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Christoph Scheiner

Christoph Scheiner

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Christoph Scheiner SJ (25 July 1573 (or 1575) in Markt Wald
Markt Wald
Markt Wald is a municipality in the district of Unterallgäu in Bavaria, Germany....

 near Mindelheim
Mindelheim
Mindelheim is a town in the German Bundesland of Bavaria. The town is the capital of the Unterallgäu district. At various points in history it was the chief settlement of an eponymous state.- Geography :...

 in Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

, earlier markgravate Burgau, possession of the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 – 18 July 1650 in Neisse
Nysa, Poland
Nysa is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river with 47,545 inhabitants , situated in the Opole Voivodeship. It is the capital of Nysa County. It comprises the urban portion of the surrounding Gmina Nysa, a mixed urban-rural commune with a total population of 60,123 inhabitants...

 in Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

) was a Jesuit priest, physicist
Physicist
A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

 and astronomer
Astronomer
An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

 in Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

.

Augsburg/Dillingen: 1591–1605


Christopher Scheiner attended the Jesuit-run St. Salvator Grammar School in Augsburg from May 1591 until October 24, 1595. He graduated as a "rhetor" and entered the Jesuit Order in Landsberg am Lech
Landsberg am Lech
Landsberg am Lech is a town in southwest Bavaria, Germany, about 65 kilometers west of Munich and 35 kilometers south of Augsburg. It is the capital of the district of Landsberg am Lech....

 on October 26, 1595. At the local seminary
Seminary
A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is an institution of secondary or post-secondary education for educating students in theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy or for other ministry...

, he served his biennial novitiate (1595–1597) under the tutelage of Novice Master Father Rupert Reindl SJ. From 1597 to 1598, he finished his lower studies of rhetoric in Augsburg. He took his first vows before Father Melchior Stör, SJ and received the minor orders from the Augsburg suffragan bishop Sebastian Breuning. He spent the years 1598–1601 in Ingolstadt studying philosophy (metaphysics
Metaphysics
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:...

 and mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

). In 1603, Christoph Scheiner invented the pantograph
Pantograph
A pantograph is a mechanical linkage connected in a special manner based on parallelograms so that the movement of one pen, in tracing an image, produces identical movements in a second pen...

,
an instrument which could duplicate plans and drawings to an adjustable scale. From 1603 to 1605 he taught humanities: his years as a Latin teacher at the Jesuit grammar school in Dillingen earned him the title of Magister Artium.


Ingolstadt: 1605–1617


From the autumn of 1605 until 1609, Christoph Scheiner studied theology in Ingolstadt. Due to his invention of the pantograph, he had already gained celebrity status. Duke William V of Bavaria even invited him to Munich to demonstrate the instrument.

On March 14, 1609, he entered Holy Orders as a Deacon. He was ordained by suffragan bishop Marcus Lyresius. Scheiner finished his studies on June 30, 1609 with his first work, ‘’Theses Theologicae’’ and with a disputation (PhD in theology). On April 18, 1609, he received his major orders from suffragan bishop Marcus Lyresius in Eichstätt, from where he went to Ebersberg to serve his tertianship with Father Johannes Pelecius SJ. In the years between 1610 and 1616/1617, Scheiner worked as a successor to Father Johannes Lantz SJ in Ingolstadt, teaching mathematics (physics and astronomy) and Hebrew. He lectured on sun dials, practical geometry, astronomy, optics and the telescope.

In 1611, Scheiner observed sunspots; in 1612 he published the "Apelles
Apelles
Apelles of Kos was a renowned painter of ancient Greece. Pliny the Elder, to whom we owe much of our knowledge of this artist rated him superior to preceding and subsequent artists...

 letters"
in Augsburg. Marcus Welser had the first three Apelles letters printed in Augsburg on January 5, 1612. They provided one of many reasons for the subsequent unpleasant argument between Scheiner and Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei , was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism...

. Scheiner published in 1614 the Disquisitiones mathematicae in Ingolstadt with Johann Georg Locher, in 1615 Sol ellipticus in Augsburg and with Georg Schönberger
Georg Schönberger
Georg Schönberger was a Obersturmbannführer in the Waffen-SS who was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.During Operation Marita Schönberger was in command of the Sturmgeschütz Battalion LSSAH....

 Exegeses
Exegesis
Exegesis is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, especially a religious text. Traditionally the term was used primarily for exegesis of the Bible; however, in contemporary usage it has broadened to mean a critical explanation of any text, and the term "Biblical exegesis" is used...

 fundamentorum gnomonicorum
in Ingolstadt, and in 1617 he published Refractiones coelestes, also in Ingolstadt. Cristoph Scheiner took his remaining vows of poverty, chastity, obedience and loyalty before the Pope on July 31, 1617 in the town of Ingolstadt under Father Johannes Manhart SJ. In the very same year Scheiner made known his wish to go to China as a missionary. Father General Mutio Vitelleschi
Mutio Vitelleschi
Mutio Vitelleschi was the 6th Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was the son of a noble Roman family. Although he was destined for a general ecclesiastical career, a growing desire to enter the Society of Jesus culminated in his taking private vows to enter the novitiate...

 sent him a letter, however, telling Scheiner he had better stay in Europe and persevere with his mathematical studies. In the winter of 1617/1618, Scheiner returned to Innsbruck, Austria at the behest of Archduke Maximilian III.

Innsbruck/Freiburg/Neisse: 1617–1624


After November 1614, Archduke Maximilian III summoned Christopher Scheiner to Innsbruck several times to discuss astronomical and mathematical questions. The Archduke had received an astronomical telescope
Telescope
A telescope is an instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation . The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 1600s , using glass lenses...

 with two convex lenses which showed objects upside down and the wrong way round. Scheiner added a third lens, thus manufacturing a terrestrial telescope which allowed Maximilian to see the beautiful stretches of his country while standing upright. A portable camera obscura
Camera obscura
The camera obscura is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography. The device consists of a box or room with a hole in one side...

 was developed by Christoph Scheiner in Innsbruck. Furthermore a walkable camera obscura was constructed.

After the death of Maximilian III in 1618, Archduke Leopold V was appointed imperial representative of Tyrol and of the Upper Provinces. Like his predecessor Maximilian, Leopold V put his trust in Father Scheiner. Scheiner’s "Oculus hoc est: Fundamentum opticum," containing many new insights into the physiological nature of the eye, was published in Innsbruck in 1619. The book had been written earlier in Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

. Oculus is subdivided into three parts: the first part treats the anatomy of the eye, the second part the refraction of the light ray inside the eye, and the third part deals with the retina and the visual angle. Scheiner once again chooses the way of observation and experiment. Like Kepler before him, he found that the retina
Retina
The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical...

 is the seat of vision and that the optic nerve transmits the images from the retina to the brain
Human brain
The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times larger than the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Estimates for the number of neurons in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion...

. Scheiner was rebuked once more for going from Innsbruck to Hall
Hall
In architecture, a hall is fundamentally a relatively large space enclosed by a roof and walls. In the Iron Age, a mead hall was such a simple building and was the residence of a lord and his retainers...

 in a heavily loaded coach
Carriage
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

 drawn by six horses! Father General Vitelleschi wrote him a letter. Archduke Leopold V and Father Scheiner carried on a sizeable correspondence from 1620 until 1632. One of Scheiner’s letters to Leopold from 1626 informs the Archduke that Galilei
Galilei
Galilei is a surname, and may refer to:*Galileo Galilei , astronomer, philosopher, and physicist.*Vincenzo Galilei , composer, lutenist, and music theorist; father of Galileo...

 is not to hear of Scheiner’s work concerning the sunspots.

The inventory of Leopold’s library contains works by Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe , born Tyge Ottesen Brahe, was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations...

 and Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei , was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism...

: Leopold lead a friendly correspondence with Galilei. On May 23, 1618, Leopold received telescopes from Galilei, along with a treatise on the sunspots, the Discorso del Flusso e Reflusso del Mare.

Christopher Scheiner was the builder of the new Jesuit church in Innsbruck. Craftsmen began to work on the roof in the July 1624, but September saw a sudden collapse of the middle part of the gallery and the sidewall facing the street. According to a new decision, the church had to be turned by 90° and be reconstructed.

Freiburg University was facing a decline at the beginning of the 17th century. It was on November 16, 1620, that Archduke Leopold summoned the Jesuit Fathers, first of all, the "most excellent by far" Christopher Scheiner. In the spring of 1621, Scheiner was recalled for reasons confirmed to be unknown: in fact it was Archduke Karl's wish to have Scheiner as his father confessor. Archduke Karl had travelled with Scheiner from Brixen to Vienna, from where he did not return to Neisse until sometime between 1621 and 1622. In February 1623, Scheiner was appointed Superior of the future college. Then the Spanish King Philipp IV
Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV was King of Spain between 1621 and 1665, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, and King of Portugal until 1640...

 chose Karl of Austria for the office of a vice-king of Portugal. Archduke Karl travelled to Madrid. Scheiner had to travel to Rome, to instigate the foundation of the new college in Neisse. Scheiner stayed in Rome longer than his duty required. In Rosa Ursina sive Sol, he wrote that he had been sent to Rome "ad summum pontificem, ob certa peragenda negotia" (Latin meaning "to the pontifical summons..."). Other theories, contending that Scheiner had been summoned to Rome as an expert astronomer because of Galilei, or that he felt his transfer to Neise was a punishment, have not been confirmed. It was only 13 years later, that he returned to Neisse via Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

, where he stayed for some time.

Rome: 1624–1633


When Scheiner went to Rome in 1624, friends asked him to write about his solar observations. At last he had time for mathematical books, among them Galilei’s Il saggiatore, which contains plagiarism
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work, but the notion remains problematic with nebulous...

s of Scheiner’s work while accusing the Jesuit of plagiarizing himself. In 1629 and 1630, Scheiner observed Mock suns (parhelia) and halo
Halo (optical phenomenon)
A halo from Greek ἅλως; also known as a nimbus, icebow or gloriole) is an optical phenomenon produced by ice crystals creating colored or white arcs and spots in the sky. Many are near the sun or moon but others are elsewhere and even in the opposite part of the sky...

s; his observations also included an eclipse
Eclipse
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer...

 on April 8, 1633. On June 22, 1633, Galilei received his sentence and had to renounce his claims, despite the protest sounding even from the Catholic side. Scheiner’s influence on the trial cannot be proven. The trial files merely contain a small note mentioning that he had opposed the Copernican
Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe....

s. At the time of the trial, Scheiner was still in Rome, staying at the seminary for future priests . Scheiner wrote three of his books in Rome: Rosa Ursina sive Sol (Bracciano, 1626–1630), on the sunspots which served as a standard work for research work on the sunspots for a long time. Rosa Ursina sive Sol contains four books. In the first part, Scheiner discusses the question of priority of discovery in regard to the sunspots. The second part not only describes telescopes, different kinds of projection and the helioscope
Helioscope
A helioscope is an instrument used in observing the sun.The helioscope was first used by Benedetto Castelli and refined by Galileo...

 but also compares the optics of the telescope to the physiological optics of the eye. In the third book, Scheiner presents a comprehensive collection of the data from his observation of the sunspots. Book 4 consists of two parts: The first part deals once again with solar phenomena like sunspots and sun flares, the sun’s rotation period of 27 days and the inclination of its axis of rotation. In the second part, Scheiner mentions numerous passages and quotations from the Bible, the writings of the Church Fathers and philosophers to prove that his geocentric view is in accordance with the teachings of the Catholic Church. Scheiner published Pantographice, about the pantograph which he had invented as early as 1603, and finally in 1632/1633, Scheiner published his last work Prodromus, a pamphlet against the heliocentric theory which was published posthumously in 1651.


Vienna: 1633–1637


Father General Mutio Vitelleschi
Mutio Vitelleschi
Mutio Vitelleschi was the 6th Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was the son of a noble Roman family. Although he was destined for a general ecclesiastical career, a growing desire to enter the Society of Jesus culminated in his taking private vows to enter the novitiate...

 wrote his first letter to Scheiner in Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 on January 21, 1634. Thus Scheiner must have returned to Vienna between December 1633 and January 1634. Scheiner was unwilling to go back to Neisse. In Vienna, Scheiner was forced to confront the insecure funding for his book Rosa Ursina sive Sol.

Neisse: 1637–1650


After November 15, 1637, Scheiner was in Neisse. Scheiner’s activities in Neisse: Advisor, Councilor of the Rector, Mentor and Father Confessor to the students. Scheiner’s obituary from 1650 maintains that Scheiner had to stay in Vienna because of the war, that he had had to flee from Neisse with all his astronomical instruments, that he usually got up early, to write or read, take care of the garden and plant trees with his own hands. The author of this obituary mentions Scheiner’s modesty and chastity while pointing out that he was envied by many and "struggled with envy himself." Christoph Scheiner died on July 18, 1650 in Neisse (now Nysa, Poland
Nysa, Poland
Nysa is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river with 47,545 inhabitants , situated in the Opole Voivodeship. It is the capital of Nysa County. It comprises the urban portion of the surrounding Gmina Nysa, a mixed urban-rural commune with a total population of 60,123 inhabitants...

).

Works


Memorabilia


The primary school in Markt Wald
Markt Wald
Markt Wald is a municipality in the district of Unterallgäu in Bavaria, Germany....

 is named in memory of Christopher Scheiner. In Markt Wald, there is also a street and a plaque hangs on the town hall and an observation tower to his remembrance. In Ingolstadt, there is the Christoph-Scheiner-Gymnasium (a High School). The street to the observatory of the university in Munich and a road in Berlin (Charlottenburg) are named after Scheiner. In 1999, a coin (35-mm diameter), with Scheiner’s face on it, was minted in Ingolstadt. Also a lunar crater is named after Christopher Scheiner (diameter: 110 km [68 mi], height of embankment: 5,500 m [18,000 ft], named by Riccoli). A postage stamp was issued in Austria (2005). The town museum in Ingolstadt shows an oil painting (after 1732), also the Studienbibliothek Dillingen a fresco (painter Ignaz Schilling, 1702–1773).

Literature

  • Biagioli, Mario; Picturing Objects in the Making: Scheiner, Galilei and the Discovery of Sunspots, in: Ideals and Cultures of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe, Detel and Zittel (Hg.), Berlin 2002, 39–95.
  • Casanovas, Juan; Early Observations of Sunspots: Scheiner and Galileo, in: 1st Advances in Solar Physics Euroconference, Advances in the Physics of Sunspots, ASP Conference Series 118, B. Schmieder, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, M. Vásquez (Hg.) (1997), 3–20.
  • Daly, Peter M.; Dimler, G. Richard & Haub Rita; Imago Figurata Studies, Vol. 3, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout 2000, 133–144.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Briefe Christoph Scheiners an Erzherzog Leopold V. von Österreich-Tirol von 1620–1632, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt, 102/103, 1993/94, 401–404.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Briefe des Naturwissenschaftlers Christoph Scheiner, Erzherzog Leopold V. von Österreich-Tirol, 1620–1632, Innsbruck 1995.
  • Daxecker, Franz; The Physicist and Astronomer Christoph Scheiner: Biography, Letters, Works, Veröffentlichungen der Universität Innsbruck 246 (2004).
  • Daxecker, Franz ; Die Disputatio des Astronomen Christoph Scheiner, Acta Historica Astronomiae 23, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 7 (2004), 99–144.
  • Daxecker, Franz Scheiner, Christoph, Neue Deutsche Biographie 22, Berlin 2005, 638–648
  • Daxecker, Franz Christoph Scheiners Weg zur Optik, in: Ingolstädter Heimatblätter 3, 54,1991, 9–12. Johannes Hemleben, Galilei, Reinbek 1991.
  • Daxecker Franz , Christoph Scheiners allgemeine Aussagen über Fernrohre, in: Die Jesuiten in Ingolstadt 1549–1773, Ingolstadt 1992, 140–143.
  • Daxecker, Franz Christoph Scheiner's eye studies, in: Documenta Ophthalmologica 81, 1992, 27–35;
  • Daxecker, Franz; Christoph Scheiners Geburtsort und Geburtsjahr, Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 107, 1998, 118–122.
  • Daxecker, Franz ; Christoph Scheiner und die Camera obscura, Acta Historica Astronomiae 28, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 8, 2006, 37–42.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Christoph Scheiners Untersuchungen zur physiologischen Optik des Auges, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 102/103, 1993/1994, 385–399.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Das Hauptwerk des Astronomen P. Christoph Scheiner SJ "Rosa Ursina sive Sol" - eine Zusammenfassung, Ber. nat.-med. Verein, Innsbruck 1996, Suppl. 13.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Der Astronom P. Christoph Scheiner SJ als Bauleiter des ersten Jesuitenkirchen-Neubaues in Innsbruck, in: Tiroler Heimatblätter, 1996, 14–20.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Der Naturwissenschaftler Christoph Scheiner SJ in der optischen Literatur. Ein medizinhistorischer Beitrag, in: Ber. nat.-med. Verein Innsbruck 80, 1993, 411–420.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Der Physiker und Astronom Christoph Scheiner, Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2006.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Further studies by Christoph Scheiner concerning the optics of the eye, in: Documenta Ophthalmologica 86, 1994, 153–161.
  • Daxecker, Franz Erzherzog Maximilian III., Erzherzog Leopold V. und die Astronomen Christoph Scheiner und Galileo Galilei, in: Tiroler Heimat 69, Innsbruck 2005, 7–16.
  • Daxecker, Franz & Subaric, Lav; Briefe der Generaloberen P. Claudio Aquaviva SJ, P. Mutio Vitelleschi SJ und P. Vincenco Carafa an den Astronomen P. Christoph Scheiner SJ von 1614 bis 1649, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 111, 2002, 101–148.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Christoph Scheiner und die Optik des Auges, in: Sonne entdecken, Ingolstadt 2000, 43–45.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 9, 2000, 120–121.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Christoph Scheiners Hauptwerk "Rosa Ursina sive Sol", in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 109, 2000, 43–57.
  • Daxecker, Franz & Lav Subaric; Christoph Scheiners "Sol ellipticus", Veröffentlichungen der Universität Innsbruck 226, Innsbruck 1998.
  • Daxecker, Franz; P. Christoph Scheiner und der Galilei-Prozeß, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt, 108, Ingolstadt 1999, 111–112.
  • Daxecker, Franz; "Über das Fernrohr" und weitere Mitschriften von Vorlesungen Christoph Scheiners, in: Acta Historica Astronomiae 13, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 4, 2001, 19–32.
  • Daxecker Franz; Florian Schaffenrath, Ein Nachruf auf den Astronomen Christoph Scheiner aus dem Jahr 1650, in: Acta Historica Astronomiae 13, 2001, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 4, 33–45.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Frontispize in den Werken P. Christoph Scheiners SJ, in: Emblematik und Kunst der Jesuiten in Bayern: Einfluß und Wirkung, Peter M. Daly, G. Richard Dimler SJ, Rita Haub (Hg.), Imago Figurata Studies, Vol. 3, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout 2000, 133-144
  • Daxecker, Franz; Neue Dokumente zu Christoph Scheiner: Theses theologicae, Vorlesungsmitschriften und ein Nachruf aus dem Jahr 1650, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 110, 2001, 143–147.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Schaffenrath, Florian; & Subaric, Lav; Briefe Christoph Scheiners von 1600 bis 1634, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 110, 2001, 117–141.
  • Daxecker, Franz; Christoph Scheiners Lebensjahre zwischen 1633 und 1650, in: Acta Historica Astronomiae 15, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 5, 2002, 40–46;
  • Franz Daxecker: Der Physiker und Astronom Christoph Scheiner. Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2006
  • Franz Daxecker: Christoph Scheiner und der flüssige Himmel, in: Acta Historica Astronomiae 36, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 9, 2008, 26-36
  • Duhr, Bernhard; Geschichte der Jesuiten in den Ländern deutscher Zunge in der ersten Hälfte des XVII. Jahrhunderts, 4 Bde., Freiburg i. Br. 1907, 1913 (Bde. 1 u. 2) - München 1921, 1928 (Bde. 3 u. 4), 2/2, 227, 435–436.
  • Favaro, Antonio; Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale, I-XX, Florence 1890–1909, Nachdruck Florenz 1968.
  • Frieß, Peter; Christoph Scheiner und die dritte Dimension in der Malerei, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 109, 2000, 33–42.
  • Gassendi, Petri; Diniensis Ecclesiae Praepositi, et in Academia Parisiensi Matheseos Regii Professoris Opera Omnia in sex tomos divisa, Florence 1727, VI, 38, 42–43, 49, 50, 370–371, 376, 377, 382.
  • Goercke, Ernst, Christoph Scheiners Ausführungen über Glaslinsen und ein moderner Nachahmungsversuch, in: Die Sterne 66, 1990, 371–379.
  • Goercke, Ernst; Daxecker, Franz; & Glasgucker, Pater; in: Die Sterne 70, 1994, 286–289.
  • Gorman, Michael John; A Matter of Faith? Christoph Scheiner, Jesuit censorship and the Trial of Galileo, in: Perspectives on Science 4 (1996), 283–320.
  • Gorman, Michael John; The Scientific Counter-revolution. Mathematics, natural philosophy and experimentalism in Jesuit culture 1580–c.1670 [PhD thesis], European University Institute, Florenz 1998.
  • Granada, Miguel A.; Christoph Rothmann und die Auflösung der himmlischen Sphären. Die Briefe an den Landgrafen von Hessen-Kassel 1585, in: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 2, Acta Historica Astronomiae 5 (1999), 34–57.
  • Haub, Rita; Jesuitenkolleg Neisse, in: Sonne entdecken, Ingolstadt 2000, 20.
  • Haub, Rita; Zwei Briefe Christoph Scheiners an Matthäus Rader, in: Sonne entdecken. Christoph Scheiner 1575–1650, Ingolstadt 2000, 24–25.
  • Haub, Rita; Christoph Scheiner – der Mensch. Sein Leben als Jesuit und Naturwissenschafter, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 109 (2000), 15–31.
  • Haub, Rita; Christoph Scheiner - der Mensch. Sein Leben als Jesuit und Naturwissenschafter, in: Sammelblatt des Historischen Vereins Ingolstadt 109, 2000, 15–31.
  • Hofmann, Siegfried; Christoph Scheiner – Galileo Galilei, in: Jesuiten in Ingolstadt 1549–1773, Ingolstadt 1992, 160–163.
  • Ingaliso, Luigi ; Filosofia e Cosmologia in Christoph Scheiner, Soveria Manelli 2005.
  • Koch, Ludwig; Jesuiten-Lexikon. Die Gesellschaft Jesu einst und jetzt, Paderborn 1934, 1601f.
  • Lukács Ladislaus; Catalogi Provinciae Austriae, Bd. 1 (1551–1600), Bd. 2 (1601–1640), Monumenta Historica Societatis Jesu, Rom 1978, 1982.
  • Mauthner, Ludwig
    Ludwig Mauthner
    Ludwig Mauthner was an Austrian neuroanatomist and ophthalmologist who was a native of Prague.He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, where he received his doctorate in 1861. In 1864 he was a privatdozent of ophthalmology, and in 1869 became a professor at the University of Innsbruck...

     ; Vorlesungen über die optischen Fehler des Auges, Vienna 1876, 122f., 866f.
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