Civil liberties of the United States

Civil liberties of the United States

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Civil liberties of the United States are certain inalienable rights retained by (as opposed to privileges granted to) citizens of the United States under the Constitution of the United States, as interpreted and clarified by the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

 and lower federal courts. Civil liberties are simply defined as individual legal and constitutional protections from entities more powerful than an individual, for example, parts of the government, other individuals, or corporations. The liberties explicitly defined, make up the Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These limitations serve to protect the natural rights of liberty and property. They guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and...

, including freedom of speech, the right to bear arms, and the right to privacy. There are also many liberties of people not defined in the Constitution, as stated in the Ninth Amendment
Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, addresses rights of the people that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.-Text:-Adoption:When the U.S...

: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Freedom of speech


Freedom of speech is a civil liberty protected under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering...

, adopted on December 15, 1791.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

This civil liberty grants all United States citizens the right to express themselves and enjoy the expression of others without interference of the government. This freedom of expression is often tested and can be the center of controversy because of how it is interpreted. The courts have recognized the Bill of Rights as having the intention of rights of privacy and the separation of church and state, even though it is not clearly stated. It is also thought that the amendment refers only to government interference, which leads to individual corporations and businesses violating these freedoms.

The following types of speech are not protected constitutionally: defamation or false statements, child pornography, obscenity, damaging the national security interests, verbal acts, and fighting words. Because these categories fall outside of the First Amendment privileges, the courts can legally restrict or criminalize any expressive act within them. Other expressions, including threat of bodily harm or publicizing illegal activity, may also be ruled illegal.

Right to bear arms


The right of the people to keep and bear arms is assured by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution
Second Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights.In 2008 and 2010, the Supreme Court issued two Second...

:
A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.


This amendment was originally interpreted as regarding to military activity until a Supreme Court case in 2008. In the District of Columbia v. Heller
District of Columbia v. Heller
District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 , was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution protects an individual's right to possess a firearm for traditionally lawful purposes in federal enclaves, such as...

case, the Second Amendment and its relation to gun control laws in the District of Columbia were challenged for the first time in 70 years. The phrase, "to keep and bear arms" in its historical context, was re-evaluated. Although the phrase was formerly connected to military activities, the court decided not to limit the amendment to this context. The Court held that "[t]he Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home" -District of Columbia v. Heller, 128 S.Ct. 2783 (2008).

The constitutional right to keep and bear arms varies by state. Different states have made provisions to this right throughout history, generally regarding the issue of self-defense. A majority of state constitutions allow arms for any citizen in self-defense of himself or the state. States without any specific provisions regarding this clause are California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey and New York. Of these, only Iowa and New Jersey provide a clause for "defending life and liberty."

This civil liberty can be approached philosophically as well as lawfully. What does the word "arms" exactly mean? What does the word "bear" mean in this specific statement? The word "bear" means, to carry, or to hold. The word "arms" means, weapons, not necessarily firearms, specifically. When these words are used together, "bear arms" could most likely be interpreted by some as a right to carry firearms outside of one's home. The topic of whether firearms were or were not able to be carried outside the home was not addressed in the District of Columbia v. Heller court case.

"The lawyer who won the Columbia v Heller court case to allow residents to keep handguns in their homes is now fighting to allow residents and visitors to carry their weapons in public." While it is legal to carry a concealed firearm in other select states, it is still prohibited in the District of Columbia.

Equal protection


Main article: Equal Protection Clause
Equal Protection Clause
The Equal Protection Clause, part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, provides that "no state shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"...



Equal protection prevents the government from creating laws that are discriminatory in application or effect.

Further reading