2008. On October 13, 2009, his...

, the president of the Democratic Liberal Party
Democratic Liberal Party (Romania)
The Democratic Liberal Party is a populist, centre-right party in Romania. It was formed on 15 December 2007, when the Democratic Party merged with the Liberal Democratic Party. From 2004 to 2007, the Democratic Party was part of the governing Justice and Truth Alliance...

. He went on to be elected as prime minister
Prime Minister of Romania
The Prime Minister of Romania is the head of the Government of Romania. Initially, the office was styled President of the Council of Ministers , when the term "Government" included more than the Cabinet, and the Cabinet was called The Council of Ministers...

.

Geography





Cluj-Napoca, located in the central part of Transylvania
Transylvania
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

, has a surface area of 179.5 square kilometres (69.3 sq mi). The city lies at the confluence of the Apuseni Mountains
Apuseni Mountains
The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians, also called Occidentali in Romanian. Their name translates from Romanian as Mountains "of the sunset" i.e. "western". The highest peak is "Cucurbăta Mare" - 1849 metres, also called Bihor...

, the Someş plateau and the Transylvanian plain. It sprawls over the valleys of Someşul Mic and Nadăş
Nadas
Nadăş may refer to several villages in Romania:* Nadăş , a village in Tauţ Commune, Arad County* Nadăş , a village in the town of Recaş, Timiş Countyor to:* the Hungarian writer Péter Nádas - See also :Nadăşu:...

, and, to some extent over the secondary valleys of the Popeşti, Chintău, Borhanci and Popii rivers. The southern part of the city occupies the upper terrace of the northern slope of Feleac
Feleacu
Feleacu is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of five villages: Casele Miceşti, Feleacu, Gheorghieni, Sărădiş and Vâlcele.-Demographics:According to the 2002 census, the commune's population was of 3,810...

 Hill, and is surrounded on three sides by hills or mountains with heights between 500 metres (1,640.4 ft) and 700 metres (2,296.6 ft). The Someş plateau is situated to the east, while the northern part of town includes Dealurile Clujului ("the Hills of Cluj"), with the peaks, Lombului (684 m), Dealul Melcului (617 m), Techintău (633 m), Hoia (506 m) and Gârbău (570 m). Other hills are located in the western districts, and the hills of Calvaria and Cetăţuia (Belvedere) are located near the centre of city.

Built on the banks of Someşul Mic River, the city is also crossed over by brooks or streams such as Pârâul Ţiganilor, Pârâul Popeşti, Pârâul Nădăşel, Pârâul Chintenilor, Pârâul Becaş, Pârâul Murătorii; Canalul Morilor runs through the centre of town.

A wide variety of flora grow in the Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden
Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden
The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden, officially Alexandru Borza Cluj-Napoca University Botanic Garden , is a botanical garden in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was founded in 1920 by Alexandru Borza....

; some animals have also found refuge there. The city has a number of other parks, of which the largest is the Central Park
Cluj-Napoca Central Park
Central Park is a large public, urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. It was founded in the 19th century and it located on the souther shore of Someşul Mic River. The Park is now home to the University of Arts and Design and to the Chemistry Faculty of the Babeş-Bolyai...

. This park was founded during the 19th century and includes an artificial lake with an island, as well as the largest casino in the city, Chios. Other notable parks in the city are the Iuliu Haţieganu
Iuliu Hatieganu
Iuliu Haţieganu was an eminent Romanian clinician, physician, and activist. He was the brother of politician Emil Haţieganu.He is especially famed for his research into tuberculosis. He was rector of Babeş-Bolyai University and a member of the Romanian Academy....

 Park of the Babeş-Bolyai University
Babes-Bolyai University
The Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca is an university in Romania. With almost 50,000 students, the university offers 105 specialisations, of which there are 105 in Romanian, 67 in Hungarian, 17 in German, and 5 in English...

, which features some sport facilities, the Haşdeu
Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu
Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu was a Romanian writer and philologist, who pioneered many branches of Romanian philology and history. Hasdeu is considered to have been able to understand 26 languages .-Life:...

 Park, within the eponymous student housing district, the high-elevation Cetăţuia, and the Opera Park, behind the building of the Romanian Opera
Cluj-Napoca Romanian Opera
Cluj-Napoca Romanian National Opera is a public opera house and ballet company institution in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The Opera shares the same building with the National Theatre.-Building:...

.

Surroundings




The city is surrounded by forests and grasslands. Rare species of plants, such as Venus's slipper
Calypso orchid
The Calypso orchid , also known as the fairy slipper or Venus's slipper, is a perennial member of the orchid family found in undisturbed northern and montane forests...

 and iris
Iris (plant)
Iris is a genus of 260-300species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, referring to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species...

, are found in the two botanical reservations of Cluj-Napoca, Fânaţele Clujului and Rezervaţia Valea Morii ("Mill Valley Reservation"). Animals such as boars, badgers, foxes, rabbits and squirrels live in nearby forest areas such as Făget and Hoia. The latter forest hosts the Romulus Vuia ethnographical park, with exhibits dating back to 1678. Various people report alien encounters in the Hoia-Baciu forest, large networks of catacombs that connect the old churches of the city, or the presence of a monster in the nearby lake of Tarniţa
Tarnita
Tarniţa may refer to several villages in Romania:* Tarniţa, a village in Onceşti Commune, Bacău County* Tarniţa, a village in Pârjol Commune, Bacău County* Tarniţa, a village in Buceş Commune, Hunedoara County...

.

A modern, 750 metres (820.2 yd)-long ski resort
Ski resort
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing and other winter sports. In Europe a ski resort is a town or village in a ski area - a mountainous area, where there are ski trails and supporting services such as hotels and other accommodation, restaurants, equipment rental and a ski lift system...

 is sits on Feleac Hill, with an altitude difference of 98 metres (107.2 yd) between its highest and lowest points. This ski resort offers outdoor lighting, artificial snow and a ski tow
Ski tow
thumb|right|A rope tow or ski tow.A ski tow, also called rope tow or handle tow, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers and snowboarders uphill....

. Băişoara
Baisoara
Băişoara is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of nine villages: Băişoara, Frăsinet, Moara de Pădure, Muntele Băişorii, Muntele Bocului, Muntele Cacovei, Muntele Filii, Muntele Săcelului and Săcel....

 winter resort is located approximately 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) from the city of Cluj-Napoca, and includes two ski trails, for beginner and advanced skiers, respectively: Zidul Mic and Zidul Mare. Two other summer resorts/spas are included in the metropolitan area, namely Cojocna
Cojocna
Cojocna is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of eight villages: Boj-Cătun, Boju, Cara, Cojocna, Huci, Iuriu de Câmpie, Morişti and Straja.- Demographics :...

 and Someşeni Baths.

There are a large number of castles in the countryside surroundings, constructed by wealthy medieval families living in the city. The most notable of them is the Bonţida Bánffy Castle
Bontida Bánffy Castle
Bánffy Castle is an architectonic Baroque monument situated in Bonţida, a village in the vicinity of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was owned by the Bánffy family...

—once known as "the Versailles
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles , or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. In French it is the Château de Versailles....

 of Transylvania"—in the nearby village of Bonţida
Bontida
Bonțida is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is known as the home of a Baroque castle owned by the Bánffy family ; partly destroyed during World War II and neglected by the communist regime in Romania, it is currently being restored.The Bánffy family had another castle in Răscruci , which is...

, 32 kilometres (19.9 mi) from the city centre. In 1963, the castle was used as a set for Liviu Ciulei
Liviu Ciulei
Liviu Ciulei was a Romanian theater and film director, film writer, actor, architect, educator, costume and set designer. During a career spanning over 50 years, he was described by Newsweek as "one of the boldest and most challenging figures on the international scene".-Biography:Born in...

's film Forest of the Hanged
Forest of the Hanged
Forest of the Hanged is a 1964 Romanian drama film directed by Liviu Ciulei, and based on the eponymous novel by Liviu Rebreanu. Ciulei won the award for Best Director at the 1965 Cannes Film Festival...

, which won an award at Cannes
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes International Film Festival , is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres including documentaries from around the world. Founded in 1946, it is among the world's most prestigious and publicized film festivals...

. There are other castles located in the vicinity of the city; indeed, the castle at Bonţida is not even the only one constructed by the Bánffy family. The commune of Gilău
Gilau, Cluj
Gilău is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Gilău, Someşu Cald and Someşu Rece.- Demographics :According to the census from 2002 there was a total population of 7,861 people living in this town. Of this population, 83.43% are ethnic Romanians, 9.45% are ethnic...

 features the Wass-Bánffy Castle, while another Bánffy Castle is located in the Răscruci area. In addition, Nicula Monastery, erected during the 18th century, is an important pilgrimage site in northern Transylvania. This monastery houses the renowned wonder-working Madonna
Madonna (art)
Images of the Madonna and the Madonna and Child or Virgin and Child are pictorial or sculptured representations of Mary, Mother of Jesus, either alone, or more frequently, with the infant Jesus. These images are central icons of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity where Mary remains...

 of Nicula. The icon
Icon
An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and in certain Eastern Catholic churches...

 is said to have wept between February 15 and March 12, 1669. During this time, nobles, officers, laity and clergy came to see it. At first they were sceptical, looking at it on both sides, but then humbly crossed themselves and returned home petrified by the wonder they had seen. During the feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos
Dormition of the Theotokos
The Dormition of the Theotokos is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches which commemorates the "falling asleep" or death of the Theotokos , and her bodily resurrection before being taken up into heaven. It is celebrated on August 15 The Dormition...

 (commemorating the death of the Virgin Mary
Mary (mother of Jesus)
Mary , commonly referred to as "Saint Mary", "Mother Mary", the "Virgin Mary", the "Blessed Virgin Mary", or "Mary, Mother of God", was a Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee...

) on August 15, more than 150,000 people from all over the country come to visit the monastery.

Climate


Cluj-Napoca has a continental climate
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

, characterised by warm dry summers and cold winters. The climate is influenced by the city's proximity to the Apuseni Mountains
Apuseni Mountains
The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians, also called Occidentali in Romanian. Their name translates from Romanian as Mountains "of the sunset" i.e. "western". The highest peak is "Cucurbăta Mare" - 1849 metres, also called Bihor...

, as well as by urbanisation. Some West-Atlantic influences are present during winter and autumn. Winter temperatures are often below 0 °C (32 °F), even though they rarely drop below -10 C. On average, snow covers the ground for 65 days each winter. In summer, the average temperature is approximately 18 °C (64 °F) (the average for July and August), despite the fact that temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C (95 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F) in mid-summer in the city centre. Although average precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 and humidity
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

 during summer is low, there are infrequent yet heavy and often violent storms. During spring and autumn, temperatures vary between 13 °C (55 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F), and precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.

Administration







The city government is headed by a mayor. From 2004, the office was held by Emil Boc
Emil Boc
Emil Boc is the Prime Minister of Romania, having served since December 2008. In June 2004, he was elected Mayor of Cluj-Napoca, the largest city in Transylvania. Boc is also the president of the Democratic Liberal Party, who designated him as Prime Minister in 2008. On October 13, 2009, his...

, who was re-elected in 2008
Romanian local election, 2008
Local elections were held in Romania on June 1, 2008, with a runoff for mayors on June 15, 2008.On June 1 where elected:* all the villages, communes, cities, and municipal cluncils , and the Sectors Local Councils of Bucharest...

 but resigned the following year to become prime minister. Decisions are approved and discussed by the local council
Local government
Local government refers collectively to administrative authorities over areas that are smaller than a state.The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government...

 (consiliu local) made up of 27 elected councillors. The city is divided into 15 districts (cartiere) laid out radially, some of them with their own local administrative structure (town hall). City hall intends to develop local administrative structures for most of the districts.
  • Andrei Mureşanu
    Andrei Muresanu, Cluj-Napoca
    Andrei Mureşanu is a residential district of Cluj-Napoca in Romania. It is named after the Romanian poet and revolutionary of Transylvania, Andrei Mureşanu....

  • Bulgaria
    Bulgaria, Cluj-Napoca
    Bulgaria is an industrial district in Cluj-Napoca in Romania, located between a railway and the Someşul Mic River....

  • Bună Ziua
    Buna Ziua, Cluj-Napoca
    Bună Ziua is a housing district in Cluj-Napoca in Romania. It was erected after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, and is located in the southern side of the city....

  • Centru
    Centru, Cluj-Napoca
    Centru is the main cultural, financial, administrative and commercial area in Cluj-Napoca in Romania. The centre consists of three main squares, the Piaţa Unirii, Piaţa Mihai Viteazul and Piaţa Avram Iancu. It also contains a number of smaller plazas....

  • Dâmbul Rotund
    Dâmbul Rotund
    Dâmbul Rotund is a housing district in north-western Cluj-Napoca....

  • Gheorgheni
    Gheorgheni, Cluj-Napoca
    Gheorgheni is a district located in the east of Cluj-Napoca in Romania, built in the 1960s during the Ceausescu Regime with many green areas....

  • Grădinile Mănăştur
    Gradinile Manastur
    Grădinile Mănăştur is one of the districts of Cluj-Napoca in Romania, located around the street Calea Mănăştur. It is sometimes confused with the Mănăştur district. Grădinile Mănăştur houses the Ursus breweries and the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca....

  • Grigorescu
    Grigorescu, Cluj-Napoca
    Grigorescu is a district in the north-west of Cluj-Napoca in Romania....

  • Gruia
    Gruia
    Gruia is a district of Cluj-Napoca in Romania, located on the Cetăţuia hill. It is essentially a residential neighbourhood, with a large number of villas. The Dr. Constantin Rădulescu Stadium, home ground of CFR 1907 Cluj football team, is situated in this district....

  • Iris
    Iris, Cluj-Napoca
    Iris is a northern district of Cluj-Napoca in Romania. It is largely an industrial district, a heritage of industrialisation under the post-war Communist government. It is a terminus for tram lines 100 and 102....

  • Între Lacuri
    Între Lacuri
    Între Lacuri is a district located in the eastern part of Cluj-Napoca, in Romania. It borders the districts of Gheorgheni and Mărăşti....

  • Mănăştur
    Manastur
    Mănăştur is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Nicolae Ceauşescu's systematisation programme on the site of an older settlement. Its population as of 2007 is approximately 126,600...

  • Mărăşti
    Mărăşti, Cluj-Napoca
    Mărăști is one of the largest housing districts in the city of Cluj-Napoca in Romania. The district was built between 1970 and 1989 for workers at the CUG plant in Cluj-Napoca, by Soviet and North Korean architects....

  • Someşeni
  • Zorilor
    Zorilor
    Zorilor is a southern district of Cluj-Napoca in Romania. It consists largely of blocks of flats ranging from 4 to 10 storeys. The district is home to the Observator student housing campus. Two 35-floor towers are projected to be constructed in the Sigma area of Zorilor.- References :...



  • Because of the last years' massive urban development, in 2005 some areas of Cluj were named as districts (Sopor, Borhanci, Becaş, Făget, Zorilor South), but most of them are still construction sites. Beside these, there are some other building areas like Tineretului, Lombului or Oser, which are likely to become districts in the following years.

    Additionally, as Cluj-Napoca is the capital of Cluj County
    Cluj County
    Cluj ; is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.-Demographics:In 2007, it had a population of 692,316 and a population density of 104/km².*Romanians – 80%*Hungarians – 17.5%*Roma – 2.5%-Geography:...

    , the city hosts the palace of the prefecture, the headquarters of the county council
    County council
    A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries.-United Kingdom:...

     (consiliu judeţean) and the prefect
    Prefect (Romania)
    A prefect in Romania represents the Government in each of the country's 41 counties, as well as the Municipality of Bucharest.-Attributes:The main attributes of prefects are defined at Article 123 of the Constitution of Romania:...

    , who is appointed by Romania's central government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party
    Political party
    A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions...

    , and his role is to represent the national government at the local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at the local level. Like all other local councils in Romania, the Cluj-Napoca local council, the county council and the city's mayor are elected every four years by the population.

    Cluj-Napoca is also the capital of the historical region of Transylvania
    Transylvania
    Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

    , a status that resonates to this day. Currently, the city is the largest in the Nord-Vest development region
    Nord-Vest (development region)
    Nord-Vest is a development region in Romania, created in 1998. As other development regions, it does not have any administrative powers, its main function being to co-ordinate regional development projects and manage funds from the European Union.-Counties:The Nord-Vest region is made up of the...

    , which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union
    European Union
    The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

     and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. The Nord-Vest development region is not, however, an administrative entity. The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
    Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
    The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is a metropolitan area founded in December 2008. It has a population of 379,705 and, besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes 17 communes: Aiton, Apahida, Baciu, Bonţida, Borşa, Căianu, Chinteni, Ciurila, Cojocna, Feleacu, Floreşti, Gârbău, Gilău, Jucu, Petreştii de Jos,...

     became operational in December 2008, and comprises a population of 360,000. Besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes communes
    Communes of Romania
    A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2686 communes in Romania. The commune is the rural subdivision of a county .There is no clear restriction on the population of a commune, even though when a commune...

     such as Apahida
    Apahida
    Apahida is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of eight villages: Apahida, Bodrog, Câmpeneşti, Corpadea, Dezmir, Pata, Sânnicoară and Sub Coastă....

    , Feleacu
    Feleacu
    Feleacu is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of five villages: Casele Miceşti, Feleacu, Gheorghieni, Sărădiş and Vâlcele.-Demographics:According to the 2002 census, the commune's population was of 3,810...

    , Ciurila
    Ciurila
    Ciurila ; is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of eight villages: Ciurila, Filea de Jos, Filea de Sus, Pădureni, Pruniş, Sălicea, Sălişte and Şutu.- Demographics :...

    , Floreşti
    Floresti, Cluj
    Floreşti is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Floreşti, Luna de Sus and Tăuţi.-Demographics:According to the 2002 census, Romanians made up 60.45% of the population, Hungarians made up 27.53% and Roma made up 11.88%....

    , Gilău
    Gilau, Cluj
    Gilău is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Gilău, Someşu Cald and Someşu Rece.- Demographics :According to the census from 2002 there was a total population of 7,861 people living in this town. Of this population, 83.43% are ethnic Romanians, 9.45% are ethnic...

    , Baciu and Chinteni
    Chinteni
    Chinteni is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of nine villages: Chinteni, Deuşu, Feiurdeni, Măcicaşu, Pădureni, Săliştea Veche, Sânmărtin, Satu Lung and Vechea.-Demographics:...

    .

    The executive presidium of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
    Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
    The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, is the main political organisation representing the ethnic Hungarians of Romania....

     (UDMR) and all its departments are headquartered in Cluj, as are local and regional organisations of most Romanian political parties. In order to counterbalance the political influence of Transylvania's Hungarian minority, nationalist Romanians in Transylvania founded the Party of Romanian National Unity (PUNR) at the beginnings of the 1990s; the party was present in the Romanian Parliament during the 1992–1996 legislature. The party eventually moved its main offices to Bucharest and fell into decline as its leadership joined the ideologically-similar PRM
    Greater Romania Party
    The Greater Romania Party is a Romanian radical right-wing, ultra-nationalist political party, led by Corneliu Vadim Tudor. The party is sometimes referred to in English as the Great Romania Party....

    . In 2008, the Institute for Research on National Minorities, subordinated to the Romanian Government, opened its official headquarters in Cluj-Napoca.

    Eleven hospitals function in the city, nine of which are run by the county and two (for oncology and cardiology) by the health ministry. Additionally, there are well over a hundred private medical cabinets and dentists' offices each.

    Justice system


    Cluj-Napoca has a complex judicial organisation, as a consequence of its status of county
    Cluj County
    Cluj ; is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.-Demographics:In 2007, it had a population of 692,316 and a population density of 104/km².*Romanians – 80%*Hungarians – 17.5%*Roma – 2.5%-Geography:...

     capital. The Cluj-Napoca Court of Justice is the local judicial institution and is under the purview of the Cluj County Tribunal, which also exerts its jurisdiction over the courts of Dej
    Dej
    Dej is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. It lies where the Someşul Mic River meets the river Someşul Mare River...

    , Gherla
    Gherla
    Gherla is a city in Cluj County, Romania . It is located 45 km from Cluj-Napoca on the Someşul Mic River, and has a population of 24,083....

    , Turda
    Turda
    Turda is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the Arieş River.- Ancient times :The city was founded by Dacians under the name Patavissa or Potaissa...

     and Huedin
    Huedin
    Huedin is a town in Cluj County, Romania.Huedin is located at the northern edge of the Apuseni Mountains. It is surrounded by the villages of Nearşova, Domoşu, Horlacea and others. The town administers one village, Bicălatu...

    . Appeals from these tribunals' verdicts, and more serious cases, are directed to the Cluj Court of Appeals. The city also hosts the county's commercial and military tribunals.

    Cluj-Napoca has its own municipal police force, Poliţia Municipiului Cluj-Napoca, which is responsible for policing of crime within the whole city, and operates a number of special divisions. The Cluj-Napoca Police are headquartered on Decebal Street in the city centre (with a number of precincts throughout the city) and it is subordinated to the County's Police Inspectorate
    Romanian Police
    The Romanian Police is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania. It is subordinated to the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform.-Duties:The Romanian Police are responsible for:...

     on Traian Street. City Hall has its own community police force, Poliţia Primăriei, dealing with local community issues. Cluj-Napoca also houses the County's Gendarmerie Inspectorate
    Jandarmeria Româna
    Jandarmeria Română is the military branch of the two Romanian police forces .The gendarmerie is subordinated to the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform and does not have responsibility for policing the Romanian Armed Forces...

    .

    Crime



    Cluj-Napoca and the surrounding area (Cluj County
    Cluj County
    Cluj ; is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.-Demographics:In 2007, it had a population of 692,316 and a population density of 104/km².*Romanians – 80%*Hungarians – 17.5%*Roma – 2.5%-Geography:...

    ) had a rate of 268 criminal convictions per 100,000 inhabitants during 2006, just above the national average. After the revolution in 1989
    Romanian Revolution of 1989
    The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a series of riots and clashes in December 1989. These were part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several Warsaw Pact countries...

    , the criminal conviction rate in the county entered a phase of sustained growth, reaching a historic high of 429 in 1998, when it began to fall. Although the overall crime rate is reassuringly low, petty crime can be an irritant for foreigners, as in other large cities of Romania. During the 1990s, two large financial institutions, Banca Dacia Felix and Caritas, went bankrupt due to large-scale fraud and embezzlement.

    Also notorious was the case of serial killer Romulus Vereş
    Romulus Veres
    Romulus Vereş was a notorious serial killer, better known as "the man with the hammer".During the 1970s, he was charged with five murders and several attempted murders, but never imprisoned on grounds of insanity: he suffered from schizophrenia, blaming the Devil for his actions...

    , "the man with the hammer"; during the 1970s, he was charged with five murders and several attempted murder
    Attempted murder
    Attempted murder is a crime in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.-Today:In English criminal law, attempted murder is the crime of more than merely preparing to commit unlawful killing and at the same time having a specific intention to cause the death of human being under the Queen's Peace...

    s, but never imprisoned on grounds of insanity: he suffered from schizophrenia
    Schizophrenia
    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests itself as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social...

    , blaming the Devil
    Devil
    The Devil is believed in many religions and cultures to be a powerful, supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of God and humankind. The nature of the role varies greatly...

     for his actions. Instead, he was institutionalised in the Ştei psychiatric facility in 1976, following a three year long forensic investigation during which four thousand people were questioned. Urban myths brought the number of victims up to two hundred women, though the actual number was much smaller. This confusion is probably explained by the lack of attention this case received, despite its magnitude, in the Communist press of the time.

    A 2006 poll shows a high degree of satisfaction with the work of the local police department. More than half the people surveyed during a 2005–2006 poll declared themselves satisfied (62.3%) or very satisfied (3.3%) with the activity of the county police department. The study found the highest satisfaction with car traffic supervision, the presence of officers in the street, and road education; on the negative side, corruption
    Political corruption
    Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

     and public transport safety remain concerns.

    Efforts made by local authorities in the Cluj-Napoca district at the end of the 1990s to reform the protection of children's rights
    Children's rights
    Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young, including their right to association with both biological parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for food, universal state-paid education,...

     and assistance for street children
    Street children
    A street child is a child who lives on the streets of a city, deprived of family care and protection. Most children on the streets are between the ages of about 5 and 17 years old.Street children live in junk boxes, parks or on the street itself...

     proved insufficient due to lack of funding, incoherent policies and the absence of any real collaboration between the actors involved (Child Rights Protection Directorate, Social Assistance Service within the District Directorate for Labour and Social Protection, Minors Receiving Centre, Guardian Authority within the City Hall, Police). There are numerous street children, whose poverty and lack of documented identity brings them into constant conflict with local law enforcement.

    Following cooperation between the local governmental council and the Prison Fellowship
    Prison Fellowship
    Prison Fellowship is a Christian prison outreach and criminal justice reform organization. Its programs reach prisoners, ex-prisoners, and families of prisoners throughout the United States and, through Prison Fellowship International , in 112 countries worldwide.- Leadership :Charles W...

     Romania Foundation, homeless people, street children and beggars are taken, identified and accommodated within the Christian Centers for Street Children and Homeless People, respectively, and the Ruhama centre. The latter features a marshaling center for beggars and street children, as well as a flophouse
    Flophouse
    A flophouse , doss-house or dosshouse is a place that offers very cheap lodging, generally by providing only minimal services.-Characteristics:...

    . As a consequence, the fluctuating movement of children, beggars and homeless people in and out of the centre has been considerably reduced, with most of the initial beneficiaries successfully integrated into the programme rather than returning to the streets.

    From 2000 onwards, Cluj-Napoca has seen an increase in illegal road races, which occur mainly at night on the city's outskirts or on industrial sites and occasionally produce victims. There have been attempts to organize legal races as a solution to this problem.

    Demographics

    Historical population of Cluj-Napoca
    Year Population Romanians Hungarians
    1453 est. 6,000 n/a n/a
    1703 7,500 25% n/a n/a
    1714 5,000 −33.3% n/a n/a
    1785 9,703 94% n/a n/a
    1787 10,476 7.9% n/a n/a
    1835 14,000 33.6% n/a n/a
    1850 19,612 40% 21.0% 62.8%
    1880 32,831 67.4% 17.1% 72.1%
    1890 37,184 13.2% 15.2% 79.1%
    1900 50,908 36.9% 14.1% 81.1%
    1910 census 62,733 23.2% 14.2% 81.6%
    1920 85,509 36.3% 34.7% 49.3%
    1930 census 100,844 17.9% 34.6% 47.3%
    1941 114,984 14% 9.8% 85.7%
    1948 census 117,915 2.5% 40% 57%
    1956 census 154,723 31.2% 47.8% 47.9%
    1966 census 185,663 20% 56.5% 41.4%
    1977 census 262,858 41.5% 65.8% 32.8%
    1992 census 328,602 25% 76.6% 22.7%
    2002 census 317,953 −3.2% 79.4% 19.0%
    2011 census 314,513 −1.1% n/a n/a

    Source (if not otherwise specified):
    Varga E. Árpád

    The city's population, at the 2002 census
    Census
    A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

    , was 317,953 inhabitants, or 1.5% of the total population of Romania. The population of the Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
    Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
    The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is a metropolitan area founded in December 2008. It has a population of 379,705 and, besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes 17 communes: Aiton, Apahida, Baciu, Bonţida, Borşa, Căianu, Chinteni, Ciurila, Cojocna, Feleacu, Floreşti, Gârbău, Gilău, Jucu, Petreştii de Jos,...

     is estimated at 379,705. Finally, the population of the peri-urban area numbers 400,000 residents. The new metropolitan government of Cluj-Napoca
    Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
    The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is a metropolitan area founded in December 2008. It has a population of 379,705 and, besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes 17 communes: Aiton, Apahida, Baciu, Bonţida, Borşa, Căianu, Chinteni, Ciurila, Cojocna, Feleacu, Floreşti, Gârbău, Gilău, Jucu, Petreştii de Jos,...

     became operational in December 2008. According to the 2007 data provided by the County Population Register Service, the total population of the city is as high as 392,276 people. The variation between this number and the census data is partially explained by the real growth of the population residing in Cluj-Napoca, as well as by different counting methods: "In reality, more people live in Cluj than those who are officially registered", Traian Rotariu, director of the Center for Population Studies, told Foaia Transilvană. Moreover, this number does not include the floating population—an average of over 20 thousand people each year during 2004–2007, according to the same source.

    In the modern era, Cluj's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first in the late 19th century, when the city grew in importance and size, and the second during the Communist period
    Communist Romania
    Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

    , when a massive urbanisation campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas
    Urbanization
    Urbanization, urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008....

     and from beyond the Carpathians to the county's capital. About two-thirds of the population growth during this era was based on net migration
    Net migration rate
    Net migration rate is the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time, divided per 1,000 inhabitants...

     inflows; after 1966, the date of Ceauşescu's ban on abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant, being responsible for the remaining third.

    From the Middle Ages
    Middle Ages
    The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

     onwards, the city of Cluj has been a multicultural city with a diverse cultural and religious life. According to the 2002 Romanian census, just under 80% of the population of the city are ethnic Romanians
    Romanians
    The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

    , with the second largest ethnic group being the Hungarians, who make up 19% of the population. The remainder is composed of Roma (1%), Germans
    Ethnic German
    Ethnic Germans historically also ), also collectively referred to as the German diaspora, refers to people who are of German ethnicity. Many are not born in Europe or in the modern-day state of Germany or hold German citizenship...

     (0.23%) and Jews
    Jews
    The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

     (0.06%). Today, the city receives a large influx of migrants: 25,000 people requested residence in the city during 2007.

    In terms of religion, 69.2% of the population are Romanian Orthodox
    Romanian Orthodox Church
    The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church. It is in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox churches, and is ranked seventh in order of precedence. The Primate of the church has the title of Patriarch...

     and 12.2% are Reformed
    Reformed Church in Romania
    The Reformed Church in Romania is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania. The majority of its followers are of Hungarian ethnicity and Hungarian is the main church language...

    . The Roman Catholic
    Roman Catholicism in Romania
    The Roman Catholic Church in Romania is a Latin Rite Christian church, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome. Its administration is centered in Bucharest, and comprises two archdioceses and four other dioceses...

     and the Romanian Greek-Catholic
    Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic
    The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic is an Eastern Catholic Church which is in full union with the Roman Catholic Church. It is ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language....

     communities claim 5.5% and 5.8% of the population respectively, while other religious groups like Unitarians
    Unitarian Church of Transylvania
    The Unitarian Church of Transylvania is a church of the Unitarian denomination, based in the city of Cluj in the Principality of Transylvania, present day in Romania...

     (1%), Pentecostals
    Pentecostalism
    Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...

     (2.6%) or Baptists
    Baptist Union of Romania
    The Baptist Union of Romania is an alliance of Baptist churches for cooperative ministry in Romania. Since independent churches have no legal standing in Romania, the Baptist Union also provides a mediatorial relationship between churches and government.The first modern-era Baptists in Romania...

     (1.2%) round out most of the rest. By contrast, in 1930, the city was 26.7% Reformed, 22.6% Greek Catholic, 20.1% Roman Catholic, 13.4% Jewish, 11.8% Orthodox, 2.4% Lutheran and 2.1% Unitarian. Contributing factors for these shifts were the extermination and emigration of the city's Jews, the outlawing of the Greek-Catholic Church (1948–89) and the gradual decline in the Hungarian population.

    On a more historical note, the Jewish community has figured centrally in the history of Transylvania, and in that of the wider region. They were a substantial and increasingly vibrant presence in Cluj in the modern era, contributing significantly to the town's economic dynamism and cultural flourishing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Although the community comprised a significant share of the town's population during the interwar era—between 13 and 15 percent—this figure plummeted as a consequence of the Holocaust and emigration; by the 1990s only a few hundred Jews remained in Cluj-Napoca.
    In the 14th century, most of the town's inhabitants and the local elite were Saxons
    Transylvanian Saxons
    The Transylvanian Saxons are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania from the 12th century onwards.The colonization of Transylvania by Germans was begun by King Géza II of Hungary . For decades, the main task of the German settlers was to defend the southeastern border of the...

    , largely descended from settlers brought in by the Kings of Hungary
    King of Hungary
    The King of Hungary was the head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1918.The style of title "Apostolic King" was confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758 and used afterwards by all the Kings of Hungary, so after this date the kings are referred to as "Apostolic King of...

     in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to develop and defend the southern borders of the province. By the middle of the next century roughly half the population had Hungarian names. In Transylvania as a whole, the Reformation sharpened ethnic divisions: Saxons became Lutheran while Hungarians either remained Catholic or became Calvinist or Unitarian. In Klausenburg, however, the religious lines were blurred. Isolated both geographically from the main areas of German settlement in southern Transylvania and institutionally because of their distinctive religious trajectory, many Saxons eventually assimilated to the Hungarian majority over several generations. New settlers to the town largely spoke Hungarian, a language that many Saxons gradually adopted. (In the seventeenth century, out of more than thirty royal free towns, only seven had a Hungarian majority, with Kolozsvár/Klausenburg being one of them; the rest were largely German-dominated.) In this manner Kolozsvár became largely Hungarian speaking and would remain so through the mid-20th century, though 4.8% of its residents identified as German as late as 1880.

    The Roma
    Roma minority in Romania
    The Roma constitute one of the major minorities in Romania. According to the 2002 census, they number 535,140 people or 2.5% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians...

     form a sizable minority in contemporary Romania, and a small but visible presence in Cluj-Napoca: self-identifying Roma in the city comprise only 1 percent of the population; yet they are a familiar presence in and around the central market, selling flowers, used clothes and tinware. They are an important object of public discourse and media representation at the national level; however, Cluj-Napoca, with its small Roma population, has not been a major focus of Roma ethno-political activity.

    Hungarian community



    Approximately 60,000 Hungarians
    Hungarians in Romania
    The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,431,807 people and making up 6.6% of the total population, according to the 2002 census....

     live in Cluj-Napoca. The city is home to the second-largest urban Hungarian community in Romania, after Târgu Mureş, with an active cultural and academic life: the city features a Hungarian state theatre and opera
    Cluj-Napoca Hungarian Theatre
    The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj was founded in 1792 and is located in Cluj-Napoca, the fourth largest city in Romania. It was the first Hungarian theatre company in Transylvania, now a part of modern day Romania. The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj functions as a repertory theatre, entirely subsidized by...

    , as well as Hungarian research institutions, like Erdélyi Múzeumi Egyesület (EME), Erdélyi Magyar Műszaki Tudományos Társaság and Bolyai Társaság. With respect to religious affairs, the city houses central offices for the Reformed
    Reformed Church in Romania
    The Reformed Church in Romania is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania. The majority of its followers are of Hungarian ethnicity and Hungarian is the main church language...

     Diocese of Transylvania, the Unitarian
    Unitarian Church of Transylvania
    The Unitarian Church of Transylvania is a church of the Unitarian denomination, based in the city of Cluj in the Principality of Transylvania, present day in Romania...

     Diocese and an Evangelical Lutheran Church Diocese (all of which train their clergy at the Protestant Theological Institute of Cluj
    Protestant Theological Institute of Cluj
    The Protestant Theological Institute is a Protestant seminary and private university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The state-recognized institution trains ministers for three separate Protestant faiths: Calvinism , Lutheranism , as well as...

    ). Several newspapers and magazines are published in the Hungarian language
    Hungarian language
    Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

    , yet the community also receives public and private television and radio broadcasts (see Media). As of 2007, 7,000 students attended courses in the 55 Hungarian-language specialisations at the Babeş-Bolyai University
    Babes-Bolyai University
    The Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca is an university in Romania. With almost 50,000 students, the university offers 105 specialisations, of which there are 105 in Romanian, 67 in Hungarian, 17 in German, and 5 in English...

    . Gheorghe Funar
    Gheorghe Funar
    Gheorghe Funar is a nationalist Romanian politician, who rose to fame as mayor of Cluj-Napoca between 1992 and 2004-Biography:...

    , mayor of Cluj-Napoca from 1992 to 2004, was notorious for acts of ethnic provocation, bedecking the city's streets in the colours of the Romanian flag and arranging pickets outside the city's Hungarian consulate; however, tensions have cooled since.

    Economy





    Cluj-Napoca is an important economic centre in Romania. Famous local brands that have become well-known at a national, and to some extent even international level, include: Banca Transilvania
    Banca Transilvania
    Banca Transilvania , a bank corporation in Romania, was founded December 1993 in Cluj-Napoca by several local businessmen, with an initial capitalization of 2 billion Romanian lei ; initial capitalization was 79% Romanian and 21% foreign.The bank first opened for business February 16, 1994, with...

    , Farmec, Jolidon
    Jolidon
    Jolidon is a Romanian lingerie and swim suit manufacturer, founded in 1993 in Cluj-Napoca. In 2000, the company founded Jolidon Hungary KFT in Budapest, then in 2001 Jolidon Italia SRL in Milano. Later, it extended to France as Jolidon France SARL, first in Paris, then in Lyon. As of March 2008,...

    , and Ursus
    Ursus (beer)
    Ursus Breweries, a subsidiary of SABMiller plc, is one of the top brewers in Romania. The company is based in Bucharest and owns 4 breweries in Cluj-Napoca, Timişoara, Buzau and Braşov, employing over 1,700 people...

     breweries
    Brewery
    A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of beer, though beer can be made at home, and has been for much of beer's history. A company which makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company....

    .

    The American online magazine InformationWeek
    InformationWeek
    InformationWeek is a weekly print magazine, an online site with corresponding face-to-face and virtual events, and research. It is headquartered in San Francisco, California and was first published in 1979 by CMP Media, later called CMP Technology. On February 29, 2008, CMP Technology was...

    reports that much of the software/IT
    Information technology
    Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

     activity in Romania is taking place in Cluj-Napoca, which is quickly becoming Romania's technopolis
    Science park
    A research park, science park, or science and technology park is an area with a collection of buildings dedicated to scientific research on a business footing. There are many approximate synonyms for "science park", including research park, technology park, technopolis and biomedical park...

    . Nokia
    Nokia
    Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

     invested 200 million euros in a mobile telephone factory near Cluj-Napoca; this began production in February 2008 and is due to close in December 2011. It also opened a research centre in the city that was shut down in April 2011. The city houses regional or national headquarters of MOL, Aegon
    AEGON
    Aegon N.V. is one of the world’s largest life insurance and pension groups, and a strong provider of investment products. Aegon's head office is in The Hague, Netherlands...

    , Perfetti Van Melle
    Perfetti Van Melle
    Perfetti Van Melle is a privately held Italian global manufacturer of confectionery and gum. It was formed in 2001 with the acquisition of Van Melle of the Netherlands, by the Italian group Perfetti of Italy and having its corporate headquarters in Lainate , Italy.Perfetti Van Melle bills itself...

    , Bechtel
    Bechtel
    Bechtel Corporation is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 5th-largest privately owned company in the U.S...

    , FrieslandCampina, Office Depot
    Office Depot
    Office Depot is a supplier of office products and provides many services. The company's selection of brand name office supplies includes business machines, computers, computer software and office furniture, while its business services encompass copying, printing, document reproduction, shipping,...

    , Genpact
    Genpact
    Genpact Limited is a global business process and technology management company. It was formerly a GE owned company called GE Capital International Services or GECIS. It operates from India, China, Guatemala, Hungary, México, Morocco, the Philippines, Poland, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain, South...

     and New Yorker.

    British investment and financial services group Dawnay Day, owner of the Brașov
    Brasov
    Brașov is a city in Romania and the capital of Brașov County.According to the last Romanian census, from 2002, there were 284,596 people living within the city of Brașov, making it the 8th most populated city in Romania....

    -based commercial centre MacroMall, says it will invest 135 million euros in two real estate projects in Cluj-Napoca. The first project, Atrium, which has started construction on the site of the former Tricotaje Someşul plant located in Cluj-Napoca city centre, will cost 85 million euros.

    Cluj-Napoca is also an important regional commercial centre, with many street malls
    Esplanade
    An esplanade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk. The original meaning of esplanade was a large, open, level area outside fortress or city walls to provide clear fields of fire for the fortress' guns...

     and hypermarket
    Hypermarket
    In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store. The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof, including full groceries lines and general merchandise...

    s. Eroilor Avenue
    Eroilor Avenue, Cluj-Napoca
    Eroilor Avenue is a central avenue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares. The northern side of the avenue was converted during the late 2000s into a pedestrian zone....

     and Napoca and Memorandumului streets are the most expensive venues, with a yearly rent price of 720 euro/m², but Regele Ferdinand
    Regele Ferdinand Avenue, Cluj-Napoca
    Regele Ferdinand Avenue , is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania, featuring a wide range of structures built between 18th and 19th centuries...

     and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues also feature high rental costs. There are two large malls: Polus
    Polus Center Cluj
    Polus Center Cluj is a shopping mall located in Cluj-Napoca, Romania which opened on October 12, 2007. At the time of its completion it was the first shopping mall in Cluj-Napoca. It took 15 months to build Polus Center, and for nine months the construction site was also the biggest archaeological...

     (including a Carrefour
    Carrefour
    Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain headquartered in Levallois-Perret, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world...

     hypermarket) and Iulius Mall
    Iulius Mall Cluj
    Iulius Mall Cluj is a shopping mall in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and was opened on 10 November 2007.The mall's anchors are:* 1 hypermarket Auchan * 1 store Altex* 205 stores* 10 screen cinema complex* 14 fast-food and restaurants...

     (including an Auchan
    Auchan
    Groupe Auchan SA is a French international retail group and multinational corporation headquartered in Croix, France. It is one of the world's principal distribution groups with a presence in 12 countries and 175,000 employees....

     hypermarket). Another two are under construction: Atrium and Akademia Center Cluj, an award-winning Nisco Invest retail project. Other large stores include branches of various international hypermarket chains, like Cora
    Cora (hypermarket)
    Cora is a retail group based in Belgium which owns several supermarket and hypermarket chains internationally. Formed in 1974, the corporation's brands include Match, Profi, Truffaut, Ecomax, Animalis, Sovena and Houra, as well as Cora-branded hypermarkets....

     or Real
    Real (hypermarket)
    Real is a European hypermarket, member of the German trade and retail giant Metro AG.In 2006 Metro acquired Wal-Mart's 85 stores in Germany and in Poland, bought 26 hypermarkets Géant from the French retail group Groupe Casino...

    .

    Among the famous retailers found in the city centre are United Colors of Benetton, Guess, and Paco Rabanne, while shopping centers on the outskirts include stores like Mango and Zara. Hugo Boss, JLo, Pinko, and Gianfranco Ferre have all announced their intent to open stores in Cluj-Napoca by the end of 2008.

    In 2008, the city's general budget amounted to 990 million lei
    Romanian leu
    The leu is the currency of Romania. It is subdivided into 100 bani . The name of the currency means "lion". On 1 July 2005, Romania underwent a currency reform, switching from the previous leu to a new leu . 1 RON is equal to 10,000 ROL...

    , the equivalent of over 266 million Euro
    Euro
    The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

    s (207 million pounds sterling
    Pound sterling
    The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

    ). Over the previous year, the budget increased 19% in 2006, 56% in 2007 and 35% in 2008. In lei, the budgets for 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 are 396,303,743, 472,364,500 739,214,224, and 990,812,338 respectively.

    Tourism


    In 2007, the hotel industry in the county of Cluj offered total accommodations of 6,472 beds, of which 3,677 were in hotels, 1,294 in guesthouses and the rest in chalets, campgrounds, or hostels. A total of 700,000 visitors, 140,000 of whom were foreigners, stayed overnight. However, a considerable share of visits is made by those who visit Cluj-Napoca for a single day, and their exact number is not known. The largest numbers of foreign visitors come from Hungary, Italy, Germany, the United States, France, and Austria. Moreover, the city's 140 or so travel agencies help organise domestic and foreign trips; car rentals are also available.

    Arts and culture



    Cluj-Napoca has a diverse and growing cultural scene, with cultural life exhibited in a number of fields, including the visual arts
    Visual arts
    The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, and often modern visual arts and architecture...

    , performing arts
    Performing arts
    The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object...

     and nightlife. The city's cultural scene spans its history, dating back to Roman times: the city started to be built in that period, which has left its mark on the urban layout (centered on today's Piaţa Muzeului) as well as surviving remnants. However, the medieval town saw a shift in its center towards new civil and religious structures, notably St. Michael's Church. During the 16th century, the city became the chief cultural and religious center of Transylvania; in the 1820s and the first half of the 1830s, Kolozsvár was the most important center for Hungarian theater and opera, while at the beginning of the 20th century, still a Hungarian city, it became the chief alternative to Budapest's cinematography. After its incorporation into the Kingdom of Romania
    Kingdom of Romania
    The Kingdom of Romania was the Romanian state based on a form of parliamentary monarchy between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania...

     at the end of World War I, the renamed Cluj saw a resurgence of its Romanian culture, most conspicuous in the completion of the monumental Orthodox cathedral in 1933 across from the (newly nationalised) Romanian National Theatre
    Cluj-Napoca National Theatre
    The Lucian Blaga National Theatre in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious theatrical institutions in Romania...

    . This marked an unambiguously "Romanian" centre, a few blocks to the east of the old Hungarian center; however, the Romanianness of the town—like the Romanian hold on Transylvania—was by no means securely established even by the end of the interwar period. The late 1960s brought a revival of nationalist discourse, concomitant with the urbanisation and industrialisation of the city that gradually advanced the Romanianisation of the city. Nowadays, the city is home to people of different cultures, with corresponding cultural institutions such as the Hungarian State Theatre, the British Council
    British Council
    The British Council is a United Kingdom-based organisation specialising in international educational and cultural opportunities. It is registered as a charity both in England and Wales, and in Scotland...

    , and various other centres for the promotion of foreign culture. These institutions hold eclectic manifestations in honour of their cultures, including Bessarabia
    Bessarabia
    Bessarabia is a historical term for the geographic region in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the east and the Prut River on the west....

    n, Hungarian, Tunisian, and Japanese
    Japanese people
    The are an ethnic group originating in the Japanese archipelago and are the predominant ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries...

    . Nevertheless, contemporary cultural manifestations cross ethnic boundaries, being aimed at students, cinephiles, and arts and science lovers, among others.

    Landmarks




    Cluj-Napoca has a number of landmark buildings and monuments. One of those is the Saint Michael's Church in Unirii Square
    Unirii Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Piaţa Unirii is the largest and most important plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. The square is one of the largest in Romania, with dimensions of 220 m by 160 m. The centre of the city spreads out from this square. The St. Michael's Church, with the highest church tower in Romania , is...

    , built at the end of 14th century in the Gothic style
    Gothic art
    Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that developed in France out of Romanesque art in the mid-12th century, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, but took over art more completely north of the Alps, never quite effacing more classical...

     of that period. It was only in the 19th century that the neogothic tower of the church was erected; it remains the tallest church tower in Romania to this day.


    In front of the church is the equestrian statue
    Equestrian sculpture
    An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse". A statue of a riderless horse is strictly an "equine statue"...

     of Matthias Corvinus, erected in honour of the locally-born king of Hungary
    Kingdom of Hungary
    The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

    . The Orthodox Church's
    Romanian Orthodox Church
    The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church. It is in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox churches, and is ranked seventh in order of precedence. The Primate of the church has the title of Patriarch...

     equivalent to St. Michael's Church is the Orthodox Cathedral
    Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral, Cluj-Napoca
    The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral is the most famous Romanian Orthodox church of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Built in a Romanian Brâncovenesc style, a synthesis of Renaissance and Byzantine architecture, it lies on the Avram Iancu Square, together with the Cluj-Napoca National Theatre and the...

     on Avram Iancu Square
    Avram Iancu Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Avram Iancu Square is a central plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. It is connected to the Unirii Square through the Eroilor and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues. It is also connected to Mihai Viteazul Square through Cuza Vodă Street...

    , built in the interwar era. The Romanian Greek-Catholic Church
    Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic
    The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic is an Eastern Catholic Church which is in full union with the Roman Catholic Church. It is ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language....

     also has a cathedral in Cluj-Napoca, Transfiguration Cathedral
    Transfiguration Cathedral, Cluj-Napoca
    The Transfiguration Cathedral , also known as the Minorites' Church , was donated in 1924 by the Holy See to the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church to serve as the Cathedral of the Cluj-Gherla Eparchy, after the move of the Eparchy's center from Gherla to Cluj.-History:The first church of the Minorites...

    .

    Another landmark of Cluj-Napoca is the Palace of Justice
    Palace of Justice, Cluj-Napoca
    The Palace of Justice in Cluj-Napoca, on Dorobanţilor Street, no.2, is an eclectic structure, built between 1898 and 1902, after the plans of the association Epitotarsasag, Kotsis, Smiel, Fodor es Reisinger...

    , built between 1898 and 1902, and designed by architect Gyula Wagner in an eclectic
    Eclecticism
    Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.It can sometimes seem inelegant or...

     style. This building is part of an ensemble erected in Avram Iancu Square that also includes the National Theatre, the Palace of Căile Ferate Române
    Caile Ferate Române
    Căile Ferate Române is the official designation of the state railway carrier of Romania. Romania has a railway network of of which are electrified and the total track length is . The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger...

    , the Palace of the Prefecture, the Palace of Finance and the Palace of the Orthodox Metropolis. An important eclectic ensemble is Iuliu Maniu Street
    Iuliu Maniu Street, Cluj-Napoca
    The Iuliu Maniu Street in Cluj-Napoca, named after the Romanian politician Iuliu Maniu, is a central street in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares. It is parallel to the Eroilor and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues...

    , featuring symmetrical buildings on either side, after the Haussmann
    Baron Haussmann
    Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann , was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris...

     urbanistic trend. A highlight of the city is the botanical garden
    Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden
    The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden, officially Alexandru Borza Cluj-Napoca University Botanic Garden , is a botanical garden in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was founded in 1920 by Alexandru Borza....

    , situated in the vicinity of the centre. Beside this garden, Cluj-Napoca is also home to some large parks, the most notable being the Central Park
    Cluj-Napoca Central Park
    Central Park is a large public, urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. It was founded in the 19th century and it located on the souther shore of Someşul Mic River. The Park is now home to the University of Arts and Design and to the Chemistry Faculty of the Babeş-Bolyai...

     with the Chios Casino and a large statuary ensemble. Many of the city's notable figures are buried in Hajongard Cemetery, which covers 14 hectares (34.6 acre).

    As an important cultural centre, Cluj-Napoca has many theatres and museums. The latter include the National Museum of Transylvanian History
    National Museum of Transylvanian History
    The National Museum of Transylvanian History is a history and archaeology museum in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It features a permanent exhibition, as well as temporary exhibitions, the "Tezaur" exhibition, and Pharmacy Historical collection—this last opened in the Hintz House, an...

    , the Ethnographic Museum
    Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania
    The Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania is situated in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. With a history of more than 80 years, the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania is one of the first and greatest of its kind in Romania...

    , the Cluj-Napoca Art Museum, the Pharmacy Museum, the Water Museum and the museums of Babeş-Bolyai University
    Babes-Bolyai University
    The Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca is an university in Romania. With almost 50,000 students, the university offers 105 specialisations, of which there are 105 in Romanian, 67 in Hungarian, 17 in German, and 5 in English...

    —the University Museum, the Museum of Mineralogy, the Museum of Paleontology and Stratigraphy, the Museum of Speleology, the Botanical Museum and the Zoological Museum.

    Visual arts


    In terms of visual arts
    Visual arts
    The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, and often modern visual arts and architecture...

    , the city contains a number of galleries featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works.

    The National Museum of Art
    Banffy Palace
    Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. Built between 1774 and 1775 it is considered the most representative for the baroque style of Transylvania...

     is located in the former palace of the count György Bánffy, the most representative secular construction built in the Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     style in Transylvania
    Transylvania
    Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

    . The museum features extensive collections of Romanian art, including works of artists like Nicolae Grigorescu
    Nicolae Grigorescu
    Nicolae Grigorescu was one of the founders of modern Romanian painting.-Biography:He was born in Pitaru, Dâmboviţa County, Wallachia. In 1843 the family moved to Bucharest. At a young age , he became an apprentice at the workshop of the painter Anton Chladek and created icons for the church of...

    , Ştefan Luchian
    Stefan Luchian
    Ștefan Luchian or Lukian was a Romanian painter, famous for his landscapes and still life works.-Early life:He was born in Ștefănești, a village of Botoșani County, as the son of Major Dumitru Luchian and of Elena Chiriacescu. The Luchian family moved to Bucharest in 1873 and his mother desired...

     and Dimitrie Paciurea
    Dimitrie Paciurea
    Dimitrie Paciurea – 14 July 1932) was a Romanian sculptor. His representational and symbolic style contrasts strongly to the more abstract style of his contemporary and co-national Constantin Brâncuşi....

    , as well as some works of foreign artists like Károly Lotz
    Károly Lotz
    Lotz Károly Antal Pál, or Karl Anton Paul Lotz was a German-Hungarian painter.- Career :Karl Lotz was born in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany, the 7th and youngest surviving child of Wilhelm Christian Lotz and Antonia Höfflick ...

    , Luca Giordano
    Luca Giordano
    Luca Giordano was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain....

    , Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin
    Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin
    Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin was a 19th-century French painter. His celebrated 1836 work Jeune Homme Nu Assis au Bord de la Mer is in the Louvre.-Early life:...

    , Herri met de Bles
    Herri met de Bles
    Herri met de Bles was a Flemish Northern Renaissance and Mannerist landscape painter...

     and Claude Michel
    Claude Michel
    Claude Michel , known as Clodion, was a French sculptor in the Rococo style. He was born in Nancy. Here and probably in Lille he spent the earlier years of his life. In 1755 he came to Paris and entered the workshop of Lambert Sigisbert Adam, his maternal uncle, a clever sculptor...

    , and was nominated to be European Museum of the Year in 1996.

    The most notable of the city's other galleries is the Gallery of the Union of Plastic Artists. Situated in the city centre, this gallery presents collections drawn from the contemporary arts scene. The Gallery of Folk Art includes traditional Romanian interior decoration artworks.

    Historically, the city was one of the most important cultural and artistic centres in 16th-century Transylvania. The Renaissance workshop, formed in 1530 and strongly supported by the Transylvanian princes, served local and wider requirements: from the middle of the century onwards, when the Ottomans
    Ottoman Empire
    The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

     had conquered
    Battle of Mohács
    The Battle of Mohács was fought on August 29, 1526 near Mohács, Hungary. In the battle, forces of the Kingdom of Hungary led by King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia were defeated by forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent....

     central Hungary, it extended its activity throughout the new principality. Its style, the "Flower Renaissance", used a variety of plant ornament enriched with coats of arms, figures and inscriptions. It continued to be of great importance into the 18th century, and traces of it are still apparent in 20th-century vernacular art; Klausenburg was central to the long, anachronistic survival of the style, particularly among Hungarians.

    Performing arts


    The city has a number of renowned facilities and institutions involving performing arts
    Performing arts
    The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object...

    . The most prominent is the neobaroque theatre at the Avram Iancu Square
    Avram Iancu Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Avram Iancu Square is a central plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. It is connected to the Unirii Square through the Eroilor and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues. It is also connected to Mihai Viteazul Square through Cuza Vodă Street...

    . Built at the beginning of the 20th century by the Viennese
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

     company Helmer and Fellner
    Ferdinand Fellner
    Ferdinand Fellner was an Austrian architect. Along with Hermann Helmer, he designed several theatres and palaces across Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century.Fellner was born in Vienna...

    , this structure is inscribed in UNESCO
    UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

    's list of specially protected monuments. Since 1919, shortly after the union of Transylvania with Romania, the building has hosted the Lucian Blaga National Theatre and the Romanian National Opera. The Transylvania Philarmonic, founded in 1955, gives classical music concerts, and has since 1965 organised, the Toamna Muzicală Clujeană
    Toamna Muzicala Clujeana
    Toamna Muzicală Clujeană is a classical music festival organised since 1965, by the Transylvania Philharmonic in Cluj-Napoca.-External links:*...

     Festival. The multiculturalism in the city is once again attested by the Hungarian Theatre and Opera
    Cluj-Napoca Hungarian Theatre
    The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj was founded in 1792 and is located in Cluj-Napoca, the fourth largest city in Romania. It was the first Hungarian theatre company in Transylvania, now a part of modern day Romania. The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj functions as a repertory theatre, entirely subsidized by...

    , home for four professional groups of performers. There is also a number of smaller independent theatres, including the Puck Theatre, where puppet shows are performed.

    Music and nightlife


    Cluj-Napoca is the residence of some well-known Romanian musicians. Examples of homegrown bands include the popular Romanian rock band Compact, the modern pop band Sistem—which finished third in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005
    Eurovision Song Contest 2005
    The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the 50th Eurovision Song Contest, which was held at the Palace of Sports, Kiev, Ukraine. The winner was Greece's My Number One, written by Christos Dantis and Natalia Germanou and performed by Swedish-born Greek singer Elena Paparizou, who scored 230 points,...

    , the rhythm and blues
    Rhythm and blues
    Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B, is a genre of popular African American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a...

     band Nightlosers
    Nightlosers
    Nightlosers is a Romanian ethno-jazz-blues band. The band consists of Hanno Höfer , Octavian Barila Andreescu , El Lako Jimy , and Geza Grunzo...

    , the alternative
    Alternative rock
    Alternative rock is a genre of rock music and a term used to describe a diverse musical movement that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular by the 1990s...

     band Luna Amară
    Luna Amara
    Luna Amară is a Romanian alternative rock/grunge band. The name means "Bitter Moon" in Romanian, and is borrowed from the Roman Polanski movie of the same name, inspired by the eponymous novel written by Pascal Bruckner.-History:...

    , Grimus
    Grimus (band)
    Grimus is an alternative rock band from Cluj-Napoca, Romania.- History :While studying in Cluj-Napoca, the members started out as the 5-piece rock band Revers. In 2006, after having suffered multiple changes in the lineup, Grimus released a demo album. Their song Solitude is declared Song of the...

    —the winners of the 2007 National Finals of Global Battle of the Bands
    Global Battle of the Bands
    The Global Battle of the Bands is a live music competition joined by bands from all continents around the world. It is open to amateur/professional bands of all music genres and ages; there are only two main prerequisites to joining: no cover songs and no pre-recorded tracks. All bands must play...

    , as well as a large assortment of electronic music producers, notably Horace Dan D. The Cheeky Girls
    The Cheeky Girls
    The Cheeky Girls are a pop duo consisting of twin sisters Gabriela and Monica Irimia, from Cluj-Napoca in Transylvania, Romania, but based in Britain. After appearing as auditionees in Popstars: The Rivals, they achieved success in the charts with four top ten hits between 2002 and 2004...

     also grew up in the city, where they studied at the High School of Choreography and Dramatic Art. While many discos play commercial house music
    House music
    House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

    , the city has an increasing minimal techno
    Minimal techno
    Minimal techno is a minimalist sub-genre of techno. It is characterized by a stripped-down aesthetic that exploits the use of repetition, and understated development. This style of dance music production generally adheres to the motto less is more; a principle that has been previously utilized, to...

     scene, and, to an extent jazz
    Jazz
    Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

    /blues
    Blues
    Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

     and heavy metal
    Heavy metal music
    Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

    /punk. The city's nightlife, particularly its club
    Nightclub
    A nightclub is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night...

     scene, grew significantly in the 1990s, and continues to increase. Most entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city centre, spreading from the oldest one of all, Diesel Club, on Unrii Square
    Unirii Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Piaţa Unirii is the largest and most important plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. The square is one of the largest in Romania, with dimensions of 220 m by 160 m. The centre of the city spreads out from this square. The St. Michael's Church, with the highest church tower in Romania , is...

    . The list of large and fancy clubs continues with Obsession The Club and Midi, the latter being a venue for the new minimal techno music genre. These three clubs are classified as the top three clubs in the Transylvania-Banat region in a chart published by the national daily România Liberă
    România Libera
    România Liberă is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. Based in Bucharest, the Romanian-language daily has a paid daily circulation of 40,000....

    . The Unirii area also features the Fashion Bar, with an exclusive terrace sponsored by Fashion TV
    Fashion TV
    Fashion TV is an international fashion and lifestyle broadcasting television channel. It was founded in France in 1997 by its Polish-born president Michel Adam Lisowski, Fashion TV is the only 24/7 international TV network exclusively dedicated to fashion, beauty, glamour and style and has become...

    . Some other clubs in the centre are Aftereight, Avenue, Bamboo, Decadence and Kharma. Numerous restaurants, pizzerias and coffee shops provide regional as well as international cuisine; many of these offer cultural activities like music and fashion shows or art exhibitions.

    The city also includes Strada Piezişă
    Strada Piezisa
    Strada Piezişă is a central nightlife strip located in the Haşdeu student area in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It features a large number of bars and terraces, being also known as the Drinking Street....

     (slanted street), a central nightlife strip located in the Haşdeu student area, where a large number of bars and terraces are situated. Cluj-Napoca is not limited to these international music genres, as there are also a number of discos where local "Lăutari
    Lautari
    The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional musicians. Most often, and by tradition, Lăutari are members of a professional clan of Romani musicians , also called Ţigani lăutari. The term is derived from Lăută the name of a string instrument...

    " play manele
    Manele
    Manele is a music style from Romania, generally associated with the Romani minority, though not exclusively....

    , a Turkish-influenced type of music.

    Traditional culture


    In spite of the influences of modern culture, traditional Romanian culture continues to influence various domains of art.


    Cluj-Napoca hosts an ethnographic
    Ethnography
    Ethnography is a qualitative method aimed to learn and understand cultural phenomena which reflect the knowledge and system of meanings guiding the life of a cultural group...

     museum, the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania, which features a large indoor collection of traditional cultural objects, as well as an open-air park, the oldest of this kind in Romania, dating back to 1929.

    The National Museum of Transylvanian History
    National Museum of Transylvanian History
    The National Museum of Transylvanian History is a history and archaeology museum in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It features a permanent exhibition, as well as temporary exhibitions, the "Tezaur" exhibition, and Pharmacy Historical collection—this last opened in the Hintz House, an...

     (Muzeul naţional de istorie a Transilvaniei) is another important museum in Cluj-Napoca, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from prehistoric times, the Dacia
    Dacia
    In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Getae as they were known by the Greeks—the branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range...

    n era, medieval times and the modern era. Moreover, the city also preserves a Historic Collection of the Pharmacy, in the building of the its first pharmacy (16th century), the Hintz House
    Cluj-Napoca Hintz House
    The Mauksch–Hintz House is a historic building on the Main Square of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, which houses the first pharmacy in the city.The classicist façade dates back to the 1820s; the ground-floor and the basement however were built in the Renaissance era...

    .

    Cultural events and festivals


    Cluj-Napoca hosts a number of cultural festivals of various types. These occur throughout the year, though are more frequent in the summer months. "Sărbătoarea Muzicii" (Fête de la Musique
    Fête de la Musique
    The Fête de la Musique, also known as World Music Day, is a music festival taking place on June 21.-History:The idea was first broached in 1976 by American musician Joel Cohen, then employed by the national French radio station France Musique. Cohen proposed an all-night music celebration at the...

    ) is a music festival taking place yearly on 21 June, organised under the aegis of the French Cultural Centre. In September, the Transilvania Philarmonic hosts the Toamna Muzicală Clujeană
    Toamna Muzicala Clujeana
    Toamna Muzicală Clujeană is a classical music festival organised since 1965, by the Transylvania Philharmonic in Cluj-Napoca.-External links:*...

     Classical Music Festival. Additionally, Splaiul Independenţei, on the banks of Someşul Mic River, hosts a number of beer festivals throughout the summer, among them the "Septemberfest", modelled after the German Oktoberfest
    Oktoberfest
    Oktoberfest, or Wiesn, is a 16–18 day beer festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. It is one of the most famous events in Germany and is the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year. The...

    .

    The city has seen a number of important music events, including the MTV România Music Award ceremony which was held at the Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian
    Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian
    Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian , part of the city's Splaiul Independenţei sports complex, is a multi-use arena in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It is used as home ground of the both men's and women's handball and basketball teams of CS Universitatea Cluj-Napoca.The arena is named in honour of Horia Demian,...

     in 2006 with the Sugababes
    Sugababes
    The Sugababes are an English pop girl group based in London, consisting of members Heidi Range, Amelle Berrabah and Jade Ewen. The Sugababes were formed in 1998 with founding members Siobhán Donaghy, Mutya Buena and Keisha Buchanan. Their debut album, One Touch, was released in 2000 under London...

    , Pachanga
    Pachanga
    - Music :In Cuba in 1955, Los Papines fused the violin-based music of charangas and the trumpet-based music of conjuntos Eduardo Davidson's La Pachanga , recorded by Orquesta Sublime, introduced Cuba to a Colombian dance...

     and Uniting Nations
    Uniting Nations
    Uniting Nations are a British dance act who formed in 2004. The act achieved chart success across Europe. It was composed of Paul Keenan and Daz Sampson with Jinian Wilde on vocals for "Out of Touch", "You and Me" & 11 of the 12 tracks on the One World album . Craig Powell was the frontman of the...

     as special international guests. In 2007, Beyoncé Knowles
    Beyoncé Knowles
    Beyoncé Giselle Knowles , often known simply as Beyoncé, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, she enrolled in various performing arts schools and was first exposed to singing and dancing competitions as a child...

     also performed in Cluj-Napoca, at the Ion Moina Stadium
    Stadionul Ion Moina
    Cluj Arena is a multi-use stadium in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was ready as of October 2011 and is to be ranked as an UEFA Elite stadium. The stadium is the new home ground of FC Universitatea Cluj....

    . In 2010, Iron Maiden
    Iron Maiden
    Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from Leyton in east London, formed in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris. Since their inception, the band's discography has grown to include a total of thirty-six albums: fifteen studio albums; eleven live albums; four EPs; and six...

     included the city in their Final Frontier World Tour
    The Final Frontier World Tour
    The Final Frontier World Tour was a concert tour by Iron Maiden in support of the band's 15th album, The Final Frontier, which began on 9 June 2010 in Dallas, Texas and ended in London, England on 6 August 2011...

    . Moreover, the local clubs regularly organise events featuring international artists, usually foreign disc jockey
    Disc jockey
    A disc jockey, also known as DJ, is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience. Originally, "disc" referred to phonograph records, not the later Compact Discs. Today, the term includes all forms of music playback, no matter the medium.There are several types of disc jockeys...

    s, like André Tanneberger
    ATB
    ATB may refer to:*The US Reorder tone is often referred to as an ATB, for All Trunks Busy*Active Time Battle system is a feature of role-playing games*Mountain bike is an off-road bicycle...

    , Tania Vulcano, Satoshi Tomiie
    Satoshi Tomiie
    Satoshi Tomiie is a Japanese house-music producer and DJ. He has written music for numerous soundtracks, including for the Animatrix soundtrack and remixed many artists including the Future Sound of London.-History:...

    , Yves Larock
    Yves Larock
    Yves "Larock" Cheminade is a Swiss DJ and producer. He is a member of Africanism All Stars.His single "Rise Up" was a popular clubbing track throughout Europe and reached #13 on the UK Singles Chart for the week commencing Sunday, August 19, 2007.- Albums :* 2008 : Rise Up* 2009 : Manego- Singles...

    , Dave Seaman
    Dave Seaman
    Dave Seaman is a British dance music DJ and record producer. He was formerly a member of the DMC Publishing, and editor of music magazine Mixmag. He formed one half of Brothers In Rhythm with Steve Anderson, doing production work for Pet Shop Boys and Kylie Minogue. He has since founded Audio...

    , Plump DJs, Stephane K or Andy Fletcher.

    The Transilvania International Film Festival
    Transilvania International Film Festival
    The Transilvania International Film Festival is a film festival held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania and established in 2001 by Romanian Film Promotion...

     (TIFF), held in the city since 2001 and organised by the Association for the Promotion of the Romanian Film, is the first Romanian film festival for international features. The festival jury awards the Transilvania Trophy for the best film in competition, as well as prizes for best director, best performance and best photography. With the support of Home Box Office
    Home Box Office
    HBO, short for Home Box Office, is an American premium cable television network, owned by Time Warner. , HBO's programming reaches 28.2 million subscribers in the United States, making it the second largest premium network in America . In addition to its U.S...

    , TIFF also organises a national script contest. The Gay Film Nights
    Gay Film Nights
    Gay Film Nights is an LGBT film festival organised annually in Cluj-Napoca, Romania by the LGBT association Be An Angel. By presenting a series of films with LGBT themes, it seeks to showcase LGBT culture and cinema, while also initiating a dialogue with other members of society...

     festival, showcasing LGBT culture and cinema, has also been organised annually since 2004 in Cluj-Napoca by Be An Angel
    Be An Angel
    Be An Angel Romania is a Romanian human rights organisation based in Cluj-Napoca founded by Lucian Dunăreanu, a LGBT rights activist...

    , the city's largest LGBT rights organisation, while Comedy Cluj
    Comedy Cluj
    Comedy Cluj is an international film festival of comedy film organized annually in October in Cluj-Napoca, Transylvania, Romania.- History :The first edition of Comedy Cluj was held in 2009 and comprised 70 films coming from 19 countries as well as several workshops, street theater shows,...

    , which debuted in 2009, is the newest annual film festival organised in Cluj-Napoca.

    Architecture


    Cluj-Napoca's salient architecture is primarily Renaissance
    Renaissance architecture
    Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

    , Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     and Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

    . The modern era has also produced a remarkable set of buildings from the mid-century style
    Mid-century modern
    Mid-Century modern is an architectural, interior and product design form that generally describes mid-20th century developments in modern design, architecture, and urban development from roughly 1933 to 1965...

    . The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture is also present, although only to a certain extent, as Cluj-Napoca never faced a large systematisation
    Systematization (Romania)
    Urban planning in communist countries was subject to the ideological constraints of the system. Except for the Soviet Union where the communist regime started in 1917, in Eastern Europe communist governments took power after World War II....

     programme. Of late, the city has seen significant growth in contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings, mainly constructed after 2000.

    Historical architecture



    The nucleus of the old city, an important cultural and commercial centre, used to be a military camp, attested in documents with the name "castrum Clus".


    The oldest residence in Cluj-Napoca is the house of Matthias Corvinus
    Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
    Matthias Corvinus , also called the Just in folk tales, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458, at the age of 14 until his death...

    , originally a Gothic structure that bears Transylvanian Renaissance
    Renaissance architecture
    Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

     characteristics due to a later renovation. Such changes feature on other Hungarian townspeople's residences, built from the mid-15th century mostly of stone and wood with a cellar, ground floor and upper storey, in the Late Gothic and Renaissance styles; although the late medieval houses have often been considerably altered, the street façades of the old town are mostly preserved. St. Michael's Church, the oldest and most representative Gothic-style building in the country, dates back to the 14th century. The oldest of its sections is the altar, dedicated in 1390, while the newest part is the clock tower, which was built in Gothic Revival
    Gothic Revival architecture
    The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

     style (1860).

    As Renaissance styles survived late in the city, the appearance of Baroque art was also delayed, but from the mid-18th century Klausenburg was once again at the centre of the development and spread of art in Transylvania, as it had been two centuries earlier. The first enthusiasts for Baroque were the Catholic Church and the landed aristocracy. Artists came initially from south Germany and Austria, but by the end of the century most of the work was by local craftsmen. The earliest signs of the new style appear in the furnishings of St. Michael's church: the altarpieces and pulpit, which date to the 1740s, are carved, painted and richly decorated with figures. An altarpiece depicting the Adoration of the Magi (1748–50) is the work of Franz Anton Maulbertsch
    Franz Anton Maulbertsch
    Franz Anton Maulbertsch was an Austrian painter and engraver, one of the most renowned exponents of roccoco painting in the German region....

    . The earliest two-towered Baroque church
    Cluj-Napoca Piarists' Church
    The Piarist Church or the University Church ; ), located at 5 Str. Universităţii, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was the first Roman Catholic church built in Transylvania after the Protestant Reformation, as well as the province's first Baroque church building...

     was built by the Jesuits from 1718 to 1724 on the pattern of Košice
    Košice
    Košice is a city in eastern Slovakia. It is situated on the river Hornád at the eastern reaches of the Slovak Ore Mountains, near the border with Hungary...

     and was later handed over to the Piarists. During the century more simply designed Baroque churches were built for the mendicant orders, Lutherans, Unitarians and the Orthodox Church. The noble families built houses and even palaces in the old town. The Baroque Bánffy Palace
    Banffy Palace
    Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. Built between 1774 and 1775 it is considered the most representative for the baroque style of Transylvania...

     (1774–1785), constructed around a rectangular yard, is the masterpiece of Eberhardt Blaumann. Its peculiarity lies in the appearance of the principal façade.

    Both Avram Iancu
    Avram Iancu Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Avram Iancu Square is a central plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. It is connected to the Unirii Square through the Eroilor and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues. It is also connected to Mihai Viteazul Square through Cuza Vodă Street...

     and Unrii Squares
    Unirii Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Piaţa Unirii is the largest and most important plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. The square is one of the largest in Romania, with dimensions of 220 m by 160 m. The centre of the city spreads out from this square. The St. Michael's Church, with the highest church tower in Romania , is...

     feature ensembles of eclectic
    Eclecticism
    Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.It can sometimes seem inelegant or...

     and baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

    rococo
    Rococo
    Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

     architecture, including the Palace of Justice
    Palace of Justice, Cluj-Napoca
    The Palace of Justice in Cluj-Napoca, on Dorobanţilor Street, no.2, is an eclectic structure, built between 1898 and 1902, after the plans of the association Epitotarsasag, Kotsis, Smiel, Fodor es Reisinger...

    , the Theatre
    Cluj-Napoca National Theatre
    The Lucian Blaga National Theatre in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious theatrical institutions in Romania...

    , the Iuliu Maniu symmetrical street
    Iuliu Maniu Street, Cluj-Napoca
    The Iuliu Maniu Street in Cluj-Napoca, named after the Romanian politician Iuliu Maniu, is a central street in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares. It is parallel to the Eroilor and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues...

    , and the New York Palace, among others. In the 19th century many houses were built in the Neo-classical, Romantic and Eclectic styles. Also dating to that period are the two-towered Neo-classical Calvinist church (1829–50), its new college building of 1801, and the City Hall (1843–6) in the marketplace, by Antal Kagerbauer
    Antal Kagerbauer
    Antal Kagerbauer was the most significant romantic architect in Cluj during the mid nineteenth century.- Biography :...

    .

    The banks of the Someşul Mic also feature a wide variety of such old buildings. The end of the 19th century brought a building ensemble that fastens the corners of the oldest bridge over the river, at the north end of the Regele Ferdinand Avenue
    Regele Ferdinand Avenue, Cluj-Napoca
    Regele Ferdinand Avenue , is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania, featuring a wide range of structures built between 18th and 19th centuries...

    . The Berde, Babos, Elian, Urania, and Szeky
    Szeky Palace, Cluj-Napoca
    The Szeky Palace in Cluj-Napoca is a Gothic Revival building on the shore of Someşul Mic River. It was built in 1893 for the university teacher and pharmacist Szeky by the architect Samu Pecz. It is included in the list of historical monuments of the Romanian Ministry of Culture....

     palaces consist of a mixture of Baroque, Renaissance and Gothic styles, following the Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

    /Secession and Revival specifics.
    In the 2000s, the old city centre underwent extensive restoration works, meant to convert much of it into a pedestrian
    Pedestrian
    A pedestrian is a person traveling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those traveling using roller skates or skateboards are also considered to be pedestrians. In modern times, the term mostly refers to someone walking on a road or footpath, but this was not the case...

     area, including Bulevardul Eroilor
    Eroilor Avenue, Cluj-Napoca
    Eroilor Avenue is a central avenue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares. The northern side of the avenue was converted during the late 2000s into a pedestrian zone....

    , Unirii Square
    Unirii Square, Cluj-Napoca
    Piaţa Unirii is the largest and most important plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. The square is one of the largest in Romania, with dimensions of 220 m by 160 m. The centre of the city spreads out from this square. The St. Michael's Church, with the highest church tower in Romania , is...

     and other smaller streets. In some residential areas of the city, particularly the high-income southern areas, like Andrei Mureşanu or Strada Republicii, there are many turn-of-the-century villas.

    Modern and Communist architecture



    Part of Cluj-Napoca's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era
    Communist Romania
    Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

    , when historical architecture was replaced with "more efficient" high-density apartment blocks. Nicolae Ceauşescu's project of systematisation
    Systematization (Romania)
    Urban planning in communist countries was subject to the ideological constraints of the system. Except for the Soviet Union where the communist regime started in 1917, in Eastern Europe communist governments took power after World War II....

     did not really affect the heart of the city, instead reaching the marginal, shoddily built districts surrounding it.

    Still, the centre hosts some examples of modern architecture dating back to the Communist era. The Hungarian Theatre building was erected at the beginning of the 20th century, but underwent an avant-garde renovation in 1961, when it acquired a modernist style of architecture. Another example of modernist architectural art is Palatul Telefoanelor, situated in the vicinity of Mihai Viteazul Square, an area that also features a complex of large apartment buildings.

    Some outer districts, especially Mănăştur
    Manastur
    Mănăştur is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Nicolae Ceauşescu's systematisation programme on the site of an older settlement. Its population as of 2007 is approximately 126,600...

    , and to a certain extent Gheorgheni
    Gheorgheni, Cluj-Napoca
    Gheorgheni is a district located in the east of Cluj-Napoca in Romania, built in the 1960s during the Ceausescu Regime with many green areas....

     and Grigorescu
    Grigorescu, Cluj-Napoca
    Grigorescu is a district in the north-west of Cluj-Napoca in Romania....

    , consist mainly of such large apartment ensembles. The city, however, does not face the zoning problems that arose in other Romanian locales because of the high-density constructions; roughly all other complexes in the city are built with some respect to the zoning laws in force today.

    Contemporary architecture




    Since 1989, modern skyscraper
    Skyscraper
    A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, often designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper...

    s and glass-fronted buildings have altered the skyline of Cluj-Napoca. Buildings from this time are mostly made out of glass and steel
    Steel
    Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

    , and are usually high-rise. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Iulius Mall), office buildings and bank headquarters. Of this last, regional headquarters of the Banca Română pentru Dezvoltare is the tallest office building in Cluj-Napoca, with 50 metres (164 ft). Its twelve storeys were completed in 1997 after 4 years of work and house offices for the bank and for divisions of several other companies, including insurance and oil companies.

    Another architecturally
    Architecture
    Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

     interesting building is the so-called "Clădirea biscuite" (the biscuit building). This building was supposed to house the local headquarters of the Banca Agricolă (Agricultural Bank), but entered in the custody of the city due to the failure of that bank in the 1990s and its subsequent purchase by the Raiffeisen Bank
    Raiffeisen Romania
    Raiffeisen Bank is a top universal bank on the Romanian market, providing a complete range of products and services to private individuals, SMEs and large corporations via multiple distribution channels: banking outlets , ATM and EPOS networks, phone-banking and mobile-banking .Raiffeisen Bank...

    , to be eventually converted in an office building.


    The headquarters of Banca Transilvania
    Banca Transilvania
    Banca Transilvania , a bank corporation in Romania, was founded December 1993 in Cluj-Napoca by several local businessmen, with an initial capitalization of 2 billion Romanian lei ; initial capitalization was 79% Romanian and 21% foreign.The bank first opened for business February 16, 1994, with...

    , at the intersection of Regele Ferdinand Avenue
    Regele Ferdinand Avenue, Cluj-Napoca
    Regele Ferdinand Avenue , is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania, featuring a wide range of structures built between 18th and 19th centuries...

     and Bariţiu Street, is also a large contemporary building and was originally constructed to host the regional offices of Romtelecom
    Romtelecom
    Romtelecom is the largest telecommunications company in Romania; the majority of shares are held by the Greek telecommunications company OTE . The Romanian state also has a minority stake of 45.99% in the company. The company had a monopoly for the provision of fixed telephony services until...

    , the public phone company, but was later sold to the bank.

    Cluj-Napoca is undergoing a period of architectural revitalisation that is set to bring the manner of expansion to the vertical. A financial centre
    Financial Centre
    A financial centre is a global city that is a company and business hub, as well as being home to many world famous banks and/or stock exchanges....

    , containing a tower of 15 storeys, is slated for completion in 2010 on Ploieşti Street. Two 35-storey twin towers
    Sigma Towers
    Sigma Towers is a building project situated in Cluj Napoca, Romania, which will comprise two 35 floor towers linked together by a 4 floor commercial centre, another two buildings of 7 and 5 floors and a 3 floor parking building.-The first tower T1:...

     are projected to be constructed in the Sigma area in Zorilor, while the Floreşti
    Floresti, Cluj
    Floreşti is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Floreşti, Luna de Sus and Tăuţi.-Demographics:According to the 2002 census, Romanians made up 60.45% of the population, Hungarians made up 27.53% and Roma made up 11.88%....

     area will host a complex of three towers with 32 levels each.

    Transport


    Cluj-Napoca has a complex system of regional transportation, providing road, air and rail connections to major cities in Romania and Europe. It also features a public transportation system consisting of bus, trolleybus and tram lines.

    Cluj-Napoca is an important node in the European road network
    International E-road network
    The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe . The network is numbered from E 1 up and its roads cross national borders...

    , being on three different European routes (E60
    European route E60
    European route E 60 is a E-road running from Brest, France , to Irkeshtam, Kyrgyzstan...

    , E81
    European route E81
    European route E 81 is a road part of the International E-road network. It begins in Constanța, Romania and ends in Mukacevo, Ukraine. The road is 389.4 miles long.The Romanian section follows the route :...

     and E576
    European route E576
    European route E 576 is a secondary E-road found in northwestern Romania.* Alignment: Dej - Cluj-Napoca.* Length: about .* Condition: currently a two lane road, modernized and widened in 2005 - 2009....

    ). At a national level, Cluj-Napoca is located on three different main national roads: DN1
    DN1
    DN1 is an important national road in Romania which links Bucharest with the northwestern part of the country...

    , DN1C and DN1F. The Romanian Motorway A3, also known as Transylvania Motorway (Autostrada Transilvania), currently under construction, will link the city with Bucharest
    Bucharest
    Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

     and Romania's western border. The 2B section between Câmpia Turzii
    Câmpia Turzii
    Câmpia Turzii is a city in Cluj County, Romania, which was formed in 1925 by the union of two villages, Ghiriş and Sâncrai...

     and Cluj Vest (Gilău
    Gilau, Cluj
    Gilău is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Gilău, Someşu Cald and Someşu Rece.- Demographics :According to the census from 2002 there was a total population of 7,861 people living in this town. Of this population, 83.43% are ethnic Romanians, 9.45% are ethnic...

    ) opened in late 2010. The Cluj-Napoca Coach Station (Autogara) is used by several private transport companies to provide coach
    Coach (vehicle)
    A coach is a large motor vehicle, a type of bus, used for conveying passengers on excursions and on longer distance express coach scheduled transport between cities - or even between countries...

     connections from Cluj-Napoca to a large number of locations from all over the country.
    The number of automobiles licensed in Cluj-Napoca is estimated at 175,000. As of 2007, Cluj County
    Cluj County
    Cluj ; is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.-Demographics:In 2007, it had a population of 692,316 and a population density of 104/km².*Romanians – 80%*Hungarians – 17.5%*Roma – 2.5%-Geography:...

     ranks sixth nationwide according to the cars sold during that year, with 12,679 units, corresponding to a four percent share. One tenth of these cars were limousines or SUVs. Some 3,300 taxis are also licensed to operate in Cluj-Napoca.

    RATUC, the local public transport company, runs an extensive 321 kilometres (199.5 mi) public transport network within the city using 3 tram
    Tram
    A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

     lines, 6 trolleybus
    Trolleybus
    A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

     lines and 21 bus
    Bus
    A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

     routes. Transport in the Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is also covered by a number of private bus companies, such as Fany and MV Trans 2007, providing connections to neighboring towns and villages.

    The Cluj-Napoca International Airport
    Cluj-Napoca International Airport
    Cluj-Napoca International Airport serves the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was initially known as Someşeni Airport as it is located east of the city centre in the Someşeni area, which is now within the Cluj-Napoca city limits. In terms of traffic, it is the fourth airport in Romania, after...

     (CLJ), located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) to the east of the city centre, is the fourth busiest airport in Romania, after the two Bucharest airports (OTP
    Henri Coanda International Airport
    Henri Coandă International Airport is Romania's busiest international airport, located northwest of the city of Bucharest, within Otopeni city limits. One of two airports serving the Romanian capital, the other being Băneasa, it is named after Romanian flight pioneer Henri Coandă, builder of...

     and BBU
    Aurel Vlaicu International Airport
    -Terminated destinations:-See also:*Aviation in Romania*Transport in Romania*Blue Air-External links:**...

    ) and Timişoara airport
    Traian Vuia International Airport
    Timişoara "Traian Vuia" International is Romania's third largest airport in terms of air traffic, after Bucharest Henri Coandă and Bucharest Aurel Vlaicu Airport and the main air transportation hub for the western part of Romania. It is located in Timişoara, in the region of Banat, near the...

    .

    Situated on the European route E576
    European route E576
    European route E 576 is a secondary E-road found in northwestern Romania.* Alignment: Dej - Cluj-Napoca.* Length: about .* Condition: currently a two lane road, modernized and widened in 2005 - 2009....

     (Cluj-Napoca – Dej
    Dej
    Dej is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. It lies where the Someşul Mic River meets the river Someşul Mare River...

    ), the airport is connected to the city centre by the local public transport company, RATUC, bus number 8. The airport serves various direct international destinations across Europe.

    Cluj-Napoca Rail Station
    Cluj-Napoca railway station
    Cluj-Napoca railway station is the main station in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It is located near the city center.- Current situation :The station is situated on the Căile Ferate Române line 300 Bucharest - Ploieşti - Braşov - Teiuş - Cluj-Napoca - Oradea - Episcopia Bihor and the line Cluj-Napoca - Dej...

    , located about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of the city centre, is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways
    Caile Ferate Române
    Căile Ferate Române is the official designation of the state railway carrier of Romania. Romania has a railway network of of which are electrified and the total track length is . The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger...

     Main Line 300 (Bucharest
    Bucharest
    Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

     – Oradea
    Oradea
    Oradea is the capital city of Bihor County, in the Crișana region of north-western Romania. The city has a population of 204,477, according to the 2009 estimates. The wider Oradea metropolitan area has a total population of 245,832.-Geography:...

     – Romanian Western Border) and on Line 401 (Cluj-Napoca – Dej
    Dej
    Dej is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. It lies where the Someşul Mic River meets the river Someşul Mare River...

    ). CFR provides direct rail connections to all the major Romanian cities and to Budapest
    Budapest
    Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

    . The rail station is very well connected to all parts of the city by the tram
    Tram
    A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

    s, trolleybus
    Trolleybus
    A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

    es and bus
    Bus
    A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

    es of the local public transport company, RATUC.


    The city is also served by two other secondary rail stations, the Little Station (Gara Micǎ), which is technically part of and situated immediately near the main station, and Cluj-Napoca East (Est). There is also a cargo station, Halta "Clujana".

    The local transportation company, RATUC, manages a tram
    Tram
    A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

     line that runs through the city. Planned modernisation will involve the installation of new rail tracks and the separation of the tram route from road traffic. This will bring a number of advantages, including vibration and shock reduction, a substantial noise decrease, long use expectancy and higher transit speed – 60 kilometres per hour (37.3 mph)-80 kilometres per hour (49.7 mph). The route will undergo major alteration on Horea Street, between the Chamber of Commerce
    Chamber of commerce
    A chamber of commerce is a form of business network, e.g., a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community...

     and the central rail station, a rather problematic area. This dilemma should be solved either with the relocation of the track next to the sidewalk, or through the construction of a suspended tunnel. Another area that will benefit from large-scale changes is "Splaiul Independenţei", where the tracks will be pulled back to the Central Park
    Cluj-Napoca Central Park
    Central Park is a large public, urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. It was founded in the 19th century and it located on the souther shore of Someşul Mic River. The Park is now home to the University of Arts and Design and to the Chemistry Faculty of the Babeş-Bolyai...

    , so that the roadway can host two lanes. In the Mănăştur area, under the bridge, the tracks will be brought closer, while other major works will executed on the traffic circle on Primăverii Street. Given the development of the metropolitan area
    Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area
    The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is a metropolitan area founded in December 2008. It has a population of 379,705 and, besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes 17 communes: Aiton, Apahida, Baciu, Bonţida, Borşa, Căianu, Chinteni, Ciurila, Cojocna, Feleacu, Floreşti, Gârbău, Gilău, Jucu, Petreştii de Jos,...

    , further plans feature the creation of a light rail
    Light rail
    Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

     track between Gilău
    Gilau, Cluj
    Gilău is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Gilău, Someşu Cald and Someşu Rece.- Demographics :According to the census from 2002 there was a total population of 7,861 people living in this town. Of this population, 83.43% are ethnic Romanians, 9.45% are ethnic...

     and Jucu
    Jucu
    Jucu is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of five villages: Gădălin , Juc-Herghelie , Jucu de Mijloc , commune centre Jucu de Sus and Vişea .-Economy:...

     that will use these modernised tracks in the city.

    Media and popular culture


    Cluj-Napoca is the most important centre for Transylvania
    Transylvania
    Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

    n mass media, since it is the headquarters of all regional television networks, newspapers and radio stations. The largest daily newspapers published in Bucharest
    Bucharest
    Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

     are usually reissued from Cluj-Napoca in a regional version, covering Transylvanian issues. Such newspapers include România Liberă
    România Libera
    România Liberă is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. Based in Bucharest, the Romanian-language daily has a paid daily circulation of 40,000....

    , Gardianul
    Gardianul
    Gardianul was a Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. It claimed to have had an anti-corruption stance, investigating organized crime and high-level corruption....

    , Ziarul Financiar
    Ziarul Financiar
    Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania. Aside from business information, it features sections focusing on careers and properties, as well as a special Sunday newspaper...

    , ProSport and Gazeta Sporturilor
    Gazeta Sporturilor
    Gazeta Sporturilor is a daily newspaper in Romania, and the country's largest and most read sports-related publication...

    . Ringier
    Ringier
    Ringier AG is one of the largest media corporations in Switzerland founded in Zofingen and based in Zürich. It publishes several newspapers and magazines in both German and French...

     edited a regional version of Evenimentul Zilei
    Evenimentul Zilei
    Evenimentul Zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. Based in Bucharest, the Romanian-language daily has a paid daily circulation of 110,000...

    in Cluj-Napoca until 2008, when it decided to close this enterprise.


    Apart from the regional editions, which are distributed throughout Transylvania
    Transylvania
    Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

    , the national newspaper Ziua
    Ziua
    Ziua was a major Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. It was published in Romanian with a fairly sizeable and often informative English section. Ziua was founded in 1994 by Sorin Roşca Stănescu, eventually becoming foreign-owned...

    also runs a local franchise, Ziua de Cluj, that acts as a local daily, available only within city limits. Cluj-Napoca also boasts other newspapers of local interest, like Făclia
    Faclia
    Făclia is a daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca.-External links:*...

    and Monitorul de Cluj, as well as two free dailies, Informaţia Cluj
    Informatia Cluj
    Informaţia Cluj is a Romanian language free daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca....

    and Cluj Expres
    Cluj Expres
    Cluj Expres is a Romanian language free daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca....

    . Clujeanul
    Clujeanul
    Clujeanul is both a weekly newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and an online newspaper providing real-time local and national news.The weekly edition appears on Mondays together with the TV Guide Pro TV Magazin....

    , the first of a series of local weeklies edited by the media trust CME
    Central European Media Enterprises
    Central European Media Enterprises is a Bermuda-based vertically integrated company. Founded by Ronald Lauder, it owns broadcast, content and new media operations in Central and Eastern Europe...

    , is one of the largest newspapers in Transylvania, with an audience of 53,000 readers per edition. This weekly has a daily online version, entitled Clujeanul, ediţie online, updated on a real-time basis. Cluj-Napoca is also the centre of the Romanian Hungarian language
    Hungarian language
    Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

     press. The city hosts the editorial offices of the two largest newspapers of this kind, Krónika
    Krónika
    Krónika is a Hungarian-language Romanian broadsheet newspaper, based in Cluj-Napoca. It has the largest audience of all Hungarian-language national broadsheet newspaper in Romania. The circulation is approximately 80,000....

    and Szabadság
    Szabadság
    Szabadság is a Hungarian-language local daily newspaper published in Kolozsvár/Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Its average circulation is about 7,000-8,000 copies a day, with a readership up to 40,000 readers.- Overview :...

    , as well as those of the magazines Erdélyi Napló
    Erdélyi Napló
    Erdélyi Napló is a Hungarian language right-wing weekly published in Cluj-Napoca, and distributed nationally throughout Romania....

    and Korunk
    Korunk
    Korunk is a Hungarian language cultural-literary-scientific magazine published in Cluj-Napoca, Romania....

    . Săptămâna Clujeană
    Saptamâna Clujeana
    Săptămâna Clujeană is a Romanian language financial weekly newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca.-External links:*...

    is an economic weekly published in the city, that also issues two magazines on successful local people and companies (Oameni de Succes and Companii de Succes) every year, while Piaţa A-Z
    Piata A-Z
    Piaţa A-Z is a Romanian language announcement weekly newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca, and distributed throughout Transylvania....

    is a newspaper for announcements and advertisements distributed throughout Transylvania. Cluj had an active press in the interwar period as well: publications included the Zionist
    Zionism
    Zionism is a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state...

     newspaper Új Kelet
    Új Kelet
    Új Kelet is a Zionist Jewish newspaper in the Hungarian language which first appeared in Kolozsvár in Transylvania, Romania, and was later revived in Israel,in Tel Aviv....

    , the official party organs Keleti Újság (for the Magyar Party
    Magyar Party (Romania)
    The Magyar Party was a political party in post-World War I Romania.The party had a heterogeneous structure, including bourgeois and landowners, peasants, workers, intellectuals and city-dwellers...

    ) and Patria (for the National Peasants' Party
    National Peasants' Party
    The National Peasants' Party was a Romanian political party, formed in 1926 through the fusion of the Romanian National Party from Transylvania and the Peasants' Party . It was in power between 1928 and 1933, with brief interruptions...

    ); and the nationalist Conştiinţa Românească and Ţara Noastră, the latter a magazine directed by Octavian Goga
    Octavian Goga
    Octavian Goga was a Romanian politician, poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.-Life:Born in Răşinari, nearby Sibiu, he was an active member in the Romanian nationalistic movement in Transylvania and of its leading group, the Romanian National Party in Austria-Hungary. Before World War I,...

    . Under Communism, publications included the socio-political and literary magazines Tribuna, Steaua, Utunk, Korunk, Napsugár and Előre as well as the regional Communist party daily organs Făclia and Igazság and the trilingual student magazine Echinox.

    Among the local television stations in the city, TVR Cluj
    TVR Cluj
    TVR Cluj is public regional TV station available in Transylvania and Maramureş. It is the first regional branch of the Societatea Românǎ de Televiziune , broadcasting since 3 January 1990...

    (public) and One TV (private) broadcast regionally, while the others are restricted to the metropolitan area. Napoca Cable Network
    Napoca Cable Network
    NCN is a Romanian television station, broadcasting from Cluj-Napoca. It is available through cable within the city limits....

    is available through cable, and broadcasts local content throughout the day. Other stations work as affiliates of national TV stations, only providing the audience with local reports in addition to the national programming. This situation is mirrored in the radio broadcasting companies: except for Radio Cluj
    Radio Cluj
    Radio Cluj is a Romanian public radio station from Cluj-Napoca, broadcasting throughout Transylvania. It features Romanian and Hungarian language programmes.- External links :* *...

    , Radio Impuls
    Radio Impuls
    Radio Impuls is a Top40/Hit Radio Romanian language station broadcasting in Cluj-Napoca, Romania....

    and the Hungarian-language Paprika Rádió
    Paprika Rádió
    Paprika Rádió is a Hungarian language radio station broadcasting in Cluj-Napoca, Romania....

    , all other stations are local affiliates of the national broadcasters. Casa Radio, situated on Donath Street, is one of the modern landmarks of the media and communications industry; it is, however, not the only one: Palatul Telefoanelor ("the telephone palace") is also a major modernist symbol of communications in the city centre.

    Magazines published in Cluj-Napoca include HR Journal, a publication discussing human resources issues, J'Adore
    J'Adore (magazine)
    J'Adore is a Romanian language shopping magazine published since 2004 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, featuring local shopping interest. In 2007, Caţavencu Group launched a franchise Bucharest version of the magazine....

    , a local shopping magazine that is also franchised in Bucharest, Maximum Rock Magazine, dealing with the rock music
    Rock music
    Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music...

     industry, RDV, a national hunting publication and Cluj-Napoca WWW, an English-language magazine designed for tourists. Cultural and social events as well as all other entertainment sources are the leading subjects of such magazines as Şapte Seri
    Sapte Seri
    Şapte Seri is a free leaflet-sized weekly magazine about goings-on in Bucharest, Romania. It is written largely in Romanian with some English....

    and CJ24FUN.

    In the early 20th century, film production in Cluj-Napoca (in those times Kolozsvár), led by Jenő Janovics
    Jeno Janovics
    Jenő Janovics was a Hungarian film director, screenwriter and actor of the silent era. He directed 33 films between 1913 and 1920...

    , was the chief alternative to Budapest. The first film made in the city, in association with the Parisian producer Pathé
    Pathé
    Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various French businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France.-History:...

    , was Sárga csikó ("Yellow Foal", 1912), based on a popular "peasant drama". Yellow Foal became the first worldwide Hungarian success, distributed abroad under the title The Secret of the Blind Man: 137 prints were sold internationally and the movie was even screened in Japan.

    The first artistically prestigious film in the annals of Hungarian cinematography was also produced on this site, based on a national classic, Bánk bán
    Bánk bán
    Bánk bán is an opera in 3 Acts by composer Ferenc Erkel. The work uses a Hungarian language libretto by Béni Egressy which is based on a stage play of the same name by József Katona. The main storyline is based on the assassination of Queen Gertrúd, wife of Andrew II in 1213...

    (1914), a tragedy written by József Katona
    József Katona
    József Katona was a Hungarian playwright and poet, creator of the Hungarian drama: author of the legendary historical tragedy: Bánk bán.-Biography:...

    .

    Later, the city was the production site of the 1991 Romanian drama Undeva în Est ("Somewhere in the East"), and the 1995 Hungarian language film A Részleg
    The Outpost (film)
    The Outpost is a 1995 Hungarian drama film directed by Péter Gothár. It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival.-Cast:* Mari Nagy - Weisz Gizella* József Szarvas - Öcsi, avagy Petya* Valentin Teodosiu...

    ("Outpost"). Moreover, the Romanian-language film Cartier ("Neighbourhood", 2001) and its sequel Înapoi în cartier ("Back to the Neighbourhood", 2006) both feature a story replete with violence and rude language, behind the blocks in the city's Mănăştur
    Manastur
    Mănăştur is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Nicolae Ceauşescu's systematisation programme on the site of an older settlement. Its population as of 2007 is approximately 126,600...

     district. This district is also mentioned in the lyrics to the song Înapoi în cartier by La Familia member Puya, featured on the soundtrack of the motion picture.

    Documentary and mockumentary productions set in the city include Irshad Ashraf
    Irshad Ashraf
    Irshad Ashraf is a British documentary film maker with a reputation for making stylish, visually innovative documentary films about history, art and politics....

    's St. Richard of Austin, a tribute to the American film director Richard Linklater
    Richard Linklater
    -Early life:Linklater was born in Houston, Texas. He studied at Sam Houston State University and left midway through his stint in college to work on an off-shore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. While working on the rig he read a lot of literature, but on land he developed a love of film through...

    , and Cluj-Napocolonia, a mockumentary imagining a fabulous city of the future.

    Education



    Higher education has a long tradition in Cluj-Napoca. The Babeş-Bolyai University
    Babes-Bolyai University
    The Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca is an university in Romania. With almost 50,000 students, the university offers 105 specialisations, of which there are 105 in Romanian, 67 in Hungarian, 17 in German, and 5 in English...

     (UBB) is the largest in the country, with approximately 50,000 students attending various specialisations in Romanian
    Romanian language
    Romanian Romanian Romanian (or Daco-Romanian; obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; self-designation: română, limba română ("the Romanian language") or românește (lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people, primarily in Romania and Moldova...

    , Hungarian
    Hungarian language
    Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

    , German and English. Its name commemorates two important Transylvania
    Transylvania
    Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

    n figures, the Romanian physician Victor Babeş
    Victor Babes
    Victor Babeș was a Romanian physician, biologist, and one of the earliest bacteriologists. He made early and significant contributions to the study of rabies, leprosy, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases....

     and the Hungarian mathematician János Bolyai
    János Bolyai
    János Bolyai was a Hungarian mathematician, known for his work in non-Euclidean geometry.Bolyai was born in the Transylvanian town of Kolozsvár , then part of the Habsburg Empire , the son of Zsuzsanna Benkő and the well-known mathematician Farkas Bolyai.-Life:By the age of 13, he had mastered...

    . The university claims roots as far back as 1581, when a Jesuit
    Society of Jesus
    The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

     college opened in Cluj, but it was in 1872 that emperor Franz Joseph
    Franz Joseph I of Austria
    Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

     founded the University of Cluj, later renamed the Franz Joseph University (József Ferenc Tudományegyetem). During 1919, immediately after the end of World War I, the university was moved to Budapest
    Budapest
    Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

    , where it stayed until 1921, after which it was moved to the Hungarian city of Szeged
    Szeged
    ' is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county town of Csongrád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary....

    . Briefly, it returned to Cluj in the first half of the 1940s, when the city came back under Hungarian administration, but it was again relocated in Szeged, following the reincorporation of Cluj into Romanian territory. The Romanian branch acquired the name Babeş; a Hungarian university, Bolyai, was established in 1945, and the two were merged in 1959. The city also hosts nine other universities, among them the Technical University
    Technical University of Cluj-Napoca
    The Technical University of Cluj-Napoca , Cluj-Napoca, Romania, is the second largest university in the city. The university has seven faculties, all in Romanian, and two in English.- Faculties :...

    , the Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy
    Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy
    Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy is the continuation of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, which was founded in 1919 at Cluj, as a part of the University of Cluj. The faculty has over 9,000 national and international students, as well as over 850 teachers and...

    , the USAMV, the University of Arts and Design
    Art and Design University of Cluj-Napoca
    The Art and Design University is an art university located in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It was founded on November 15, 1925, as the Fine Arts School of Cluj.-Faculties:The University has 2 faculties:* Faculty of Graphic Arts...

    , the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy
    Gheorghe Dima Music Academy
    Gheorghe Dima Music Academy is an educational institution in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Founded in 1919, it has various sections, including musicology, musical pedagogy, canto, coregraphic pedagogy, and opera. A notable alumnus is Christian Wilhelm Berger....

     and other private universities and educational institutes.

    The first mention of public education provided in the city dates back to 1409, namely the caption "Caspar notarius et rector scholarum" ("Caspar secretary and director of schools"). Concomitantly, a Catholic
    Roman Catholic Church
    The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

     school founded during the 14th century also functioned in the city.
    Today close to 150 pre-university educational institutions operate in Cluj-Napoca, including 62 kindergartens, 30 primary schools and 45 high schools. Their activity is supervised by the County Board for Education. Most schools are taught in Romanian
    Romanian language
    Romanian Romanian Romanian (or Daco-Romanian; obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; self-designation: română, limba română ("the Romanian language") or românește (lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people, primarily in Romania and Moldova...

    ; nonetheless, there are some Hungarian-language
    Hungarian language
    Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

     schools (Báthory István, Apáczai Csere János and Brassai Sámuel high schools), as well as mixed schools—e.g.George Coşbuc and Onisifor Ghibu high schools with Romanian/German classes and Romanian/Hungarian classes, respectively. Statistics show that 18,208 students were enrolled in the city's secondary school system during the 1993-94 school year, while a further 7,660 attended one of the 18 professional schools. In the same year, another 37,111 pupils and 9,711 children were registered for primary and pre-school, respectively.

    Sports



    Football (soccer)
    Football (soccer)
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

     in the city features four clubs playing in the leagues organised by the Romanian Football Federation
    Romanian Football Federation
    The Romanian Football Federation is the governing body of football in Romania. It organizes the Romania national football team and most of the Romanian football competitions. It is based in the Romanian capital city of Bucharest...

    , including two teams participating in Liga 1—formerly Divizia A—the top division in the Romanian football association. CFR 1907 Cluj-Napoca
    CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj is a Romanian professional football club from the city of Cluj-Napoca in Transylvania, Romania. The club had spent most of their existence in the lower divisions, except for a spell in Divizia A in the 1970s, until they received significant financial backing from Árpád Pászkány in 2002...

     (founded in 1907) is the oldest established team in the Romanian Championship. During the 2007–2008 season, it won the Romanian Championship and the Romanian Cup
    Romanian Cup
    The Cupa României is a football competition which was held annually since 1933-34, except during the World War II. It is the country's main cup competition, and it is open to all clubs affiliated with FRF and the county football associations regardless of the league they belong to...

     for the first time in its history. The 2009–2010 season was the second season in which CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj is a Romanian professional football club from the city of Cluj-Napoca in Transylvania, Romania. The club had spent most of their existence in the lower divisions, except for a spell in Divizia A in the 1970s, until they received significant financial backing from Árpád Pászkány in 2002...

     won both the Liga I
    Liga I
    Liga I, or in full, due to sponsorship reasons, Liga I Bergenbier, is the top division of the Romanian football league system. Before the 2006/2007 season, it was called Divizia A, but the name had to be changed following the discovery that someone else had registered the trademark "Divizia A"...

     and the Romanian Cup
    Romanian Cup
    The Cupa României is a football competition which was held annually since 1933-34, except during the World War II. It is the country's main cup competition, and it is open to all clubs affiliated with FRF and the county football associations regardless of the league they belong to...

    . The "U" Cluj football team—also playing in the Liga I—was founded in 1919, and its greatest success ever was the 1965 Romanian Cup
    Romanian Cup
    The Cupa României is a football competition which was held annually since 1933-34, except during the World War II. It is the country's main cup competition, and it is open to all clubs affiliated with FRF and the county football associations regardless of the league they belong to...

    . The city is also represented in the third league
    Liga III
    Liga III is the third level of the Romanian football league system. Its name was changed from Divizia C into Liga III before the start of the 2006-07 season.-Relegation:...

    , through CS Sănătatea Cluj-Napoca, founded in 1986. This team, which has the Victoria Someşeni Stadium as its home ground, reached the ⅛ finals of the Romanian Cup during the 2007–2008 season, its best performance. Clujana Cluj-Napoca
    CFF Clujana
    CFF Clujana is an association football club from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The club plays in the top league and is the Romanian record champion with seven championships.- Current squad :As of August 3, 2010- Achievements :...

     is the local women's soccer team, established in 2001 by Babeş-Bolyai University
    Babes-Bolyai University
    The Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca is an university in Romania. With almost 50,000 students, the university offers 105 specialisations, of which there are 105 in Romanian, 67 in Hungarian, 17 in German, and 5 in English...

    .


    The new Cluj Arena Stadium, home ground for "U" Cluj, is the largest in Cluj-Napoca (capacity 30,201); and is ranked as an UEFA Elite stadium. The next largest stadium (23,500 seats) is the Dr. Constantin Rădulescu Stadium, home field of the CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj is a Romanian professional football club from the city of Cluj-Napoca in Transylvania, Romania. The club had spent most of their existence in the lower divisions, except for a spell in Divizia A in the 1970s, until they received significant financial backing from Árpád Pászkány in 2002...

     football team, located in Gruia. This stadium has undergone major refurbishment, featuring up-to-date lighting for night game
    Night game
    A night game is a sporting event that takes place, completely or partially, after the local sunset. Depending on the sport, this can be done either with floodlights or with the usual low-light conditions.-Cricket:...

    s and automated lawn irrigation, and is due to undergo still further modernisation with the construction of new seating.

    "Universitatea" club also incorporates teams in sports such as rugby union
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

    , basketball
    Basketball
    Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

     (with the successful men's basketball team, U Mobitelco), handball
    Team handball
    Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

     and volleyball
    Volleyball
    Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

    . The city also features three water polo
    Water polo
    Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

     teams, as recognised by the Romanian Water Polo Federation: CSS Viitorul, CS Voinţa and Poli CSM.
    Facilities for such sports are located in the vicinity of the stadium, including the Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian
    Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian
    Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian , part of the city's Splaiul Independenţei sports complex, is a multi-use arena in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It is used as home ground of the both men's and women's handball and basketball teams of CS Universitatea Cluj-Napoca.The arena is named in honour of Horia Demian,...

    , a multi-functional hall designed for sports like handball
    Team handball
    Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

    , basketball
    Basketball
    Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

     or volleyball
    Volleyball
    Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

    , the Politehnica Swimming Complex, which includes indoor and open-air swimming pools, as well as the Iuliu Haţieganu
    Iuliu Hatieganu
    Iuliu Haţieganu was an eminent Romanian clinician, physician, and activist. He was the brother of politician Emil Haţieganu.He is especially famed for his research into tuberculosis. He was rector of Babeş-Bolyai University and a member of the Romanian Academy....

     Park – with tennis and track facilities and a new swimming pool under construction. Cluj-Napoca regularly organises national championships in different sports because of this large concentration of facilities.

    In the automotive field, Cluj-Napoca hosts two stages in the National Rally Championship. Raliul Clujului is held in June; the Avram Iancu Rally, held in September, has been officially organised since 1975, though there were several years when it was not held. The latter rally begins in Cipariu Square and runs across the surroundings of the city.

    Twin towns — Sister cities



    Cluj-Napoca is twinned
    Town twinning
    Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

     with:
    Cologne
    Cologne
    Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

    , Germany Jacareí
    Jacareí
    Jacareí is a city of approximately 211,308 inhabitants in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The name comes from a native brazilan language . It's a word that means something like "the rivers where alligators are found"....

    , Brazil São Paulo
    São Paulo
    São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

    , Brazil (2000) Be'er Sheva
    Beersheba
    Beersheba is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the seventh-largest city in Israel with a population of 194,300....

    , Israel Pécs
    Pécs
    Pécs is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and economical centre of Baranya county...

    , Hungary Zagreb
    Zagreb
    Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

    , Croatia Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

    , China
    Korçë
    Korçë
    Korçë is a city in southeastern Albania and the capital of the Korçë District. It has a population of around 105,000 people , making it the sixth largest city in Albania...

    , Albania Caracas
    Caracas
    Caracas , officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English . It is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range...

    , Venezuela Dijon
    Dijon
    Dijon is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Burgundy region.Dijon is the historical capital of the region of Burgundy. Population : 151,576 within the city limits; 250,516 for the greater Dijon area....

    , France Nantes
    Nantes
    Nantes is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast. The city is the 6th largest in France, while its metropolitan area ranks 8th with over 800,000 inhabitants....

    , France Makati City
    Makati City
    The City of Makati is one of the 17 cities that make up Metro Manila, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. Makati is the financial center of the Philippines and one of the major financial, commercial and economic hubs in Asia...

    , Philippines
    Suwon
    Suwon
    Suwon is the provincial capital of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. A major city of over a million inhabitants, Suwon lies approximately south of Seoul. It is traditionally known as "The City of Filial Piety"....

    , South Korea Cervia
    Cervia
    Cervia is a town and comune in the province of Ravenna , central Italy.-History:Originally called Ficocle, it was probably of Greek origin and was located midway from current Cervia and Ravenna...

    , Italy Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

    , United States East Lansing, Michigan
    East Lansing, Michigan
    East Lansing is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The city is located directly east of Lansing, Michigan, the state's capital. Most of the city is within Ingham County, though a small portion lies in Clinton County. The population was 48,579 at the time of the 2010 census, an increase from...

    , United States Rockford, Illinois
    Rockford, Illinois
    Rockford is a mid-sized city located on both banks of the Rock River in far northern Illinois. Often referred to as "The Forest City", Rockford is the county seat of Winnebago County, Illinois, USA. As reported in the 2010 U.S. census, the city was home to 152,871 people, the third most populated...

    , United States

    Footnotes


    a. The engraving, dating back to 1617, was executed by Georg Houfnagel after the painting of Egidius van der Rye (the original was done in the workshop of Braun and Hagenberg).

    b. After Transylvania united with Romania in 1918–1920, an exodus of Hungarian inhabitants occurred. Also, the city grew and many people moved in from the surrounding area and Cluj County as a whole, populated largely by Romanians.

    c. In August 1940, as the second Vienna Award transferred the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary, an exile of Romanian inhabitants began.

    d. The 1941 Hungarian census is considered unreliable by most historians. In 1941, Cluj had 16,763 Jews. They were forced into ghettos in 1944 by the Hungarian authorities and deported to Auschwitz in May–June 1944.

    e. In the 1960s a determined policy of Industrialisation was initiated. Many people from the surrounding rural areas (largely Romanian) were moved into the city. As a consequence, for the first time in its long history, Cluj had a Romanian majority.

    External links



    Official websites

    City guides

    Photos