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Citroën Xantia

Citroën Xantia

Overview

The Citroën Xantia, pronounced 'Zan-tia' is a large family car
Large family car
A large family car, also known as a D-segment car, is a European automobile classification which is larger than a small family car and smaller than an executive car. Multi-purpose vehicles based on a large family car design are often called large MPVs, while similarly-priced models from luxury car...

 produced by the French automaker Citroën
Citroën
Citroën is a major French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group.Founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën , Citroën was the first mass-production car company outside the USA and pioneered the modern concept of creating a sales and services network that...

. First seen at the end of 1992, the car was produced between 1993 and 2001, with a facelift in 1998. Citroën sold over 1.2 million Xantias during its 8 years of production. After production in Europe ended in early 2001, the SAIPA
SAIPA
Saipa is the second largest Iranian auto manufacturer.Saipa was established in 1966, with 75% Iranian ownership, to assemble Citroëns under license for the Iranian market...

 Corporation in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 produced it (until September 2010). Penned by Bertone, the exterior styling of the Xantia was also used on the Daewoo Espero
Daewoo Espero
The Daewoo Espero is a mid-size car produced by the South Korean company Daewoo Motors from 1990 to 1997. It was technically based on the GM J platform and had the distinction of a body designed by Bertone. It bore more than a passing resemblance to the Citroën Xantia, itself also a Bertone design...

.

The Xantia replaced the earlier Citroën BX
Citroën BX
The Citroën BX is a large family car that was produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1982 to 1994. In total, 2,315,739 BXs were built during its 12-year history. The hatchback was discontinued in 1993 with the arrival of the Xantia, but the estate continued for another year.-History:The...

 and maintained the high level of popularity of that model, but brought the car more into the mainstream to compete harder with its rivals such as the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

, Nissan Primera
Nissan Primera
The Nissan Primera is a medium sized family car produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan for the Japanese domestic and European markets.-Nissan Primera P10 :...

, Rover 400
Rover 400
The second generation 400 Series, codenamed Theta or HH-R, was launched in the summer of 1995 as a hatchback and later a saloon. This time it was based on the Honda Domani, which had been released in Japan in 1992, and was sold as part of the European Honda Civic range in five-door hatchback form...

, Toyota Carina E and Vauxhall Cavalier
Vauxhall Cavalier
The Vauxhall Cavalier is a large family car sold primarily in the UK by Vauxhall Motors, the British division of General Motors , from 1975 to 1995...

.

It signalled that Citroën had learned from the reception given the staid Citroën ZX
Citroën ZX
The Citroën ZX is a small family car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1991 and 1998.During the 1990s, the ZX was Citroën's competitor in the class traditionally dominated in Europe by the Ford Escort and Vauxhall/Opel Astra, a market segment Citroën had moved away from when the...

, introduced two years earlier and criticised by contemporary journalists for its lack of traditional Citroën flair in engineering and design.
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Encyclopedia

The Citroën Xantia, pronounced 'Zan-tia' is a large family car
Large family car
A large family car, also known as a D-segment car, is a European automobile classification which is larger than a small family car and smaller than an executive car. Multi-purpose vehicles based on a large family car design are often called large MPVs, while similarly-priced models from luxury car...

 produced by the French automaker Citroën
Citroën
Citroën is a major French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group.Founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën , Citroën was the first mass-production car company outside the USA and pioneered the modern concept of creating a sales and services network that...

. First seen at the end of 1992, the car was produced between 1993 and 2001, with a facelift in 1998. Citroën sold over 1.2 million Xantias during its 8 years of production. After production in Europe ended in early 2001, the SAIPA
SAIPA
Saipa is the second largest Iranian auto manufacturer.Saipa was established in 1966, with 75% Iranian ownership, to assemble Citroëns under license for the Iranian market...

 Corporation in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 produced it (until September 2010). Penned by Bertone, the exterior styling of the Xantia was also used on the Daewoo Espero
Daewoo Espero
The Daewoo Espero is a mid-size car produced by the South Korean company Daewoo Motors from 1990 to 1997. It was technically based on the GM J platform and had the distinction of a body designed by Bertone. It bore more than a passing resemblance to the Citroën Xantia, itself also a Bertone design...

.

History


The Xantia replaced the earlier Citroën BX
Citroën BX
The Citroën BX is a large family car that was produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1982 to 1994. In total, 2,315,739 BXs were built during its 12-year history. The hatchback was discontinued in 1993 with the arrival of the Xantia, but the estate continued for another year.-History:The...

 and maintained the high level of popularity of that model, but brought the car more into the mainstream to compete harder with its rivals such as the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

, Nissan Primera
Nissan Primera
The Nissan Primera is a medium sized family car produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan for the Japanese domestic and European markets.-Nissan Primera P10 :...

, Rover 400
Rover 400
The second generation 400 Series, codenamed Theta or HH-R, was launched in the summer of 1995 as a hatchback and later a saloon. This time it was based on the Honda Domani, which had been released in Japan in 1992, and was sold as part of the European Honda Civic range in five-door hatchback form...

, Toyota Carina E and Vauxhall Cavalier
Vauxhall Cavalier
The Vauxhall Cavalier is a large family car sold primarily in the UK by Vauxhall Motors, the British division of General Motors , from 1975 to 1995...

.

It signalled that Citroën had learned from the reception given the staid Citroën ZX
Citroën ZX
The Citroën ZX is a small family car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1991 and 1998.During the 1990s, the ZX was Citroën's competitor in the class traditionally dominated in Europe by the Ford Escort and Vauxhall/Opel Astra, a market segment Citroën had moved away from when the...

, introduced two years earlier and criticised by contemporary journalists for its lack of traditional Citroën flair in engineering and design. The Xantia addressed these concerns in the facelifted Xantia.

The Xantia also used the traditional Citroën hydropneumatic suspension system pioneered in the older DS
Citroën DS
The Citroën DS is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1955 and 1975. Styled by Italian sculptor and industrial designer Flaminio Bertoni and the French aeronautical engineer André Lefèbvre, the DS was known for its aerodynamic futuristic body design and innovative...

. It was initially only available as a hatchback (liftback) (Berline), but an estate (station wagon
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

) (Break) version built by Heuliez
Heuliez
Heuliez is a French company that works as a production and design unit for various automakers. It specializes in producing short series for niche markets, such as convertibles or station-wagons....

 appeared in 1995.

In-line with PSA Group policy, the Peugeot 406
Peugeot 406
The Peugeot 406 was a large family car made by the French automaker Peugeot from 1995 to 2004. Available in saloon, estate and coupé bodystyles with a choice of petrol or turbodiesel engines, the 406 replaced the Peugeot 405 in Peugeot's lineup, and was itself replaced by the Peugeot 407...

 launched 2 years later used the same floorpan, core structure and engines as the Xantia. The Hydractive suspension system was not carried over, and the 406 utilised a more traditional spring suspension.

Sales in the UK were strong, though it was never able to match the success of established British favourites such as the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 or Vauxhall Vectra.

Suspension


From an engineering perspective, the Xantia's biggest advance was the suspension. From launch, the more expensive models were available with an enhanced version of the XM
Citroën XM
The Citroën XM is an executive car that was produced by the French automaker Citroën between 1989 and 2000. Citroën sold 333,775 XMs during the model's 11 years of production...

's Hydractive, Hydractive II or H2, computer-controlled version of the hydropneumatic self-leveling suspension. This used extra suspension spheres to allow a soft ride in normal conditions, but taut body control during hard braking, acceleration or cornering. These models feature an innovation first seen on the CX and then subsequently fitted to the facelifted XM - a programmed self-steer rear axle. On sweeping curves and tight bends alike, the rear wheels turn in line with the front wheels, sharpening responses and adding to driver pleasure. Unfortunately, on most examples, the spheres needed replacing quite regularly, at great expense! Clutches also went quite often on some examples, hence its problems in trying to beat cars like the Ford Mondeo. But, the Xantia did have the character which comes naturally to most citroens of that era.

In 1994, the Activa
Citroën Activa
The Citroën Activa and Activa 2 were two concept cars produced by the French manufacturer Citroën as a means to test and to showcase features intended for future use in their production cars...

 technology was introduced, which is an extension to the Hydractive II suspension, where two additional spheres and two hydraulic cylinders are used together with computer control to eliminate body roll completely. This technology is more broadly known as active suspension
Active suspension
Active or adaptive suspension is an automotive technology that controls the vertical movement of the wheels with an onboard system rather than the movement being determined entirely by the road surface...

, and the Xantia Activa has exceptional road holding comparable to true sports cars. In the Swedish magazine Teknikens Värld
Teknikens Värld
Teknikens värld is a leading motor magazine in Sweden, owned and published by Bonnier. The magazine primarily features automotive news, reviews and test drives of passenger cars from various segments. Books are also published under the name, e.g...

's
moose test
Moose test
A moose test or elk test is a test to determine how a certain vehicle acts when the driver evades a suddenly appearing obstacle...

 the 1999 model of Xantia V6 Activa still holds the record speed trough the maneuver - faster then Porsche 996 GT2.

UK Models of the Activa came fitted with a XU10 2 litre turbocharged engine also fitted to the Citroën XM 2.0CT and Peugeot 605 SRi. It produced 150 bhp and 171 lb ft of torque and was a 'low-blow' type for smooth power delivery rather than outright bhp. When modified Its performance can be improved to get close to the output of V6 models for very little outlay whilst retaining the smoothness and excellent torque characteristics.

The Xantia was the last Citroën to use a common hydraulic circuit for suspension, brakes and steering like the pioneering Citroën DS
Citroën DS
The Citroën DS is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1955 and 1975. Styled by Italian sculptor and industrial designer Flaminio Bertoni and the French aeronautical engineer André Lefèbvre, the DS was known for its aerodynamic futuristic body design and innovative...

. It was also the last Citroën car that used the green LHM hydraulic fluid. Later cars, such as the C5, used LDS instead.

Engines


Power came courtesy of the familiar PSA XU-series gasoline engines, this time in 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 displacements, a 2.0 16-valve version for the Xantia VSX, a turbocharged 2.0 engine, from 1995 onwards, a 1.8 16-valve and a 2.0 16-valve engine. In 1997, a 3.0 V6
PSA ES engine
The PSA ES engine or Renault L engine is a V6 engine used in automotive applications. It was co-developed by the PSA Group and Renault to replace the outdated PRV engine. It was introduced in 1997 with the Peugeot 406 Coupé....

 engine was offered as top-of-the-line.

The popular XUD turbodiesel units in 1.9 (turbocharged: 92 hp, low-pressure turbo: 75 hp, or not: 71 hp) displacement proved to be the best-selling engine. The biggest diesel was a 2.1 TD with 109 hp.

In 1998, PSA introduced the HDi direct injection turbodiesel (in two versions: 90 hp, and intercooled 110 hp). For an economical diesel engine, the HDi offered the kind of throttle response normally seen in a gasoline engine and quiet high speed cruising at a top speed of 118 mi/h. Acceleration was also good at 11.4 seconds from 0 to 60 mph.
Model Years Engine and code Displ. Power Torque
1.6 i 1993–1995 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XU5 M3/Z (BFZ)  1580 cc 65 kW @ 6000 rpm 130 newton metre @ 2600 rpm
1.8 i 1993–1995 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XU7 JP (LFZ)  1762 cc 76 kW @ 6000 rpm 153 newton metre @ 3000 rpm
1.8 i 1995–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XU7 JB (LFX)  1762 cc 66 kW @ 5000 rpm 157 newton metre @ 2600 rpm
1.8 i 16V 1995–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 16V
XU7 JP4 (LFY)  1762 cc 82.5 kW @ 5500 rpm 155 newton metre @ 4250 rpm
2.0 i 1993–1999 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XU10 J2C (RFX)  1998 cc 89 kW @ 5750 rpm 176 newton metre @ 2750 rpm
2.0 i 16V 1993–1995 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 16V
XU10 J4D/Z (RFY)  1998 cc 110 kW @ 6500 rpm 183 newton metre @ 3500 rpm
2.0 i 16V 1995–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 16V
XU10 J4R (RFV)  1998 cc 97 kW @ 5500 rpm 180 newton metre @ 4200 rpm
2.0 i Turbo CT 1995–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XU10 J2TE (RGX)  1998 cc 110 kW @ 5300 rpm 235 newton metre @ 2500 rpm
3.0 i V6 1997–2001 V6
V6 engine
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a right angle or an acute angle to each other, with all six pistons driving a common crankshaft...

 24V
ES9 J4 (XFZ)
PSA ES engine
The PSA ES engine or Renault L engine is a V6 engine used in automotive applications. It was co-developed by the PSA Group and Renault to replace the outdated PRV engine. It was introduced in 1997 with the Peugeot 406 Coupé....

 
2946 cc 140 kW @ 5500 rpm 267 newton metre @ 4000 rpm
1.9 D 1993–1995 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XUD9 A (D9B)  1905 cc 52 kW @ 4600 rpm 120 newton metre @ 2000 rpm
1.9 SD 1995–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XUD9 SD (DHW)  1905 cc 56 kW @ 4600 rpm 135 newton metre @ 2250 rpm
1.9 Turbo D 1993–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
XUD9 TE/Y (DHX)  1905 cc 67 kW @ 4000 rpm 196 newton metre @ 2250 rpm
2.0 HDi 1998–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
DW10 TD (RHY)  1997 cc 68 kW @ 4000 rpm 205 newton metre @ 1900 rpm
2.0 HDi 1998–2001 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 8V
DW10 ATED (RHZ)  1997 cc 80 kW @ 4000 rpm 250 newton metre @ 1750 rpm
2.1 Turbo D12 1995–1999 I4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 12V
XUD11 BTE (P8C) 2088 cc 80 kW @ 4300 rpm 250 newton metre @ 2000 rpm

External links