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Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals

Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals

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Encyclopedia
The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals (CPR) is a taxonomy
Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. The field of taxonomy, sometimes referred to as "biological taxonomy", revolves around the description and use of taxonomic units, known as taxa...

 focused to define and group together situations requiring a referral
Referral (medicine)
In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.Tertiary care is usually done by referral from primary or secondary medical care personnel....

 from pharmacists to physicians (and vice versa) regarding the pharmacotherapy
Pharmacotherapy
Pharmacotherapy is the treatment of disease through the administration of drugs. As such, it is considered part of the larger category of therapy....

 used by the patients. It has been published in 2008. It is bilingual: English/Spanish (Clasificación de Derivaciones Fármaco-terapéuticas).

It is a simple and efficient classification of pharmaco-therapeutic referrals between physicians and pharmacists permitting a common inter-professional language. It is adapted to any type of referrals among health professionals, and to increase its specificity it can be combined with ATC codes, ICD-10
ICD-10
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision is a medical classification list for the coding of diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases, as maintained by the...

, and ICPC-2 PLUS
ICPC-2 PLUS
ICPC-2 PLUS is an extended terminology classified to ICPC-2 International Classification of Primary Care, which aids data entry, retrieval and analysis. ICPC-2 PLUS takes into account the frequency distribution of problems seen in primary health care...

.

It is a part of the MEDAFAR Project, whose objective is to improve, through different scientific activities, the coordination processes between physicians and pharmacists working in primary health care
Primary health care
Primary health care, often abbreviated as “PHC”, has been defined as "essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost...

.

Supporting institutions

  • Pharmaceutical Care Foundation of Spain (Fundación Pharmaceutical Care España)
  • Spanish Society of Primary Care Doctors (Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria) (SEMERGEN)

Authors

  • Raimundo Pastor Sánchez (Family practice, "Miguel de Cervantes" Primary Health Centre
    Primary Health Centre
    The Primary Health Centre is the basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in developing countries. PHCs were established to provide accessible, affordable and available primary health care to people, in accordance with the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978 by the member...

     SERMAS Alcalá de Henares
    Alcalá de Henares
    Alcalá de Henares , meaning Citadel on the river Henares, is a Spanish city, whose historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, and one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain...

     – Madrid
    Madrid
    Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

     – Spain)
  • Carmen Alberola Gómez-Escolar (Pharmacist
    Pharmacist
    Pharmacists are allied health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use...

    , Vice-President Fundación Pharmaceutical Care España)
  • Flor Álvarez de Toledo Saavedra (Community pharmacist, Past-President Fundación Pharmaceutical Care España)
  • Nuria Fernández de Cano Martín (Family practice, "Daroca" Primary Health Centre
    Primary Health Centre
    The Primary Health Centre is the basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in developing countries. PHCs were established to provide accessible, affordable and available primary health care to people, in accordance with the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978 by the member...

     SERMAS Madrid
    Madrid
    Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

     – Spain)
  • Nancy Solá Uthurry (Doctor in Pharmacy, Fundación Pharmaceutical Care España)

Structure


It is structured in 4 chapters (E, I, N, S) and 38 rubrics. The terminology used follows the rules of ICPC.

Each rubric consists in an alphanumeric code (the letter corresponds to the chapters and the number to the component) and each title of the rubric (the assigned name) is expressed and explained by:

– A series of terms related with the title of the rubric.

– A definition expressing the meaning of the rubric

– A list of inclusion criteria and another list with exclusion criteria to select and qualify the contents corresponding to a rubric.

– Some example to illustrate every term.

It also includes a glossary of 51 terms defined by consensus, an alphabetical index with 350 words used in the rubrics; and a standardized model of inter-professional referral form, to facilitate referrals from community pharmacists to primary care physicians.

Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals MEDAFAR

  • E. Effectiveness / Efficiency:
    • E 0. Effectiveness
      Effectiveness
      Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.-Etymology:...

       / Efficiency
      Efficiency
      Efficiency in general describes the extent to which time or effort is well used for the intended task or purpose. It is often used with the specific purpose of relaying the capability of a specific application of effort to produce a specific outcome effectively with a minimum amount or quantity of...

      , unspecified
    • E 1. Indication
      Indication
      Indication can refer to:* A synonym for Sign.* Human interface Highlighting the single object pointed to as a cursor is moved, without any other user action such as clicking, is indication....

    • E 2. Prescription
      Prescription
      Prescription may refer to:Health care*Prescription drug, a drug available only by a medical prescription*Medical prescription, a plan of care written by a physician or other health care professional...

       and dispensing conditions
    • E 3. Active substance / excipient
      Excipient
      An excipient is generally a pharmacologically inactive substance used as a carrier for the active ingredients of a medication. In many cases, an "active" substance may not be easily administered and absorbed by the human body; in such cases the substance in question may be dissolved into or...

    • E 4. Pharmaceutical form / how supplied
    • E 5. Dosage
      Dose (biochemistry)
      A dose is a quantity of something that may impact an organism biologically; the greater the quantity, the larger the dose. In nutrition, the term is usually applied to how much of a specific nutrient is in a person's diet or in a particular food, meal, or dietary supplement...

    • E 6. Quality
      Quality
      - Concepts :* Quality , the non-inferiority or superiority of something* Quality , an attribute or a property* Quality , in response theory...

    • E 7. Storage
      Storage
      Storage may refer to:-Storage of goods:* Warehouse, a commercial building for storage of goods* Self storage, public storage facility-Containers:* Dry cask storage, storing high-level radioactive waste* Food storage...

    • E 8. Consumption
      Ingestion
      Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism. In animals, it normally is accomplished by taking in the substance through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking...

    • E 9. Outcome
      Outcome
      Outcome may refer to:* Outcome , a concept in game theory* The Outcome, a Swedish punk rock band* outcome measure in a clinical trial...

      .

  • I. Information / Health education:
    • I 0. Information
      Information
      Information in its most restricted technical sense is a message or collection of messages that consists of an ordered sequence of symbols, or it is the meaning that can be interpreted from such a message or collection of messages. Information can be recorded or transmitted. It can be recorded as...

       / Health education
      Health education
      Health education is the profession of educating people about health. Areas within this profession encompass environmental health, physical health, social health, emotional health, intellectual health, and spiritual health...

      , unspecified
    • I 1. Situation
      Situation
      Situation is a Juno-nominated album by Buck 65 released on October 30, 2007.-1957:The song "1957" makes reference to various events in the year 1957, including the birth of punk rocker Sid Vicious, the relocation of the Brooklyn Dodgers to Los Angeles, the apprehension of serial killer Ed Gein, the...

       / reason for encounter
    • I 2. Health problem
    • I 3. Complementary examination
    • I 4. Risk
      Risk
      Risk is the potential that a chosen action or activity will lead to a loss . The notion implies that a choice having an influence on the outcome exists . Potential losses themselves may also be called "risks"...

    • I 5. Pharmacological treatment
    • I 6. No pharmacological treatment
    • I 7. Treatment goal
    • I 8. Socio-healthcare system.

  • N. Need:
    • N 0. Need
      Need
      A need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants because a deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome, such as dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as food, or they can be subjective and psychological,...

      , unspecified
    • N 1. Treatment
      Therapy
      This is a list of types of therapy .* Adventure therapy* Animal-assisted therapy* Aquatic therapy* Aromatherapy* Art and dementia* Art therapy* Authentic Movement* Behavioral therapy* Bibliotherapy* Buteyko Method* Chemotherapy...

       based on symptoms and/or signs
      Signs
      Signs is the plural of sign. See sign .Signs may also refer to:*Signs , a 2002 film by M. Night Shyamalan*Signs , a journal of women's studies...

    • N 2. Treatment
      Therapy
      This is a list of types of therapy .* Adventure therapy* Animal-assisted therapy* Aquatic therapy* Aromatherapy* Art and dementia* Art therapy* Authentic Movement* Behavioral therapy* Bibliotherapy* Buteyko Method* Chemotherapy...

       based on socio–economic-work issues
    • N 3. Treatment
      Therapy
      This is a list of types of therapy .* Adventure therapy* Animal-assisted therapy* Aquatic therapy* Aromatherapy* Art and dementia* Art therapy* Authentic Movement* Behavioral therapy* Bibliotherapy* Buteyko Method* Chemotherapy...

       based on public health
      Public health
      Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

       issues
    • N 4. Prevention
      Preventive medicine
      Preventive medicine or preventive care refers to measures taken to prevent diseases, rather than curing them or treating their symptoms...

    • N 5. Healthcare provision
    • N 6. Complementary test for treatment control
    • N 7. Administrative activity
    • N 8. On patient
      Patient
      A patient is any recipient of healthcare services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse, veterinarian, or other health care provider....

       request (fears, doubts, wants).

  • S. Safety:
    • S 0. Safety
      Patient safety
      Patient safety is a new healthcare discipline that emphasizes the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical error that often leads to adverse healthcare events. The frequency and magnitude of avoidable adverse patient events was not well known until the 1990s, when multiple countries reported...

      , unspecified
    • S 1. Toxicity
      Toxicity
      Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage a living or non-living organisms. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell or an organ , such as the liver...

    • S 2. Interaction
      Drug interaction
      A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. Typically, interaction between drugs come to mind...

    • S 3. Allergy
      Allergy
      An Allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur when a person's immune system reacts to normally harmless substances in the environment. A substance that causes a reaction is called an allergen. These reactions are acquired, predictable, and rapid...

    • S 4. Addiction
      Substance dependence
      The section about substance dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not use the word addiction at all. It explains:...

       (dependence)
    • S 5. Other side effects
      Side Effects
      Side Effects is an anthology of 17 comical short stories written by Woody Allen between 1975 and 1980, all but one of which were previously published in, variously, The New Republic, The New York Times, The New Yorker, and The Kenyon Review. It includes Allen's 1978 O...

    • S 6. Contraindication
      Contraindication
      In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment.Some contraindications are absolute, meaning that there are no reasonable circumstances for undertaking a course of action...

    • S 7. Medicalisation
    • S 8. Non-regulate substance
    • S 9. Data
      Data
      The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which...

       / confidentiality
      Confidentiality
      Confidentiality is an ethical principle associated with several professions . In ethics, and in law and alternative forms of legal resolution such as mediation, some types of communication between a person and one of these professionals are "privileged" and may not be discussed or divulged to...

      .

See also


  • Health care
    Health care
    Health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers...

    • Family medicine
      Family medicine
      Family medicine is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages. It is a division of primary care that provides continuing and comprehensive health care for the individual and family across all ages, sexes, diseases, and parts of the body...

       / Family practice
    • General practice
    • Pharmaceutical care
      Pharmaceutical care
      Pharmaceutical care is the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient's quality of life...

    • Primary care
      Primary care
      Primary care is the term for the health services by providers who act as the principal point of consultation for patients within a health care system...

    • Primary health care
      Primary health care
      Primary health care, often abbreviated as “PHC”, has been defined as "essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost...

  • Health care provider
    Health care provider
    A health care provider is an individual or an institution that provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to individuals, families or communities....

    • Pharmacist
      Pharmacist
      Pharmacists are allied health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use...

    • Pharmacy technician
      Pharmacy technician
      A pharmacy technician, also sometimes known as a pharmaceutical technician, is a health care worker who performs pharmacy related functions, generally working under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist or other health professional...

  • Medical classification
    Medical classification
    Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers...

    • ATC codes Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
    • ICD-10
      ICD-10
      The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision is a medical classification list for the coding of diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases, as maintained by the...

       International Classification of Diseases
    • International Classification of Primary Care
      International Classification of Primary Care
      The International Classification of Primary Care is a classification method for primary care encounters. It allows for the classification of the patient’s reason for encounter , the problems/diagnosis managed, primary or general health care interventions, and the ordering of the data of the...

       (ICPC) / ICPC-2 PLUS
      ICPC-2 PLUS
      ICPC-2 PLUS is an extended terminology classified to ICPC-2 International Classification of Primary Care, which aids data entry, retrieval and analysis. ICPC-2 PLUS takes into account the frequency distribution of problems seen in primary health care...

  • Pharmacy
    Pharmacy
    Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

  • Pharmacotherapy
    Pharmacotherapy
    Pharmacotherapy is the treatment of disease through the administration of drugs. As such, it is considered part of the larger category of therapy....

  • Referral (medicine)
    Referral (medicine)
    In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.Tertiary care is usually done by referral from primary or secondary medical care personnel....


External links