Claude, Duke of Guise

Claude, Duke of Guise

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Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise (20 October 1496, Château
Château
A château is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions...

 de Condé-sur-Moselle, – 12 April 1550, Château de Joinville
Joinville, Haute-Marne
Joinville is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.Its medieval château-fort, which gave to members of the House of Guise their title, duc de Joinville, was demolished during the Revolution of 1789, but the 16th-century Château du Grand Jardin built by Claude de Lorraine,...

) was a French aristocrat and general. He became the first Duke of Guise in 1528.

He was the second son of René II
René II, Duke of Lorraine
René II was Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. He claimed the crown of the Kingdom of Naples and the County of Provence as the Duke of Calabria 1480–1493 and as King of Naples and Jerusalem 1493–1508...

, Duke of Lorraine and Philippa of Guelders
Philippa of Guelders
Philippa of Guelders , was the daughter of Adolf of Egmond and Catharine of Bourbon.- Family :Philippa was the twin sister of Charles, Duke of Guelders; they were born at Grave, Netherlands, and were their parents' only children...

. He was educated at the French court of Francis I. At seventeen, Claude made an alliance to the royal house of France by a marriage with Antoinette de Bourbon
Antoinette de Bourbon
Antoinette de Bourbon was a French noblewoman of the House of Bourbon. She was the wife of Claude de Lorraine, Duke of Guise...

 (1493–1583), daughter of François, Count of Vendôme
François, Count of Vendôme
François de Bourbon was a French nobleman. He was the Count of Vendôme.He was the son of Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme, and Isabelle de Beauveau. At his father's death when he was 7, he became Count of Vendôme...

.

Claude distinguished himself at the battle of Marignano
Battle of Marignano
The Battle of Marignano was fought during the phase of the Italian Wars called the War of the League of Cambrai, between France and the Old Swiss Confederacy. It took place on September 13 and 15, 1515, near the town today called Melegnano, 16 km southeast of Milan...

 (1515), and was long in recovering from the twenty-two wounds he received in the battle. In 1521, he fought at Fuenterrabia, and Louise of Savoy
Louise of Savoy
Louise of Savoy was a French noble, Duchess regnant of Auvergne and Bourbon, Duchess of Nemours, the mother of King Francis I of France...

 ascribed the capture of the place to his efforts. In 1523, he became governor of Champagne
Champagne (province)
The Champagne wine region is a historic province within the Champagne administrative province in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the region's name...

 and Burgundy, after defeating at Neufchâteau
Neufchâteau, Vosges
Neufchâteau is a commune in the Vosges department in Lorraine in northeastern France.Inhabitants are called Néocastriens.-Geography:Positioned at the confluence of the Rivers Meuse and Mouzon, the little town dominates the Vosges Plain...

 the imperial
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 troops who had invaded this province. In 1525, he destroyed the Anabaptist
Anabaptist
Anabaptists are Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, and their direct descendants, particularly the Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites....

 peasant army
German Peasants' War
The German Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, 1524–1526. At its height in the spring and summer of 1525, the conflict involved an estimated 300,000 peasants: contemporary estimates put the dead at 100,000...

, which was overrunning Lorraine
Lorraine (province)
The Duchy of Upper Lorraine was an historical duchy roughly corresponding with the present-day northeastern Lorraine region of France, including parts of modern Luxembourg and Germany. The main cities were Metz, Verdun, and the historic capital Nancy....

, at Lupstein
Lupstein
Lupstein is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.-People:* Alois Kayser, Catholic pastor who was active in Nauru, was born in Lupstein.-References:* -External links:*...

, near Saverne
Saverne
Saverne is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. It is situated on the Rhine-Marne canal at the foot of a pass over the Vosges Mountains, and 45 km N.W...

 (Zabern).

On the return of Francis I from captivity in 1528, Claude was made Duke of Guise in the peerage of France
Peerage of France
The Peerage of France was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. It was abolished in 1789 during the French Revolution, but it reappeared in 1814 at the time of the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of the First French Empire...

, though up to this time only princes of the royal house had held the title of duke and peer of France. The Guises, as cadets of the sovereign House of Lorraine
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine, the main and now only remaining line known as Habsburg-Lorraine, is one of the most important and was one of the longest-reigning royal houses in the history of Europe...

 and descendants of the Capetian House of Anjou
Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou, also known as the House of Anjou-Sicily and House of Anjou-Naples, was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct House of Capet. Founded by Charles I of Sicily, a son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily during the 13th century...

, claimed precedence over the Bourbon
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty . Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma...

 princes of Condé
Prince of Condé
The Most Serene House of Condé is a historical French house, a noble lineage of descent from a single ancestor...

 and Conti
Prince of Conti
The title of Prince of Conti was a French noble title, assumed by a cadet branch of the house of Bourbon-Condé. It was taken from Conty, a small town of northern France, c. 35 km southwest of Amiens, which came into the Condé family by the marriage of Louis of Bourbon, first prince of Condé,...

.

Their pretensions and ambitions inspired distrust in Francis I, although he rewarded Guise's services by substantial gifts in land and money. The duke distinguished himself in the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

 campaign in 1542, but for some years before his death he effaced himself before the growing fortunes of his sons.

Claude's issue

  • Mary of Guise
    Mary of Guise
    Mary of Guise was a queen consort of Scotland as the second spouse of King James V. She was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, and served as regent of Scotland in her daughter's name from 1554 to 1560...

     (1515–1560), married to king James V of Scotland
    James V of Scotland
    James V was King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss...

  • Francis, Duke of Guise
    Francis, Duke of Guise
    Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale , called Balafré , was a French soldier and politician.-Early life:...

     (1519–1563)
  • Louise of Guise (10 January 1520, Bar-le-Duc
    Bar-le-Duc
    Bar-le-Duc, formerly known as Bar, is a commune in the Meuse département, of which it is the préfecture . The department is in Lorraine in north-eastern France-Geography:...

     – 18 October 1542), married Charles I, Duke of Arschot on 20 February 1541
  • Renée of Guise (2 September 1522 – 3 April 1602), Abbess of St. Pierre, Reims
    Reims
    Reims , a city in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire....

  • Charles, Duke of Chevreuse, Archbishop of Reims and Cardinal of Guise (1524–1574)
  • Claude, Duke of Aumale
    Claude, Duke of Aumale
    Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Aumale was the third son of Claude, Duke of Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon. He was a prince of Lorraine by birth....

     (1526–1573)
  • Louis I, Cardinal of Guise
    Louis I, Cardinal of Guise
    Louis de Lorraine was the fourth son of Claude, Duke of Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon, and the younger brother of Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine. He was the nephew of Cardinal Jean de Lorraine...

     (1527–1578)
  • Philip (3 September 1529, Joinville – 24 September 1529, Joinville)
  • Peter (b. 3 April 1530, Joinville), d. young
  • Antoinette of Guise (31 August 1531, Joinville – 6 March 1561, Joinville), Abbess of Faremoutier
  • Francis, Grand Prior
    Prior
    Prior is an ecclesiastical title, derived from the Latin adjective for 'earlier, first', with several notable uses.-Monastic superiors:A Prior is a monastic superior, usually lower in rank than an Abbot. In the Rule of St...

     of the Order of Malta (18 April 1534, Joinville – 6 March 1563)
  • René, Marquis of Elbeuf
    René, Marquis of Elbeuf
    René of Guise,Marquis d'Elbeuf was the youngest son of Claude, Duke of Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon....

    (1536–1566)