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Citation

Citation

Overview
Broadly, a citation is a reference
Reference
Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rèférer, from Latin referre, "to carry back", formed from the prefix re- and ferre, "to bear"...

 to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. [Newell84]) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.
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Encyclopedia
Broadly, a citation is a reference
Reference
Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rèférer, from Latin referre, "to carry back", formed from the prefix re- and ferre, "to bear"...

 to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. [Newell84]) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).

A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty: to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way.

The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford, Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the trade-offs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus are chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted. Editors will often specify the citation system to use.

Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgment by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.

Concepts

  • A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book
    Book
    A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of hot lava, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf or leaflet, and each side of a leaf is called a page...

    , article
    Article (publishing)
    An article is a written work published in a print or electronic medium. It may be for the purpose of propagating the news, research results, academic analysis or debate.-News articles:...

    , web page
    Web page
    A web page or webpage is a document or information resource that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a monitor or mobile device. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext...

    , or other published item. Citations should supply sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely. Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation
    Scientific citation
    Scientific citation is providing detailed reference in a scientific publication, typically a paper or book, to previous published communications which have a bearing on the subject of the new publication...

    , legal citation
    Legal citation
    Legal citation is the practice of crediting and referring to authoritative documents and sources. The most common sources of authority cited are court decisions , statutes, regulations, government documents, treaties, and scholarly writing....

    , prior art
    Prior art
    Prior art , in most systems of patent law, constitutes all information that has been made available to the public in any form before a given date that might be relevant to a patent's claims of originality...

    , and the arts
    The arts
    The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and...

     and the humanities
    Humanities
    The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

    .

Citation content


Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include:
  • Book: author(s), book title, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate.
  • Journal: author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s).
  • Newspaper: author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication.
  • Web site: author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL
    Uniform Resource Locator
    In computing, a uniform resource locator or universal resource locator is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource....

    , and a date when the site was accessed.
  • Play: inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married" (Pushkin 4.452-53).
  • Poem: spaced slashes are normally used to indicate separate lines of a poem, and parenthetical citations
    Parenthetical referencing
    Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence, as opposed to the footnote style...

     usually include the line number(s). For example: "For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give." (Brennan, lines 15–16).

Unique identifiers


Along with information
Information
Information in its most restricted technical sense is a message or collection of messages that consists of an ordered sequence of symbols, or it is the meaning that can be interpreted from such a message or collection of messages. Information can be recorded or transmitted. It can be recorded as...

 such as author(s), date of publication
Publication
To publish is to make content available to the public. While specific use of the term may vary among countries, it is usually applied to text, images, or other audio-visual content on any medium, including paper or electronic publishing forms such as websites, e-books, Compact Discs and MP3s...

, title
Title
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may even be inserted between a first and last name...

 and page numbers, citations may also include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.
  • Citations of books may include an International Standard Book Number
    International Standard Book Number
    The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering code created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin, for the booksellers and stationers W.H...

     (ISBN).
  • Specific volumes, articles or other identifiable parts of a periodical, may have an associated Serial Item and Contribution Identifier
    Serial Item and Contribution Identifier
    The Serial Item and Contribution Identifier is a code used to uniquely identify specific volumes, articles or other identifiable parts of a periodical...

     (SICI).
  • Electronic documents may have a digital object identifier
    Digital object identifier
    A digital object identifier is a character string used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic document. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found...

     (DOI).
  • Biomedical research articles may have a PubMed Identifier (PMID).
  • A citation number, used in some citation systems, is a number or symbol added inline
    Inline
    inline may relate to:* Inline citation or reference* Inline engine * Computers** Inline expansion** Inline function** Inline assembler** inline tag * Internet Posting Style** Inline replying...

     and usually in superscript, to refer readers to a footnote or endnote that cites the source. In other citation systems, an inline
    Inline
    inline may relate to:* Inline citation or reference* Inline engine * Computers** Inline expansion** Inline function** Inline assembler** inline tag * Internet Posting Style** Inline replying...

     parenthetical reference is used rather than a citation number, with limited information such as the author's last name, year of publication, and page number referenced; a full identification of the source will then appear in an appended bibliography
    Bibliography
    Bibliography , as a practice, is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology...

    .

Note systems


Note systems involve the use of sequential numbers in the text which refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (a note on a separate page at the end of the paper) which gives the source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form.

For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like this:
"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."1


The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:
1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.


In a paper which contains a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like this:
1. Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60.


and the bibliography entry, which would be required with a shortened note, would look like this:
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.


In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.

Parenthetical referencing


Parenthetical referencing
Parenthetical referencing
Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence, as opposed to the footnote style...

 also known as Harvard referencing where full or partial, in-text citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the paragraph, as opposed to the footnote style.

An example of a parenthetical reference would be:
(Smith 2010, p. 1)


Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Alternately a list of the citations with complete bibliographical references may be included in an end section sorted alphabetically by author's last name.

This section may be known as:
  • References
  • Bibliography
  • Works cited
  • Works consulted

Citation styles


Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 16 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing...

, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems. Others, such as MLA and APA
APA style
American Psychological Association Style is a set of rules that authors use when submitting papers for publications in APA journals. The APA states that they were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and to "move the idea...

 styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system. These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles. The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.

A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination
Stephanus pagination
Stephanus pagination is the system of reference and organization used in modern editions and translations of Plato . Plato's works are divided into numbers, and each number will be divided into equal sections a, b, c, d and e...

 for Plato
Plato
Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

; Bekker numbers for Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology...

; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play, act and scene.

Some examples of style guides include:

Humanities

  • The Chicago Style
    The Chicago Manual of Style
    The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 16 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing...

     (CMOS) was developed and its guide is The Chicago Manual of Style. It is most widely used in history and economics as well as some social sciences. Its derivative is the closely related Turabian style which is designed for student references and is distinguished from the CMOS by omission of quotation marks in reference lists and mandatory access date citation.
  • The Columbia Style was made by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.
  • Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace by Elizabeth Shown Mills covers primary sources not included in CMOS, such as censuses, court, land, government, business, and church records. Includes sources in electronic format. Used by genealogists and historians.
  • Harvard referencing (or author-date system) is a specific kind of parenthetical referencing
    Parenthetical referencing
    Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence, as opposed to the footnote style...

    . Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the British Standards Institution
    BSI Group
    BSI Group, also known in its home market as the British Standards Institution , is a multinational business services provider whose principal activity is the production of standards and the supply of standards-related services.- History :...

     and the Modern Language Association
    Modern Language Association
    The Modern Language Association of America is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature...

    . Harvard referencing involves a short author-date reference, e.g., "(Smith, 2000)", being inserted after the cited text within parentheses and the full reference to the source being listed at the end of the article.
  • MLA style
    The MLA Style Manual
    The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing is the third edition of The MLA Style Manual, first published by the Modern Language Association of America in 1985...

     was developed by the Modern Language Association
    Modern Language Association
    The Modern Language Association of America is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature...

     and is most often used in the arts
    The arts
    The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and...

     and the humanities
    Humanities
    The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

    , particularly in English studies
    English studies
    English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language , English linguistics English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S.,...

    , other literary studies
    Literary criticism
    Literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often informed by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of its methods and goals...

    , including comparative literature
    Comparative literature
    Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the literature of two or more different linguistic, cultural or national groups...

     and literary criticism
    Literary criticism
    Literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often informed by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of its methods and goals...

     in languages other than English ("foreign languages"), and some interdisciplinary
    Interdisciplinarity
    Interdisciplinarity involves the combining of two or more academic fields into one single discipline. An interdisciplinary field crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged....

     studies, such as cultural studies
    Cultural studies
    Cultural studies is an academic field grounded in critical theory and literary criticism. It generally concerns the political nature of contemporary culture, as well as its historical foundations, conflicts, and defining traits. It is, to this extent, largely distinguished from cultural...

    , drama
    Drama
    Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action" , which is derived from "to do","to act" . The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a...

     and theatre
    Theatre
    Theatre is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance...

    , film
    Film
    A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

    , and other media
    Mass media
    Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies which are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media transmit their information electronically and comprise of television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles...

    , including television
    Television
    Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

    . This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing
    Parenthetical referencing
    Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence, as opposed to the footnote style...

     with author-page (Smith 395) or author-[short] title-page (Smith, Contingencies 42) in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes (footnotes or endnotes). See The MLA Style Manual
    The MLA Style Manual
    The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing is the third edition of The MLA Style Manual, first published by the Modern Language Association of America in 1985...

    and The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
    The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
    The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers is a publication of the Modern Language Association of America, based on The MLA Style Manual...

    , particularly Citation and bibliography format.
  • The MHRA Style Guide
    MHRA Style Guide
    The MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses is an academic style guide published by the Modern Humanities Research Association and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based...

     is published by the Modern Humanities Research Association
    Modern Humanities Research Association
    The Modern Humanities Research Association is a British-based international organization that aims to encourage and promote advanced study and research of humanities. It is most notable for producing the MHRA Style Guide....

     (MHRA) and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    , where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    . It is similar to MLA style
    The MLA Style Manual
    The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing is the third edition of The MLA Style Manual, first published by the Modern Language Association of America in 1985...

    , but has some differences. For example, MHRA style uses footnotes that reference a citation fully while also providing a bibliography. Some readers find it advantageous that the footnotes provide full citations, instead of shortened references, so that they do not need to consult the bibliography while reading for the rest of the publication details.


In some areas of the Humanities, footnotes are used exclusively for references, and their use for conventional footnotes (explanations or examples) is avoided. In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.

Law


  • The Bluebook
    Bluebook
    The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a style guide, prescribes the most widely used legal citation system in the United States. The Bluebook is compiled by the Harvard Law Review Association, the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal....

     is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts. At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use inline citations which are either separate sentences or separate clauses.
  • The legal citation style used almost universally in Canada is based on the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (aka McGill Guide
    McGill Guide
    The McGill Guide is the unofficial name for the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, which establishes the legal citation standard in Canada. It is published by the McGill Law Journal of the McGill University Faculty of Law and is used by law students and lawyers throughout Canada...

    ), published by McGill Law Journal.
  • British legal citation almost universally follows the Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA)

Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine


  • The American Chemical Society
    American Chemical Society
    The American Chemical Society is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has more than 161,000 members at all degree-levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical...

     style, or ACS style
    ACS style
    The ACS style is a set of standards for writing documents relating to chemistry, including a standard method of citation in academic publications, developed by the American Chemical Society . The printed versions of the ACS style manual are entitled ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of...

    , is often used in chemistry
    Chemistry
    Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

     and other physical sciences. In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • In the style of the American Institute of Physics
    American Institute of Physics
    The American Institute of Physics promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies...

     (AIP style), references are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • Styles developed for the American Mathematical Society
    American Mathematical Society
    The American Mathematical Society is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, which it does with various publications and conferences as well as annual monetary awards and prizes to mathematicians.The society is one of the...

     (AMS), or AMS styles, such as AMS-LaTeX
    AMS-LaTeX
    AMS-LaTeX is a collection ofLaTeX document classes and packages developed for the American Mathematical Society . Its additions to LaTeX include the typesetting of multi-line and other mathematical statements, document classes, and fonts containing numerous mathematical symbols.It has largely...

    , are typically implemented using the BibTeX
    BibTeX
    BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system...

     tool in the LaTeX
    LaTeX
    LaTeX is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as . The term LaTeX refers only to the language in which documents are written, not to the editor used to write those documents. In order to...

     typesetting environment. Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference. Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g. [AB90]. This type of style is also called a "Authorship trigraph."
  • The Vancouver system
    Vancouver system
    The Vancouver system, also known as the "author-number" system, is a way of writing references in academic papers. It is popular in the physical sciences, and is one of two referencing systems normally used in medicine, the other being the author-date, or "Harvard", system.-History:The Vancouver...

    , recommended by the Council of Science Editors
    Council of Science Editors
    The Council of Science Editors is a nonprofit professional membership organization. CSE's mission is to serve editorial professionals in the sciences by creating a supportive network for career development, providing educational opportunities, and developing resources for identifying and...

     (CSE), is used in medical and scientific papers and research.
    • In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.
    • The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is reportedly the original kernel of this biomedical style which evolved from the Vancouver 1978 editors' meeting. The MEDLINE
      MEDLINE
      MEDLINE is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes bibliographic information for articles from academic journals covering medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and health care...

      /PubMed
      PubMed
      PubMed is a free database accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez information retrieval system...

       database uses this citation style and the National Library of Medicine provides "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals
      Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals
      The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals is a set of guidelines produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, for standardising the ethics, preparation and formatting of manuscripts submitted for publication by biomedical journals...

       -- Sample References".
  • The style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a non-profit professional association headquartered in New York City that is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence...

     (IEEE), or IEEE style
    IEEE Style
    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers style is a widely accepted format for writing research papers, commonly used in technical fields, particularly in computer science. In IEEE style, citations are numbered, but citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather...

    , encloses citation numbers within square brackets and numbers them consecutively, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • Pechenik Citation Style is a style described in A Short Guide to Writing about Biology, 6th ed. (2007), by Jan A. Pechenik.
  • In 2006, Eugene Garfield proposed a bibliographic system for scientific literature, to consolidate the integrity of scientific publications.

Social sciences

  • The style of the American Psychological Association
    American Psychological Association
    The American Psychological Association is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States. It is the world's largest association of psychologists with around 154,000 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. The APA...

    , or APA style
    APA style
    American Psychological Association Style is a set of rules that authors use when submitting papers for publications in APA journals. The APA states that they were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and to "move the idea...

    , published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, is most often used in social sciences
    Social sciences
    Social science is the field of study concerned with society. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences usually exclusive of the administrative or managerial sciences...

    . APA style uses Harvard referencing within the text, listing the author's name and year of publication, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources at the end of the paper on a References page.
  • The American Political Science Association
    American Political Science Association
    The American Political Science Association is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States. Founded in 1903, it publishes three academic journals...

     publishes both a style manual and a style guide for publications in this field. The style is close to the CMOS.
  • The American Anthropological Association
    American Anthropological Association
    The American Anthropological Association is a professional organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology. With 11,000 members, the Arlington, Virginia based association includes archaeologists, cultural anthropologists, biological anthropologists, linguistic...

     utilizes a modified form of the Chicago Style
    The Chicago Manual of Style
    The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 16 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing...

     laid out in their Publishing Style Guide.
  • The ASA style
    ASA style
    American Sociological Association style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers that specifies such the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies...

     of American Sociological Association
    American Sociological Association
    The American Sociological Association , founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society , is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology by serving sociologists in their work and promoting their contributions to serve society.The ASA holds its...

     is one of the main styles used in sociological publications.

Citation marks


In the case of direct citations, the boundaries of a citation are apparent from the quotation marks. However, the boundaries of indirect citations are usually unknown. In order to clarify these boundaries, citation marks (˻…˼) can be used. Example:
This is sentence 1. ˻This is sentence 2. This is sentence 3.˼ (Smith et al., 2012)


Here, it becomes apparent from the citation marks that the citation refers to both sentence 2 and 3, but not to sentence 1.

Issues


In their research on footnotes in scholarly journals in the field of communication, Michael Bugeja and Daniela V. Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay (as cited pages are taken down), which they call a "half-life," that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time.

See also

  • Acknowledgment (creative arts)
    Acknowledgment (creative arts)
    In the creative arts and scientific literature, an acknowledgment is an expression of gratitude for assistance in creating a literary or artistic work....

  • Bible citation
    Bible citation
    A Bible citation is usually referenced with the book name, chapter number and verse number. Sometimes, the name of the Bible translation is also included. There are several formats for doing so.A common example:...

  • Case citation
    Case citation
    Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past court cases, either in special series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a 'neutral' form which will identify a decision wherever it was reported...

  • Citation creator
    Citation Creator
    Citation creators or citation generators are online tools which facilitate the creation of works cited and bibliographies. Citation creators use web forms to take input and format the output according to guidelines and standards, such as the Modern Language Association's MLA Style Manual, American...

  • Citation signal
    Citation signal
    Introductory signals are used in legal citations to present authorities and show how the authorities relate to propositions in textual statements. A legal writer uses an introductory signal to tell readers how her citation to legal authority supports, or does not support, her written proposition...

  • Citationality
    Citationality
    Citationality, in literary criticism, is an author's citation of other author's works. Some works are highly citational , while others seem to exist in a vacuum, without explicit references to other authors or texts...

  • Credit (creative arts)
    Credit (creative arts)
    In general, the term credit in the artistic or intellectual sense refers to an acknowledgement of those who contributed to a work, whether through ideas or in a more direct sense.-Credit in the arts:...

  • Cross-reference
    Cross-reference
    A cross-reference is an instance within a document which refers to related or synonymous information elsewhere, usually within the same work. To cross-reference or to cross-refer is to make such connections. The term "cross-reference" is often abbreviated as x-ref, xref, or, in computer science,...

  • Scholarly method
    Scholarly method
    Scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.-Methods:...

  • Source evaluation
    Source evaluation
    Source evaluation is the skill of analysing information sources in order to assess their credibility. The ability toassess different sources of information is highly relevant to the task of operating within a complex information society....

  • Style guide
    Style guide
    A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field...


External links


Guidelines
Examples
  • Illustrated examples, generated using BibTeX
    BibTeX
    BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system...

    , of several major styles, including more than those listed above.
  • PDF file bibstyles.pdf illustrates how several bibliographic styles appear with citations and reference entries, generated using BibTeX
    BibTeX
    BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system...

    .


Style guides

Other online resources