. Many stage models of development have been proposed, used as working concepts and in some cases asserted as
This article puts forward a general model based on the most widely accepted developmental stages. However, it is important to understand that there is wide variation in terms of what is considered "normal," driven by a wide variety of genetic, cognitive, physical, family, cultural, nutritional, educational, and environmental factors. Many children will reach some or most of these milestones at different times from the norm.
||Vision and hearing
||Smiles at parent
A vocalise is a vocal exercise without words, which is sung on one or more vowel sounds.-In classical music:Vocalise dates back to the mid-18th century...
||Hand regard: following the hand with the eyes.
||Serves to practice emerging visual skills. Also observed in blind children.
||Prone:head held up for prolonged periods. No grasp reflex
||Makes vowel noises
||Follows dangling toy from side to side. Turns head round to sound
||Squeals with delight appropriately. Discriminates smile.
||Holds head steady. Goes for objects and gets them. Objects taken to mouth
||Enjoys vocal play
||Transfers objects from one hand to the other. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. Rolls over prone to supine. Palmar grasp of cube
||Double syllable sounds such as 'mumum' and 'dada'
||Localises sound 45 cm lateral to either ear
||May show 'stranger shyness'
||Wiggles and crawls. Sits unsupported. Picks up objects with pincer grasp
||Looks for toys dropped
||Apprehensive about strangers
||Stands holding furniture. Stands alone for a second or two, then collapses with a bump
Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition, during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering sounds of language, but not yet producing any recognizable words...
2 or 3 words repeatedly
|Drops toys, and watches where they go
||Cooperates with dressing
Clothing refers to any covering for the human body that is worn. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of nearly all human societies...
, waves goodbye, understands simple commands
WALK may refer to:*WALK , a radio station licensed to East Patchogue, New York, United States*WALK-FM, a radio station licensed to Patchogue, New York, United States...
alone. Picks up toy without falling over. Gets up/down stairs
Stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs are names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps...
holding onto rail
A handrail is a rail that is designed to be grasped by the hand so as to provide stability or support. Handrails are commonly used while ascending or descending stairways and escalators in order to prevent injurious falls. Other applications include bathroom handrails—which help to prevent falls on...
. Begins to jump with both feet. Can build a tower
A tower is a tall structure, usually taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires....
of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball
A ball is a round, usually spherical but sometimes ovoid, object with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch, marbles and juggling...
|'Jargon'. Many intelligible words
||Demands constant mothering. Drinks from a cup with both hands. Feeds self with a spoon. Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age.
||Able to run
Running is a means of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot. It is simply defined in athletics terms as a gait in which at regular points during the running cycle both feet are off the ground...
. Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Builds tower of 6 cubes
|Joins 2–3 words in sentence
In the field of linguistics, a sentence is an expression in natural language, and often defined to indicate a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that generally bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it...
Parallel play is a form of play where children play adjacent to each other, but do not try to influence one another's behavior. Children usually play alone but are interested in what the other child is doing. This usually occurs after the first birthday. It usually involves two or more children in...
. Dry by day
||Goes up stairs 1-foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step. Copies
Copying is the duplication of information or an artifact based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it. With analog forms of information, copying is only possible to a limited degree of accuracy, which depends on the quality of the...
A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius....
, imitates cross and draws man on request. Builds tower of 9 cube
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. The cube can also be called a regular hexahedron and is one of the five Platonic solids. It is a special kind of square prism, of rectangular parallelepiped and...
|Constantly asks question
A question may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or else the request itself made by such an expression. This information may be provided with an answer....
s. Speaks in sentences.
||Cooperative play. Undresses with assistance. Imaginary companions
||Goes down stairs one foot per step, skips on one foot. Imitates gate with cubes, copies a cross
||Questioning at its height. Many infantile substitutions in speech
||Dresses and undresses with assistance. Attends to own toilet
A toilet is a sanitation fixture used primarily for the disposal of human excrement, often found in a small room referred to as a toilet/bathroom/lavatory...
||Skips on both feet and hops. Draws a man and copies a triangle. Gives age
||Fluent speech with few infantile substitutions in speech
||Dresses and undresses alone
||Copies a diamond
In Euclidean geometry, a rhombus or rhomb is a convex quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length. The rhombus is often called a diamond, after the diamonds suit in playing cards, or a lozenge, though the latter sometimes refers specifically to a rhombus with a 45° angle.Every...
. Knows right from left
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward, backward, up, and down. No absolute direction corresponds to any of the relative directions. This is a consequence of the translational invariance of the laws of physics: nature, loosely speaking, behaves the same no matter what...
and number of finger
A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates....
Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.-Speech:...
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (will)
(J. Chasse, 2008)
Psychosocial stimulation is vital during the toddler years. Play begins to become interactive.
Toddlers begin to learn and exhibit independence, but ironically they enjoy sharing this discovery with others.
Another important advancement is active social play with adults including mirroring and repeating. Songs, rhymes, and finger plays (e.g. eensy weensy spider, little teapot, etc.) are a great way to encourage and stimulate this area of development. Want attention, if not paid start throwing objects, trouble you watching TV. Scared from dark, start crying loudly under the situation.