Chester

Chester

Overview
Chester is a city in Cheshire
Cheshire
Cheshire is a ceremonial county in North West England. Cheshire's county town is the city of Chester, although its largest town is Warrington. Other major towns include Widnes, Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Runcorn, Macclesfield, Winsford, Northwich, and Wilmslow...

, England. Lying on the River Dee
River Dee, Wales
The River Dee is a long river in the United Kingdom. It travels through Wales and England and also forms part of the border between the two countries....

, close to the border with Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

, it is home to 77,040 inhabitants, and is the largest and most populous settlement of the wider unitary authority area
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

 of Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester is a unitary authority area with borough status, in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. It was established in April 2009 as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, by virtue of an order under the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health...

, which had a population of 328,100 according to the 2001 Census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

. Chester was granted city status
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 in 1541.

Chester was founded as a "castrum
Castra
The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military defensive position. The word appears in both Oscan and Umbrian as well as in Latin. It may have descended from Indo-European to Italic...

" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix, or simply Deva, was a legionary fortress and town in the Roman province of Britannia. The settlement evolved into Chester, the county town of Cheshire, England...

in the year 79 by the Roman Legio II Adiutrix
Legio II Adiutrix
Legio secunda Adiutrix , was a Roman legion levied by emperor Vespasian in 70, from Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis. There are still records of II Adiutrix in the Rhine border in the beginning of the 4th century...

 during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian.
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Encyclopedia
Chester is a city in Cheshire
Cheshire
Cheshire is a ceremonial county in North West England. Cheshire's county town is the city of Chester, although its largest town is Warrington. Other major towns include Widnes, Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Runcorn, Macclesfield, Winsford, Northwich, and Wilmslow...

, England. Lying on the River Dee
River Dee, Wales
The River Dee is a long river in the United Kingdom. It travels through Wales and England and also forms part of the border between the two countries....

, close to the border with Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

, it is home to 77,040 inhabitants, and is the largest and most populous settlement of the wider unitary authority area
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

 of Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester is a unitary authority area with borough status, in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. It was established in April 2009 as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, by virtue of an order under the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health...

, which had a population of 328,100 according to the 2001 Census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

. Chester was granted city status
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 in 1541.

Chester was founded as a "castrum
Castra
The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military defensive position. The word appears in both Oscan and Umbrian as well as in Latin. It may have descended from Indo-European to Italic...

" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix, or simply Deva, was a legionary fortress and town in the Roman province of Britannia. The settlement evolved into Chester, the county town of Cheshire, England...

in the year 79 by the Roman Legio II Adiutrix
Legio II Adiutrix
Legio secunda Adiutrix , was a Roman legion levied by emperor Vespasian in 70, from Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis. There are still records of II Adiutrix in the Rhine border in the beginning of the 4th century...

 during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian. Chester's four main roads, Eastgate, Northgate, Watergate and Bridge, follow routes laid out at this time – almost 2,000 years ago. One of the three main Roman army bases, Deva later became a major settlement in the Roman province of Britannia
Roman Britain
Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

. After the Romans left in the 5th century, the Saxons
Saxons
The Saxons were a confederation of Germanic tribes originating on the North German plain. The Saxons earliest known area of settlement is Northern Albingia, an area approximately that of modern Holstein...

 fortified the town against the Danes
Danelaw
The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the "Danes" held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons. It is contrasted with "West Saxon law" and "Mercian law". The term has been extended by modern historians to...

 and gave Chester its name. The patron saint of Chester, Werburgh
Werburgh
Werburh or Wærburh is an English saint and the patron saint of Chester....

, is buried in Chester Cathedral
Chester Cathedral
Chester Cathedral is the mother church of the Church of England Diocese of Chester, and is located in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. The cathedral, formerly St Werburgh's abbey church of a Benedictine monastery, is dedicated to Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary...

.

Chester was one of the last towns in England to fall to the Normans
Normans
The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish and Gallo-Roman stock...

 in the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
The Norman conquest of England began on 28 September 1066 with the invasion of England by William, Duke of Normandy. William became known as William the Conqueror after his victory at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, defeating King Harold II of England...

. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. In 1071 he created Hugh d'Avranches
Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester
Hugh d'Avranches , also known as le Gros and Lupus was the first Earl of Chester and one of the great magnates of early Norman England.-Early career:...

, the 1st Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
The Earldom of Chester was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England. Since 1301 the title has generally been granted to heirs-apparent to the English throne, and from the late 14th century it has been given only in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales.- Honour of Chester :The...

.

Chester has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are actually Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 restorations. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities
Chester city walls
.Chester city walls consist of a defensive structure built to protect the city of Chester in Cheshire, England. Their construction was started by the Romans when they established the fortress of Deva Victrix between 70 and 80 AD. It originated with a rampart of earth and turf surmounted by a...

 in Britain. Apart from a 100 metres (328.1 ft) section, the listed Grade I walls are almost complete.

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

 brought railways, canals, and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall
Chester Town Hall
Chester Town Hall is in Northgate Street in the centre of the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building.-History:...

 and the Grosvenor Museum
Grosvenor Museum
Grosvenor Museum is in Grosvenor Street, Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. Its full title is The Grosvenor Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, with Schools of Science and Art, for Chester, Cheshire and North Wales...

 are examples of Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 from this period.

Roman




The Romans
Roman Britain
Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

 founded Chester as Deva Victrix in the 70s AD in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

, as a fortress
Castra
The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military defensive position. The word appears in both Oscan and Umbrian as well as in Latin. It may have descended from Indo-European to Italic...

 during the Roman expansion northward. It was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The 'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix
Legio XX Valeria Victrix
Legio vigesima Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus some time after 31 BC. It served in Hispania, Illyricum, and Germania before participating in the invasion of Britannia in 43 AD, where it remained and was active until at least the beginning of the 4th century...

 which was based at Deva. A civilian settlement grew around the military base, probably originating from trade with the fortress. The fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in Britannia
Britannia
Britannia is an ancient term for Great Britain, and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain. However, by the...

 built around the same time at York
York
York is a walled city, situated at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events throughout much of its two millennia of existence...

 (Eboracum
Eboracum
Eboracum was a fort and city in Roman Britain. The settlement evolved into York, located in North Yorkshire, England.-Etymology:The first known recorded mention of Eboracum by name is dated circa 95-104 AD and is an address containing the Latin form of the settlement's name, "Eburaci", on a wooden...

) and Caerleon
Caerleon
Caerleon is a suburban village and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, South Wales. Caerleon is a site of archaeological importance, being the site of a notable Roman legionary fortress, Isca Augusta, and an Iron Age hill fort...

 (Isca Augusta
Isca Augusta
Isca Augusta was a Roman legionary fortress and settlement, the remains of which lie beneath parts of the present-day village of Caerleon on the northern outskirts of the city of Newport in South Wales.-Name:...

); this has led to the suggestion that the fortress, rather than London (Londinium
Londinium
The city of London was established by the Romans around AD 43. It served as a major imperial commercial centre until its abandonment during the 5th century.-Origins and language:...

), was intended to become the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy , largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy...

 of Britannia Superior
Britannia Superior
Britannia Superior was one of the provinces of Roman Britain created around 197 AD by Emperor Septimus Severus immediately after winning a civil war against Clodius Albinus, a war fought to determine who would be the next emperor. Albinus was the governor of Britannia during that civil war...

. The civilian amphitheatre
Chester Roman Amphitheatre
Chester Amphitheatre is a Roman amphitheatre in Chester, Cheshire. The site is managed by English Heritage; it has been designated as a Grade I listed building, and a scheduled monument. The ruins currently exposed are those of a large stone amphitheatre, similar to those found in Continental...

, which was built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, and is also a Scheduled Monument. The Minerva Shrine
Minerva's Shrine, Chester
Minerva's Shrine, Chester, is a shrine to the Roman goddess, Minerva, in Edgar's Field, Handbridge, Chester, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building....

 in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut Roman shrine still in situ
In situ
In situ is a Latin phrase which translated literally as 'In position'. It is used in many different contexts.-Aerospace:In the aerospace industry, equipment on board aircraft must be tested in situ, or in place, to confirm everything functions properly as a system. Individually, each piece may...

 in Britain. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion
Roman legion
A Roman legion normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens. The organization of legions varied greatly over time but they were typically composed of perhaps 5,000 soldiers, divided into maniples and later into "cohorts"...

 until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the Romano-British
Romano-British
Romano-British culture describes the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest of AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia. It arose as a fusion of the imported Roman culture with that of the indigenous Britons, a people of Celtic language and...

 civilian settlement continued (probably with some Roman veterans staying behind with their wives and children) and its occupants probably continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
The Irish Sea separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is connected to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Atlantic Ocean in the north by the North Channel. Anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man...

.

Medieval


Chester was captured from the Britons by the Kingdom of Northumbria after the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester
Battle of Chester
The Battle of Chester was a major victory for the Anglo Saxons over the native Britons near the city of Chester, England in the early 7th century. Æthelfrith of Northumbria annihilated a combined force from the Welsh kingdoms of Powys, Rhôs and possibly Mercia...

 in the early 7th century. Deverdoeu was still one of two Welsh language
Welsh language
Welsh is a member of the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa...

 names
Welsh placenames
The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English...

 for Chester in the late 12th century; its other and more enduring Welsh name was Caerlleon, literally "the fortress-city of the legions", a name identical with that of the Roman fortress at the other end of the Welsh Marches
Welsh Marches
The Welsh Marches is a term which, in modern usage, denotes an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods...

 at Caerleon
Caerleon
Caerleon is a suburban village and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, South Wales. Caerleon is a site of archaeological importance, being the site of a notable Roman legionary fortress, Isca Augusta, and an Iron Age hill fort...

 in Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire is a county in south east Wales. The name derives from the historic county of Monmouthshire which covered a much larger area. The largest town is Abergavenny. There are many castles in Monmouthshire .-Historic county:...

, namely Isca Augusta
Isca Augusta
Isca Augusta was a Roman legionary fortress and settlement, the remains of which lie beneath parts of the present-day village of Caerleon on the northern outskirts of the city of Newport in South Wales.-Name:...

. The colloquial modern Welsh name is the shortened form, Caer. The early Old English speaking Anglo Saxon settlers used a name which had the same meaning, Legacæstir, which was current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simplex name Chester emerged. From the 14th century to the 18th century the city's prominent position in North West England
North West England
North West England, informally known as The North West, is one of the nine official regions of England.North West England had a 2006 estimated population of 6,853,201 the third most populated region after London and the South East...

 meant that it was commonly also known as Westchester. This name was used by Celia Fiennes when she visited the city in 1698.

Industrial history



Chester played a significant part in the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

 which began in the North West of England in the latter part of the 18th century. The city village of Newtown, located north east of the city and bounded by the Shropshire Union Canal
Shropshire Union Canal
The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable canal in England; the Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the Shropshire Union system and lie partially in Wales....

 was at the very heart of this industry
The large Chester Cattle Market and the two Chester railway stations, Chester General
Chester railway station
Chester railway station is a railway station in Newtown in the city of Chester, England. It is currently operated by Arriva Trains Wales, although Merseyrail, Northern Rail and Virgin Trains also run services from the station. It is situated to the north-east of the city centre...

 and Chester Northgate Station
Chester Northgate railway station
Chester Northgate is a former railway station in Chester, Cheshire that was a terminus for the Cheshire Lines Committee and Great Central Railway...

, meant that Newtown
Newtown, Chester
Newtown is an area of Chester, Cheshire, England.-History:left|thumb|1899 OS map of N.E. Chester showing Newtown. The Cathederal grounds of St. Werburgh can be seen to bottom left of the map...

 with its cattle market and canal, and Hoole
Hoole
Hoole is a suburb in the east of Chester, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.-History:The settlement was first mentioned in the Register of the Abbey of Saint Werburgh in 1119...

 with its railways were responsible for providing the vast majority of workers and in turn, the vast amount of Chester's wealth production throughout the Industrial Revolution.

Modern era


A considerable amount of land in Chester is owned by the Duke of Westminster who owns an estate, Eaton Hall
Eaton Hall (Cheshire)
Eaton Hall is the country house of the Duke of Westminster. It is set within a large estate south of the village of Eccleston, in Cheshire, England . The house is surrounded by formal gardens, parkland, farmland and woodland. The estate covers an area of about .The first substantial house was...

, near the village of Eccleston
Eccleston, Cheshire
Eccleston is a civil parish and village in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, and close to Chester...

. He also has London properties in Mayfair
Mayfair
Mayfair is an area of central London, within the City of Westminster.-History:Mayfair is named after the annual fortnight-long May Fair that took place on the site that is Shepherd Market today...

.

Grosvenor
Duke of Westminster
The title Duke of Westminster was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Hugh Grosvenor, 3rd Marquess of Westminster. The current holder of the title is Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster....

 is the Duke's family name, which explains such features in the City such as the Grosvenor Bridge
Grosvenor Bridge (Chester)
The Grosvenor Bridge is a single-span arch road bridge constructed from stone. It crosses the River Dee at Chester in England. The bridge is located on the A483 Grosvenor Road . Views upriver from the bridge include Chester Castle and Handbridge. The view downstream from the bridge encompasses the...

, the Grosvenor Hotel
Chester Grosvenor and Spa
Chester Grosvenor and Spa is an hotel in Chester, England. The Grade II listed building was built between 1863 and 1866 and is owned by the Duke of Westminster...

, and Grosvenor Park. Much of Chester's architecture dates from the Victorian era
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

, many of the buildings being modelled on the Jacobean
Jacobean architecture
The Jacobean style is the second phase of Renaissance architecture in England, following the Elizabethan style. It is named after King James I of England, with whose reign it is associated.-Characteristics:...

 half-timbered style and designed by John Douglas
John Douglas (architect)
John Douglas was an English architect who designed about 500 buildings in Cheshire, North Wales, and northwest England, in particular in the estate of Eaton Hall. He was trained in Lancaster and practised throughout his career from an office in Chester, Cheshire...

, who was employed by the Duke as his principal architect. He had a trademark of twisted chimney stacks, many of which can be seen on the buildings in the city centre.

Douglas designed amongst other buildings the Grosvenor Hotel and the City Baths
Public baths, Chester
The Public Baths are on the north side of Union Street at its junction with Bath Street in Chester, Cheshire, England. The structure has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building.-History:...

. In 1911, Douglas' protégé and city architect James Strong
James Strong
James Strong is the name of:* James Strong , Australian businessman, formerly of Qantas, mine & port at Nhulunbuy, chairman of Woolworths Limited and Insurance Australia Group...

 designed the then active fire station on the west side of Northgate Street. Another feature of all buildings belonging to the estate of Westminster is the 'Grey Diamonds' – a weaving pattern of grey bricks in the red brickwork laid out in a diamond formation.

Towards the end of World War II, a lack of affordable housing meant many problems for Chester. Large areas of farmland on the outskirts of the city were developed as residential areas in the 1950s and early 1960s producing, for instance, the suburb of Blacon
Blacon
Blacon is a large suburb near Chester, in Cheshire, England, containing a mixture of private homes and substantial public council-built properties...

.
In 1964, a bypass was built through and around the town centre to combat traffic congestion.

These new developments caused local concern as the physicality and therefore the feel of the city was being dramatically altered. In 1968, a report by Donald Insall in collaboration with authorities and government recommended that historic buildings be preserved in Chester. Consequently, the buildings were used in new and different ways instead of being flattened.

In 1969 the City Conservation Area was designated. Over the next 20 years the emphasis was placed on saving historic buildings, such as The Falcon Inn
The Falcon, Chester
The Falcon is a public house in Chester, Cheshire, England. It stands on the west side of Lower Bridge Street at its junction with Grosvenor Road. The Falcon has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building...

, Dutch Houses and Kings Buildings.

On 13 January 2002, Chester was granted Fairtrade City status. This status was renewed by the Fairtrade Foundation on 20 August 2003.

Developments



In 2007 Chester Council announced a 10-year plan to see Chester become a "must see European destination". At a cost of £1.3 billion it has been nicknamed Chester Renaissance. A website was launched by the Renaissance team, so that interested parties could monitor progress on all the projects.

There are overall, seven developments ongoing in Chester.

The Northgate Development project began in 2007 with the demolition of St. Martin's House on the city's ring road. At a cost of £460 million, Chester City Council and developers ING hope to create a new quarter for Chester. The development will see the demolition of the market hall, bus station, theatre and NCP car park. In its place will be a new multi-storey car park
Multi-storey car park
A multi-storey car-park is a building designed specifically to be for car parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place...

, bus exchange, performing arts centre, library, homes, retail space and a department store which will be anchored by House of Fraser.

On 31 October 2008, it was revealed that the Northgate development was to be put on hold until 2012 due to the ongoing economic downturn. However a number of Chester's other Renaissance projects continue at pace. The current active projects are; The Delamere Street development and The £60million HQ development.

Governance


Chester is an unparished area
Unparished area
In England, an unparished area is an area that is not covered by a civil parish. Most urbanised districts of England are either entirely or partly unparished. Many towns and some cities in otherwise rural districts are also unparished areas and therefore no longer have a town council or city...

 within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester
Cheshire West and Chester is a unitary authority area with borough status, in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. It was established in April 2009 as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, by virtue of an order under the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health...

 as of 1 April 2009 replacing the old Chester City Council and the local ward is the City ward electing 3 councillors. A small area around Chester Castle
Chester Castle
Chester Castle is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It is sited at the southwest extremity of the area bounded by the city walls . The castle stands on an eminence overlooking the River Dee. In the castle complex are the remaining parts of the medieval castle together with the...

 remains a civil parish of Chester Castle. The Member of Parliament for the City of Chester is Stephen Mosley
Stephen Mosley
Stephen James Mosley is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament for the City of Chester since winning the seat at the 2010 general election.-Education:...

.

Twin towns


Chester is twinned with
Sens
Sens
Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Burgundy in north-central France.Sens is a sub-prefecture of the department. It is crossed by the Yonne and the Vanne, which empties into the Yonne here.-History:...

, France Lörrach
Lörrach
Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss border. It is the capital of the district of Lörrach in Baden-Württemberg. The biggest industry is the chocolate factory Milka...

, Germany Lakewood, Colorado
Lakewood, Colorado
Lakewood is a Home Rule Municipality that is the most populous city in Jefferson County, Colorado, United States. Lakewood is the fifth most populous city in the State of Colorado and the 172nd most populous city in the United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that in April 1, 2010...

, USA Senigallia
Senigallia
Senigallia is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast, 25 km by rail north of Ancona, in the Marche region, province of Ancona....

, Italy

Geography


Chester lies at the southern end of a 2 miles (3.2 km) Triassic
Triassic
The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Mya . As the first period of the Mesozoic Era, the Triassic follows the Permian and is followed by the Jurassic. Both the start and end of the Triassic are marked by major extinction events...

 sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

 ridge that rises to a height of 42 m within a natural S-bend in the River Dee (before the course was altered in the 18th century).
The bedrock, which is also known as the Chester Pebble Beds, is noticeable because of the many small stones trapped within its strata. Retreating glacial sheet ice also deposited quantities of sand and marl
Marl
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and aragonite. Marl was originally an old term loosely applied to a variety of materials, most of which occur as loose, earthy deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay...

 across the area where boulder clay was absent.

The eastern and northern part of Chester consisted of heathland and forest. The western side towards the Dee Estuary
Dee Estuary
The Dee Estuary is a large estuary by means of which the River Dee flows into Liverpool Bay. The estuary starts near Shotton after a five miles 'canalised' section and the river soon swells to be several miles wide forming the boundary between the Wirral Peninsula in north-west England and...

 was marsh and wetland habitats.

Climate


In common with most of the rest of the United Kingdom, Chester has an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

. Despite its proximity to the Irish Sea, the temperature regime is similar to areas further inland, owing to the shelter provided by the Pennines to the northeast and the Welsh Mountains to the southwest. The nearest official weather station is at Chester airport (Hawarden airport), about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the town centre.

The absolute maximum temperature recorded was 35.2 °C (95.4 °F) during August 1990 (actually the Welsh record). In an average year, the warmest day should reach 29.3 °C (84.7 °F), and 12.0 days in total should attain a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or higher. Often given the correctly aligned breezy conditions, a föhn effect will operate, meaning local temperatures are somewhat higher than surrounding area.

The absolute minimum temperature recorded was -18.2 C during January 1982. Annually, an average of 35.5 air frosts should be recorded.

Annual rainfall is barely over 700mm due to a rain shadow effect caused by the Welsh Mountains. Over 1mm of rain is reported on 131.6 days. All averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000.

Divisions and suburbs


Bache
Bache, Cheshire
Bache is a small civil parish and suburb of Chester, Cheshire, England.-History:The name "Bache" comes from a large tidal lagoon that was once linked to the River Dee at Blacon. The area, which now lies under Liverpool Road and a supermarket car park, was slowly reclaimed and raised when the...

, Blacon
Blacon
Blacon is a large suburb near Chester, in Cheshire, England, containing a mixture of private homes and substantial public council-built properties...

, Boughton
Boughton, Cheshire
Boughton is a neighbourhood to the east of Chester city centre, part of the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England...

, Curzon Park
Curzon Park
The Chester suburb of Curzon Park is a highly attractive residential area South of the River Dee situated within easy walking distance of the ancient Roman and medieval city walls, just across the famous Grosvenor Bridge. Part of the Curzon & Westminster Ward, the Curzon Park area is well known for...

, Great Boughton
Great Boughton
Great Boughton is a civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It includes the villages of Boughton Heath and Vicars Cross....

, Handbridge
Handbridge
Handbridge is a district of Chester, England on the south bank of the River Dee. A settlement has existed on the site since the Iron age , but the site saw major expansion during the collapse of the Roman occupation of Britain, as the city grew too large for its walls...

, Hoole
Hoole
Hoole is a suburb in the east of Chester, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.-History:The settlement was first mentioned in the Register of the Abbey of Saint Werburgh in 1119...

, Huntington
Huntington, Cheshire
Huntington is a civil parish on the southern outskirts of Chester in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England...

, Lache
Lache
Lache is in the city of Chester Cheshire, U.K., with a population of around 10,000. It is located approximately 2 miles southwest of the ancient city, with good local transport links en route to Saltney...

, Mollington
Mollington, Cheshire
Mollington is a small village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England, It is located two miles north of the city of Chester, with approximate boundaries formed by the A41 Liverpool-Chester trunk road and Shropshire Union...

, Newton
Newton, Chester
Newton is a suburb in the north-east of Chester, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England...

, Newtown
Newtown, Chester
Newtown is an area of Chester, Cheshire, England.-History:left|thumb|1899 OS map of N.E. Chester showing Newtown. The Cathederal grounds of St. Werburgh can be seen to bottom left of the map...

, Saltney
Saltney
Saltney is a small town in Flintshire, Wales. It is immediately to the west of the border with Cheshire in England and is contiguous with the Chester urban area.The name is derived from the former salt marshes on which it is built, lying on the River Dee...

, Saughall
Saughall
Saughall is a civil parish and village in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It is situated approximately north west of Chester and close to the Welsh border....

, Upton
Upton, Cheshire
Upton by Chester is a civil parish and a large suburb on the outskirts of Chester, in the Borough of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire in England. It includes the villages of Upton and Upton Heath. At the 2001 Census the population was recorded as...

, Vicars Cross
Vicars Cross
Vicars Cross is a large suburban area situated on the east side of Chester, in Cheshire, England. At the 2001 Census the area had a population of 5,663.-Community:The local primary school in Vicars Cross is Oldfield Primary which is situated in Green Lane...

, Westminster Park
Westminster Park
Westminster Park is both a suburb to the west of Chester in England, and a large park the area takes its name after. Chester residents do not consider the area as a part of the Lache although the main route through Westminster Park is Lache Lane...


Demography


There are 77,040 living within the Greater Chester urban area (65% of the total of Chester District). This population is forecast to grow by 5% in the period 2005 to 2021. The resident population for Chester District
Chester (district)
Chester was a non-metropolitan local government district of Cheshire, England, with the status of a city and a borough.Apart from Chester itself, which was the principal settlement, the district covered a large rural area...

 in the 2001 Census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

 was 118,207. This represents 17.5% of the Cheshire County total (1.8% of the North West population). The resident population for the wider Cheshire County in the 2001 Census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

 was 673,777.

Landmarks and tourist attractions

See also Grade I listed buildings in Chester
Grade I listed buildings in Chester
Chester is a city and the county town of Cheshire, England. This list contains all the Grade I listed buildings in the city.*Remains of Roman Amphitheatre*Chester Cathedral*Former monastic buildings to Cathedral*Church of St John the Baptist...


The more unusual landmarks in the city are the city walls
Chester city walls
.Chester city walls consist of a defensive structure built to protect the city of Chester in Cheshire, England. Their construction was started by the Romans when they established the fortress of Deva Victrix between 70 and 80 AD. It originated with a rampart of earth and turf surmounted by a...

, the Rows
Chester Rows
Chester Rows consist of covered walkways at the first floor behind which are entrances to shops and other premises. At street level is another set of shops and other premises, many of which are entered by going down a few steps...

 and the black-and-white architecture. The walls encircle the bounds of the medieval city and constitute the most complete city walls in Britain, the full circuit measuring nearly 2 miles (3 km). The only break in the circuit is in the southwest section in front of County Hall. A footpath runs along the top of the walls, crossing roads by bridges over Eastgate, Northgate
Northgate, Chester
The Northgate is in Chester, Cheshire, England, where it carries the city walls footpath over Northgate Street . It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.-History:...

, St Martin's Gate, Watergate
Watergate, Chester
The Watergate is in Chester, Cheshire, England and spans the A548 road between Watergate Street and New Crane Street . It forms part of the city walls and has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building....

, Bridgegate
Bridgegate, Chester
The Bridgegate is in Chester, Cheshire, England. It forms part of the city walls and has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.-History:...

, Newgate
Newgate, Chester
Newgate is an arch bridge carrying the walkway of the city walls over Pepper Street in Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. The bridge was built in 1938 to relieve traffic congestion in the city, especially at Chester Cross...

 http://www.flickr.com/photos/magphen/5187740203/, and the Wolf Gate, and passing a series of structures, namely Phoenix Tower
Phoenix Tower, Chester
Phoenix Tower stands at the northeast corner of the city walls in Chester, England. The tower has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. It has also been known as Newton Tower and King Charles' Tower.-History:...

 (or King Charles' Tower), Morgan's Mount
Morgan's Mount
Morgan's Mount is a structure extending from the north site of the city walls of Chester, in Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.-History:...

, the Goblin Tower (or Pemberton's Parlour
Pemberton's Parlour
Pemberton's Parlour is a structure on the northern part of the Chester city walls, and it was formerly known as the Goblin Tower. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.-History:...

), and Bonewaldesthorne's Tower
Bonewaldesthorne's Tower
Bonewaldesthorne's Tower is a medieval structure on the northwest corner of the city walls of Chester, Cheshire, England; it is attached by a spur wall to the Water Tower. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building...

 with a spur leading to the Water Tower
Water Tower, Chester
The Water Tower is a 14th-century tower in Chester, Cheshire, England, which is attached by a spur wall to Bonewaldesthorne's Tower on the city walls. The tower, together with its spur wall, has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building...

, and Thimbleby's Tower
Thimbleby's Tower
Thimbleby's Tower, formerly known as Wolf's Tower, is a structure in the city walls of Chester, Cheshire, England. It stands on the eastern section of the walls, between Eastgate and Newgate. The tower has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.-History:The tower...

. On Eastgate is Eastgate Clock which is said to be the most photographed clock in England after Big Ben
Clock Tower, Palace of Westminster
Big Ben is the nickname for the great bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London, and is generally extended to refer to the clock or the clock tower as well. It is the largest four-faced chiming clock and the third-tallest free-standing clock tower in the world...

.

The Rows are unique in Britain. They consist of buildings with shops or dwellings on the lowest two storeys. The shops or dwellings on the ground floor are often lower than the street and are entered by steps, which sometimes lead to a crypt
Crypt
In architecture, a crypt is a stone chamber or vault beneath the floor of a burial vault possibly containing sarcophagi, coffins or relics....

-like vault
Vault (architecture)
A Vault is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof. The parts of a vault exert lateral thrust that require a counter resistance. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required...

. Those on the first floor are entered behind a continuous walkway, often with a sloping shelf between the walkway and the railings overlooking the street. Much of the architecture of central Chester looks medieval and some of it is. But by far the greatest part of it, including most of the black-and-white buildings, is Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

, a result of what Pevsner
Nikolaus Pevsner
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner, CBE, FBA was a German-born British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture...

 termed the "black-and-white revival".

The most prominent buildings in the city centre are the town hall
Chester Town Hall
Chester Town Hall is in Northgate Street in the centre of the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building.-History:...

 and the cathedral
Chester Cathedral
Chester Cathedral is the mother church of the Church of England Diocese of Chester, and is located in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. The cathedral, formerly St Werburgh's abbey church of a Benedictine monastery, is dedicated to Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary...

. The town hall was opened in 1869. It is in Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 style and has a tower and a short spire. The cathedral was formerly the church of St Werburgh's Abbey. Its architecture dates back to the Norman
Norman architecture
About|Romanesque architecture, primarily English|other buildings in Normandy|Architecture of Normandy.File:Durham Cathedral. Nave by James Valentine c.1890.jpg|thumb|200px|The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the...

 era, with additions made most centuries since. A series of major restorations took place in the 19th century and in 1975 a separate bell tower was opened. The elaborately carved canopies
Canopy (building)
A canopy is an overhead roof or else a structure over which a fabric or metal covering is attached, able to provide shade or shelter. A canopy can also be a tent, generally without a floor....

 of the choirstalls are considered to be one of the finest in the country. Also in the cathedral is the shrine
Shrine
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines often contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated....

 of St Werburgh. To the north of the cathedral are the former monastic
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 buildings. The oldest church in the city is St John's
St John the Baptist's Church, Chester
St John the Baptist's Church, Chester is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It lies outside the city walls on a cliff above the north bank of the River Dee. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese...

, which is outside the city walls and was at one time the cathedral church. The church was shortened after the dissolution of the monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland; appropriated their...

 and ruins of the former east end remain outside the church. Much of the interior is in Norman style and this is considered to be the best example of 11th–12th century church architecture in Cheshire. At the intersection of the former Roman roads is Chester Cross
Chester High Cross
Chester High Cross is in Chester, Cheshire, England. It stands in front of St Peter's Church at the junction of Watergate Street, Eastgate Street and Bridge Street, a site known as Chester Cross. The cross is a Grade II listed building.-History:...

, to the north of which is the small church of St Peter's
St Peter's Church, Chester
St Peter's Church, Chester is in Eastgate Street in the centre of the city of Chester, Cheshire, England, immediately to the north of Chester Cross. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the...

 which is in use as an ecumenical centre. Other churches are now redundant and have other uses; St Michael's
St Michael's Church, Chester
St Michael's Church, Chester is a redundant church standing on the corner of Bridge Street and Pepper Street in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. The former church is now used as a heritage centre.-History:A...

 in Bridge Street is a heritage centre
Heritage centre
A heritage centre is a museum facility primarily dedicated to the presentation of historical and cultural information about a place and its people, including, to some degree, natural features...

, St Mary-on-the-Hill
Church of St Mary-on-the-Hill, Chester
St Mary's Centre, formerly the Church of St Mary-on-the-Hill, Chester, stands at the top of St Mary's Hill, Chester, Cheshire, England, near Chester Castle. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. The church stands at the top of a narrow winding lane which...

 is an educational centre, and Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity Church, Chester
The Guildhall, formerly Holy Trinity Church, is a redundant church in Watergate in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. In the early 1960s it was converted into the Guildhall.-History:The original building, which...

 now acts as the Guildhall. Other notable buildings include the preserved shot tower
Chester Shot Tower
Chester Shot Tower, also known as Boughton Shot Tower, is a grade-II*-listed shot tower located at in the Boughton district of Chester, England. The tower stands beside the Shropshire Union Canal and forms part of the disused Chester Leadworks. Built by Walkers, Parker & Co...

, the highest structure in Chester. and *St. Thomas of Canterbury Church, Chester
St. Thomas of Canterbury Church, Chester
The Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury is situated in the City of Chester, in an area of the city informally known as "The Garden Quarter". This is a densely-populated area, close to the University. While the church was built in 1872, the parish of St. Oswald which it serves, is much older, dating...



Roman remains can still be found in the city, particularly in the basements of some of the buildings and in the lower parts of the northern section of the city walls. The most important Roman feature is the amphitheatre
Chester Roman Amphitheatre
Chester Amphitheatre is a Roman amphitheatre in Chester, Cheshire. The site is managed by English Heritage; it has been designated as a Grade I listed building, and a scheduled monument. The ruins currently exposed are those of a large stone amphitheatre, similar to those found in Continental...

 just outside the walls which is undergoing archaeological investigation. Roman artefacts are on display in the Roman Gardens which run parallel to the city walls from Newgate to the River Dee, where there's also a reconstructed hypocaust system
Hypocaust
A hypocaust was an ancient Roman system of underfloor heating, used to heat houses with hot air. The word derives from the Ancient Greek hypo meaning "under" and caust-, meaning "burnt"...

. An original hypocaust system can be seen in the basement of the Spudulike
Spudulike
Spudulike is a United Kingdom-based fast food franchise founded in Edinburgh in 1974. Its products are baked potatoes , with a wide range of fillings. It has branches across Britain.- History :...

 restaurant on Bridge Street, which is open to the public.

Of the medieval city the most important surviving structure is Chester Castle
Chester Castle
Chester Castle is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It is sited at the southwest extremity of the area bounded by the city walls . The castle stands on an eminence overlooking the River Dee. In the castle complex are the remaining parts of the medieval castle together with the...

, particularly the Agricola Tower. Much of the rest of the castle has been replaced by the neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 county court and its entrance, the Propyleum.
To the south of the city runs the River Dee
River Dee, Wales
The River Dee is a long river in the United Kingdom. It travels through Wales and England and also forms part of the border between the two countries....

, with its 11th century weir
Chester Weir
Chester Weir is a weir which crosses the River Dee at Chester, Cheshire, England, slightly upstream from the Old Dee Bridge . The weir and the associated salmon leap have been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building....

. The river is crossed by the Old Dee Bridge, dating from the 13th century, the Grosvenor Bridge
Grosvenor Bridge (Chester)
The Grosvenor Bridge is a single-span arch road bridge constructed from stone. It crosses the River Dee at Chester in England. The bridge is located on the A483 Grosvenor Road . Views upriver from the bridge include Chester Castle and Handbridge. The view downstream from the bridge encompasses the...

 of 1832, and Queen's Park suspension bridge (for pedestrians). To the southwest of the city the River Dee curves towards the north. The area between the river and the city walls here is known as the Roodee, and contains Chester Racecourse
Chester Racecourse
Chester Racecourse, known as the Roodee, is according to official records the oldest racecourse still in use in England. Horse racing at Chester dates back to the early sixteenth century. It is also thought to be the smallest racecourse of significance in England at 1 mile and 1 furlong ...

 which holds a series of horse races and other events. The Shropshire Union Canal
Shropshire Union Canal
The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable canal in England; the Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the Shropshire Union system and lie partially in Wales....

 runs to the north of the city and a branch leads from it to the River Dee.

The major museum in Chester is the Grosvenor Museum
Grosvenor Museum
Grosvenor Museum is in Grosvenor Street, Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. Its full title is The Grosvenor Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, with Schools of Science and Art, for Chester, Cheshire and North Wales...

 which includes a collection of Roman tombstones and an art gallery. Associated with the museum is 20 Castle Street in which rooms are furnished in different historical styles. The Dewa Roman Experience has hands-on exhibits and a reconstructed Roman street. And one of the blocks in the forecourt of the castle houses the Cheshire Military Museum.

The major public park in Chester is Grosvenor Park
Grosvenor Park, Chester
Grosvenor Park is a public park in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England . It consists of of land overlooking the River Dee. It is regarded as one of the finest and most complete examples of Victorian parks in the North West of England, if not nationally...

. On the south side of the River Dee, in Handbridge
Handbridge
Handbridge is a district of Chester, England on the south bank of the River Dee. A settlement has existed on the site since the Iron age , but the site saw major expansion during the collapse of the Roman occupation of Britain, as the city grew too large for its walls...

, is Edgar's Field, another public park, which contains Minerva's Shrine
Minerva's Shrine, Chester
Minerva's Shrine, Chester, is a shrine to the Roman goddess, Minerva, in Edgar's Field, Handbridge, Chester, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building....

, a Roman shrine to the goddess Minerva
Minerva
Minerva was the Roman goddess whom Romans from the 2nd century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic...

. A war memorial
War memorial
A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or to commemorate those who died or were injured in war.-Historic usage:...

 to those who died in the world wars is in the town hall and it contains the names of all Chester servicemen who died in the First World War.

Chester Visitor Centre, opposite the Roman Amphitheatre, issues a leaflet giving details of tourist attractions. Those not covered above include cruises on the River Dee and on the Shropshire Union Canal, and guided tours on an open-air bus. The river cruises start from a riverside area known as the Groves, which contains seating and a bandstand
Bandstand
A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, pier, or indoor space, designed to accommodate musical bands performing concerts...

. A series of festivals is organised in the city, including mystery play
Mystery play
Mystery plays and miracle plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. Medieval mystery plays focused on the representation of Bible stories in churches as tableaux with accompanying antiphonal song...

s, a summer music festival and a literature festival. Chester City Council has produced a series of leaflets for self-guided walks. Tourist Information Centres
Visitor center
A visitor center or centre , visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to the visitors who tour the place or area locally...

 are at the town hall and at Chester Visitor Centre.

Demography


Chester has a fairly large White British population of around 96.3% of the population. 1.2% described themselves as Asian. 1.1% described themselves as Chinese. 0.9% described themselves as Black or Black British and 0.5 are classed as other.

Chester also has a large number of Christians at 84.1%. 10.4% are not stated. 4.2% are Muslim. 1.1% are Sikhs. 0.8% are Jewish. 1.7% are Buddhists.

There is a Shah Jalal Mosque in Blacon
Blacon
Blacon is a large suburb near Chester, in Cheshire, England, containing a mixture of private homes and substantial public council-built properties...

.

Culture


The major museum in Chester is the Grosvenor Museum
Grosvenor Museum
Grosvenor Museum is in Grosvenor Street, Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. Its full title is The Grosvenor Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, with Schools of Science and Art, for Chester, Cheshire and North Wales...

 which includes a collection of Roman tombstones and an art gallery. Associated with the museum is 20 Castle Street in which rooms are furnished in different historical styles. The Dewa Roman Experience has hands-on exhibits and a reconstructed Roman street. One of the blocks in the forecourt of Chester Castle houses the Cheshire Military Museum.

In 2007, Chester's cultural sector was going through a major transformation. The Gateway Theatre
Gateway Theatre (Chester)
The Gateway Theatre was a small producing and receiving theatre in the city of Chester, England.The theatre has welcomed many acclaimed performers, including Matthew Kelly, Les Dennis and Dennis Waterman....

 had closed as part of the Northgate Development and so too had the Odeon
Odeon Cinemas
Odeon Cinemas is a British chain of cinemas, one of the largest in Europe. It is owned by Odeon & UCI Cinemas Group whose ultimate parent is Terra Firma Capital Partners.-History:Odeon Cinemas was created in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch...

 cinema, which opened on 3 October 1936. The site was earmarked for redevelopment, with the closed Odeon cinema being the subject of a proposal to re-open it as part of an arts complex with a cinema at its heart; or its owners, Brook Leisure, may pursue planning permission to turn it into a nightclub
Nightclub
A nightclub is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night...

. Later in 2007 the Gateway Theatre was partially reopened as The Forum Studio Theatre, run by an independent theatre company.

Chester Little Theatre is based in Newtown and run by Chester Theatre Club. It generally stages 5 or 6 plays each year. Chester Music Theatre is based in a converted church in Boughton. There is a multiplex cinema and a ten pin bowling alley at Greyhound Retail Park on the edge of the city. Chester has its own film society, a number of amateur dramatic societies and theatre schools.

To the east side of the city are the UK's largest zoological gardens
Zoo
A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred....

, Chester Zoo
Chester Zoo
Chester Zoo is a zoological garden at Upton-by-Chester, in Cheshire, England. It was opened in 1931 by George Mottershead and his family, who used as a basis some animals reported to have come from an earlier zoo in Shavington. It is one of the UK's largest zoos at...

.

Numerous pubs, nightclubs and bars, some of which are based in medieval buildings, populate the city.

Music


Chester has a brass band that was formed in 1853. It was known as the Blue Coat Band and today as The City of Chester Band. It is a fourth section brass band with a training band. Its members wear a blue-jacketed uniform with an image of the Eastgate clock on the breast pocket of the blazer.

Chester Music Society was founded in 1948 as a small choral society. It now encompasses four sections: The Choir has 170 members drawn from Chester and the surrounding district; The Youth Choirs support three choirs: Youth Choir, Preludes, and the Alumni Choir; Celebrity Concerts promote a season of six high quality concerts each year; The Club is a long established section which aims to encourage young musicians and in many cases offers the first opportunity to perform in public.

Pop band Mansun
Mansun
Mansun were an English alternative rock band formed in Chester in 1995. The band comprised vocalist/rhythm guitarist Paul Draper, bassist Stove King, lead guitarist/backing vocalist Dominic Chad, and drummer Andie Rathbone. The band broke up in May 2003....

 are probably the most famous Britpop
Britpop
Britpop is a subgenre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom. Britpop emerged from the British independent music scene of the early 1990s and was characterised by bands influenced by British guitar pop music of the 1960s and 1970s...

 band to come from Chester.

Telford's Warehouse and Alexander's Jazz Bar are the city's main live music venues.

Media


Chester's newspapers are the daily Chester Evening Leader
Chester Evening Leader
The Chester Evening Leader was launched in 1973 as Chester, England's first daily newspaper. It initially began as the Wrexham Evening Leader, which also later spawned the Flint and North Wales Coast editions.The newspaper is owned by NWN Media....

, and the weekly Chester Chronicle
Chester Chronicle
The Chester Chronicle is a UK local weekly newspaper for the Chester and Cheshire area, first established in the 18th century. It is one of the UK's best-selling newspapers, published every Thursday.-Structure:It has a number of different editions:...

. It also has free publications, such as the newspapers Midweek Chronicle and Chester Standard and the free student magazine Wireless
Wireless
Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as a few meters for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications...

. Dee 106.3
Dee 106.3
Dee 106.3 is an Independent Local Radio station broadcasting to the city of Chester. It has its studios at 2 Chantry Court in Chester. The transmitter is on top of the Steam Mill building in Chester city centre, next to the Shropshire Union Canal and reaches much of Flintshire.It was the first...

 is the city's radio station, with Heart Wrexham and BBC Radio Merseyside
BBC Radio Merseyside
BBC Radio Merseyside is the BBC Local Radio service for the English metropolitan county of Merseyside and north Cheshire. It was the third BBC local radio station to launch on 22 November 1967 initially serving the south west of historic Lancashire....

 also broadcasting locally. Chester is where Channel 4
Channel 4
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority , the station is now owned and operated by the Channel...

's soap-opera Hollyoaks
Hollyoaks
Hollyoaks is a long-running British television soap opera, first broadcast on Channel 4 on 23 October 1995. It was originally devised by Phil Redmond, who has also devised shows including Brookside and Grange Hill...

 is set (although most filming takes place around Liverpool).

Economy


Chester's main industries are now the service industries comprising tourism, retail, public administration and financial services. Many domestic and international tourists visit to view the cities landmarks and heritage with a complimentary benefit to hotels and restaurants.

The city's central shopping area includes its unique Rows
Chester Rows
Chester Rows consist of covered walkways at the first floor behind which are entrances to shops and other premises. At street level is another set of shops and other premises, many of which are entered by going down a few steps...

 or galleries (two levels of shops) which date from medieval times and are believed to include the oldest shop front in England. The city has many chain stores, and also features an indoor market, a department store (Browns of Chester, now absorbed by the Debenhams
Debenhams
Debenhams plc is a British retailer operating under a department store format in the UK, Ireland and Denmark, and franchise stores in other countries. The Company was founded in the eighteenth century as a single store in London and has now grown to around 160 shops...

 chain), and two main indoor shopping centres: The Grosvenor Shopping Centre and the Forum (a reference to the City's Roman past). The Forum, which houses stores and the indoor market, will be demolished in the Northgate Development scheme to make way for new shopping streets, a new indoor market, an enlarged library, a car park and bus station, and a performing arts centre. There are retail parks to the west and south. Cheshire Oaks Designer Outlet and Broughton Retail Park
Broughton Retail Park
Broughton Shopping Park is a retail park situated in Broughton, Flintshire. Branches of many popular high street stores have an outlet at the park. The stores include McDonalds, Carphone Warehouse, Next, New Look, River Island, Game, Burton, Dorothy Perkins, British Home Store, JJB Sports, WH...

 are near the city.

Chester has a relatively large financial sector including Bank of America
Bank of America
Bank of America Corporation, an American multinational banking and financial services corporation, is the second largest bank holding company in the United States by assets, and the fourth largest bank in the U.S. by market capitalization. The bank is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina...

, formerly MBNA
MBNA
MBNA Corporation was a bank holding company and parent company of wholly owned subsidiary MBNA America Bank, N.A., headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware, prior to being acquired by Bank of America in 2006...

 Europe, NFU Mutual
NFU Mutual
The National Farmers Union Mutual Insurance Society Limited, trading as NFU Mutual, is a UK registered mutual insurance composite. It underwrites more than £1 billion in annual premium in life and general insurance lines for rural communities within the UK. NFU Mutual is based in...

, HBOS plc
HBOS
HBOS plc is a banking and insurance company in the United Kingdom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Lloyds Banking Group having been taken over in January 2009...

 and M&S Money. The price comparison website moneysupermarket.com is based over the Welsh border in Ewloe
Ewloe
Ewloe is a small town in North Wales, contiguous with Hawarden and Buckley and near to Queensferry and Shotton. Situated close to the Flintshire/Cheshire sector of the Wales-England border, Ewloe forms part of Deeside. The A55 expressway passes through the town and its most notable landmark is...

. Chester has its own university, the University of Chester
University of Chester
The University of Chester is a public research university located in Chester, United Kingdom. The University, based on a main campus in Chester and a smaller campus in Warrington, offers a range of foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate courses, as well as undertaking academic research.Chester...

, and a major hospital, the Countess of Chester Hospital, named after Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century...

 and Countess of Chester.

Just over the Welsh border to the west, Broughton
Broughton, Flintshire
Broughton is a small district in Flintshire, Wales, close to the Wales–England border and located to the west of the City of Chester, England. Along with the nearby village of Bretton, the total population was 5,791 at the 2001 Census....

 is home to a large Airbus UK
Airbus UK
Airbus UK is a wholly owned subsidiary of Airbus SAS which produces wings for the Airbus aircraft family. When Airbus was incorporated as a joint stock company in 2001 BAE transferred its UK Airbus facilities in return for a 20% share of the new company. These facilities became Airbus UK...

 factory (formerly British Aerospace
British Aerospace
British Aerospace plc was a UK aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was in the Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire...

), employing around 6,000 staff, where the wings of the Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 aeroplanes are manufactured, and there are food processing plants to the north and west. The Iceland
Iceland (supermarket)
Iceland is a supermarket chain in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Iceland's primary product lines include frozen foods, such as frozen prepared meals and frozen vegetables - hence the name of the company...

 frozen food company is based in nearby Deeside.

Roads


The city is a hub for major roads, including the M53 motorway
M53 motorway
The M53 is a motorway in the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral and Cheshire on the Wirral Peninsula in England. It can also be referred to as the Mid Wirral Motorway...

 towards the Wirral Peninsula
Wirral Peninsula
Wirral or the Wirral is a peninsula in North West England. It is bounded by three bodies of water: to the west by the River Dee, forming a boundary with Wales, to the east by the River Mersey and to the north by the Irish Sea. Both terms "Wirral" and "the Wirral" are used locally , although the...

 and Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 and the M56 motorway
M56 motorway
The M56 Motorway, also known as the North Cheshire motorway, is in Cheshire and Greater Manchester, England. It runs from Junction 4 of the M60 to Dunkirk, Cheshire and is in length. It is often busy with long-distance commuter traffic towards North Wales...

 towards Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

. The A55 road
A55 road
The A55, also known as the North Wales Expressway, is a major road in Britain. Its entire length is a dual carriageway primary route, with the exception of the point where it crosses the Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait. All junctions are grade separated except for two roundabouts — one...

 runs along the North Wales coast to Holyhead
Holyhead
Holyhead is the largest town in the county of Anglesey in the North Wales. It is also a major port adjacent to the Irish Sea serving Ireland....

 and the A483
A483 road
The A483 is a major road in the United Kingdom, running from Swansea in Wales to Chester in England, although the official title is the Swansea to Manchester Trunk Road.-Swansea:...

 links the city to nearby Wrexham
Wrexham
Wrexham is a town in Wales. It is the administrative centre of the wider Wrexham County Borough, and the largest town in North Wales, located in the east of the region. It is situated between the Welsh mountains and the lower Dee Valley close to the border with Cheshire, England...

 and Swansea
Swansea
Swansea is a coastal city and county in Wales. Swansea is in the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan. Situated on the sandy South West Wales coast, the county area includes the Gower Peninsula and the Lliw uplands...

 to the far south.

Bus transport in the city is provided by First Group and Arriva
Arriva
Arriva plc is a multinational public transport company owned by Deutsche Bahn and headquartered in Sunderland, United Kingdom. It has bus, coach, train, tram and waterbus operations in 12 countries across Europe, employs more than 47,500 people and services over 1.5 billion passenger journeys each...

, the council owned and operated ChesterBus (formerly Chester City Transport) having been sold to First Group in mid-2007. There are plans to build a new bus exchange in the city as well as a new coach station.

Railways


Chester formerly had two railway stations. Chester General
Chester railway station
Chester railway station is a railway station in Newtown in the city of Chester, England. It is currently operated by Arriva Trains Wales, although Merseyrail, Northern Rail and Virgin Trains also run services from the station. It is situated to the north-east of the city centre...

 railway station remains in use but Chester Northgate
Chester Northgate railway station
Chester Northgate is a former railway station in Chester, Cheshire that was a terminus for the Cheshire Lines Committee and Great Central Railway...

 closed in 1969 as a result of the Beeching Axe
Beeching Axe
The Beeching Axe or the Beeching Cuts are informal names for the British Government's attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running British Railways, the nationalised railway system in the United Kingdom. The name is that of the main author of The Reshaping of British Railways, Dr Richard...

. Chester Northgate, which was located North East of the city centre, opened in 1875 as a terminus
Terminal Station
Terminal Station is a 1953 film by Italian director Vittorio De Sica. It tells the story of the love affair between an Italian man and an American woman. The film was entered into the 1953 Cannes Film Festival.-Production:...

 for the Cheshire Lines Committee
Cheshire Lines Committee
The Cheshire Lines Committee was the second largest joint railway in Great Britain, with 143 route miles. Despite its name, approximately 55% of its system was in Lancashire. In its publicity material it was often styled as the Cheshire Lines Railway...

. Trains travelled via Northwich
Northwich railway station
Northwich railway station serves the town of Northwich in Cheshire, England. The station has two platforms and is located on the Mid-Cheshire Line.-Services:...

 to Manchester Central
Manchester Central railway station
Manchester Central railway station is a former railway station in Manchester City Centre, England. One of Manchester's main railway terminals between 1880 and 1969, it now houses an exhibition and conference centre named Manchester Central.-History:...

. Later services also went to Seacombe (Wallasey) and Wrexham Central
Wrexham Central railway station
Wrexham Central railway station is the smaller of two main railway stations serving the central area of Wrexham in Wales. The platform can accommodate a three car diesel train, but has room for platform extension...

 via . It was demolished in the 1970s and the site is now part of the Northgate Arena leisure centre
Northgate Arena
Northgate Arena is an arena and leisure centre complex in Chester, England. Built in the 1970s on the site of the Chester Northgate railway station, Northgate Arena includes swimming pools, a gymnasium, several sports halls and a sauna. The main sports hall is also used for toy and train, antique,...

.

Chester General, which opened in 1848, was designed with an Italianate frontage. It now has seven designated platforms but once had fourteen. The station lost its original roof in the 1972 Chester General rail crash
Chester General rail crash
The Chester General rail crash occurred on 8 May 1972 at Chester railway station in northwest England.-Course of events:...

. In September 2007 extensive renovations took place to improve pedestrian access, and parking. The present station has manned ticket offices and barriers, waiting rooms, toilets, shops and a pedestrian bridge with lifts. Chester General also had a large marshalling yard and a motive power depot
Motive power depot
Motive power depot, usually abbreviated to MPD, is a name given to places where locomotives are stored when not being used, and also repaired and maintained. They were originally known as "running sheds", "engine sheds", or, for short, just sheds. Facilities are provided for refuelling and...

, most of which has now been replaced with housing.


Normal scheduled departures from Chester Station are: multiple services on the North Wales Coast Line
North Wales Coast Line
The North Wales Coast Line is the railway line from Crewe to Holyhead. Virgin Trains consider their services along it to be a spur of the West Coast Main Line. The first section from Crewe to Chester was built by the Chester and Crewe Railway and absorbed by the Grand Junction Railway shortly...

; Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. It operates long-distance passenger services on the West Coast Main Line between London, the West Midlands, North West England, North Wales and Scotland...

 to London Euston
Euston station
Euston station may refer to one of the following stations in London, United Kingdom:*Euston railway station, a major terminus for trains to the West Midlands, the North West, North Wales and part of Scotland...

 via Crewe; Arriva Trains Wales
Arriva Trains Wales
Arriva Trains Wales is a train operating company, owned by Arriva, that operates urban and inter urban passenger services in Wales and the Welsh Marches...

 to Manchester Piccadilly via Warrington Bank Quay and Cardiff Central
Cardiff Central railway station
Cardiff Central railway station is a major railway station on the South Wales Main Line in Cardiff, Wales.It is the largest and busiest station in Wales and one of the major stations of the British rail network, the tenth busiest station in the United Kingdom outside of London , based on 2007/08...

/Birmingham New Street via Wrexham General
Wrexham General railway station
Wrexham General railway station is a main line railway station and the main railway station serving Wrexham, north-east Wales. It is currently operated by Arriva Trains Wales, but services are also provided by Virgin Trains who operate a service to London Euston...

; Northern Rail
Northern Rail
Northern Rail is a British train operating company that has operated local passenger services in Northern England since 2004. Northern Rail's owner, Serco-Abellio, is a consortium formed of Abellio and Serco, an international operator of public transport systems...

 to Manchester Piccadilly via Northwich
Northwich railway station
Northwich railway station serves the town of Northwich in Cheshire, England. The station has two platforms and is located on the Mid-Cheshire Line.-Services:...

; Merseyrail
Merseyrail
Merseyrail is a train operating company and commuter rail network in the United Kingdom, centred on Liverpool, Merseyside. The network is predominantly electric with diesel trains running on the City Line. Two City Line branches are currently being electrified on the overhead wire AC system with...

 to Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 on the Wirral Line
Wirral Line
The Wirral Line is one of the two commuter railway lines operated by Merseyrail that are centred around Merseyside, England, the other being the Northern Line...

.

In late 1847 the Dee bridge disaster
Dee bridge disaster
The Dee bridge disaster was a rail accident that occurred on 24 May 1847 in Chester with five fatalities.A new bridge across the River Dee was needed for the Chester and Holyhead Railway, a project planned in the 1840s for the expanding British railway system. It was built using cast iron girders,...

 occurred when a bridge span collapsed as a train passed over the River Dee
River Dee, Wales
The River Dee is a long river in the United Kingdom. It travels through Wales and England and also forms part of the border between the two countries....

 by the Roodee. Five people were killed in the accident. The bridge had been designed and built by famed-railway engineer Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson FRS was an English civil engineer. He was the only son of George Stephenson, the famed locomotive builder and railway engineer; many of the achievements popularly credited to his father were actually the joint efforts of father and son.-Early life :He was born on the 16th of...

 for the Chester and Holyhead Railway
Chester and Holyhead Railway
The Chester and Holyhead Railway was incorporated out of a proposal to link Holyhead, the traditional port for the Irish Mail, with London by way of the existing Chester and Crewe Railway, and what is now the West Coast Main Line...

. A Royal Commission
Royal Commission
In Commonwealth realms and other monarchies a Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue. They have been held in various countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Saudi Arabia...

 inquiry found that the truss
Truss
In architecture and structural engineering, a truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units constructed with straight members whose ends are connected at joints referred to as nodes. External forces and reactions to those forces are considered to act only at the nodes and result in...

es were made of cast iron beams that had inadequate strength for their purpose. A national scandal ensued many new bridges of similar design were either taken down or heavily altered.

Cycling


On 19 June 2008, then Transport Secretary Ruth Kelly
Ruth Kelly
Ruth Maria Kelly is a British Labour Party politician of Irish descent who was the Member of Parliament for Bolton West from 1997 until she stood down in 2010...

 named Chester as a Cycling Demonstration Town
Cycling Demonstration town
In 2005, six English towns were chosen to be cycling demonstration towns to promote the use of cycling as a means of transport.The decision was made by Cycling England, a body set up by the Department for Transport...

. This initiative allows for substantial financial support to improve cycling facilities in the city, and a number of schemes are planned or already in development.

Potential schemes include a new pedestrian and cycling bridge across the River Dee, linking the Meadows with Huntington
Huntington, Cheshire
Huntington is a civil parish on the southern outskirts of Chester in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England...

 and Great Boughton, an access route between Curzon Park
Curzon Park
The Chester suburb of Curzon Park is a highly attractive residential area South of the River Dee situated within easy walking distance of the ancient Roman and medieval city walls, just across the famous Grosvenor Bridge. Part of the Curzon & Westminster Ward, the Curzon Park area is well known for...

 and the Roodee, an extension to the existing greenway route from Hoole
Hoole
Hoole is a suburb in the east of Chester, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.-History:The settlement was first mentioned in the Register of the Abbey of Saint Werburgh in 1119...

 to Guilden Sutton
Guilden Sutton
Guilden Sutton is a civil parish and village in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It is home to 1,525 residents, two churches, a primary school, one pub, a Post Office and a village hall as well as several local...

 and Mickle Trafford
Mickle Trafford
Mickle Trafford is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It includes the area known as Plemstall. In 2004 the population of the civil parish was estimated to be 2,140, although the 2001 census recorded...

, and an access route between the Millennium cycle route and Deva Link.

Canals



From about 1794 to the late 1950s, when the canal-side flour mills were closed, narrowboat
Narrowboat
A narrowboat or narrow boat is a boat of a distinctive design, made to fit the narrow canals of Great Britain.In the context of British Inland Waterways, "narrow boat" refers to the original working boats built in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries for carrying goods on the narrow canals...

s carried cargo such as coal, slate, gypsum or lead ore as well as finished lead (for roofing, water pipes and sewerage) from the leadworks in Egerton Street (Newtown). Grain from Cheshire was stored in granaries on the banks of the canal at Newtown and Boughton and salt for preserving food arrived from Northwich
Northwich
Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies in the heart of the Cheshire Plain, at the confluence of the rivers Weaver and Dane...

.

The Chester Canal
Chester Canal
The Chester Canal was a canal linking the south Cheshire town of Nantwich with the River Dee at Chester, providing a route for produce from Nantwich to reach Chester and, beyond it, the sea via the Dee estuary.-History:...

 had locks down to the River Dee. Canal boats could enter the river at high tide to load goods directly onto seagoing vessels. The port facilities at Crane Wharf, by Chester racecourse, made an important contribution to the commercial development of the north-west region .


The original Chester Canal was constructed to run from the River Dee
River Dee, Wales
The River Dee is a long river in the United Kingdom. It travels through Wales and England and also forms part of the border between the two countries....

 near Sealand Road, to Nantwich
Nantwich
Nantwich is a market town and civil parish in the Borough of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The town gives its name to the parliamentary constituency of Crewe and Nantwich...

 in south Cheshire, and opened in 1774. In 1805, the Wirral section of the Ellesmere Canal
Ellesmere Canal
The Ellesmere Canal was a canal in England and Wales, originally planned to link the Rivers Mersey, Dee, and Severn, by running from Netherpool to Shrewsbury. The canal that was eventually constructed was very different from what was originally envisioned...

 was opened, which ran from Netherpool (now known as Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port is a large industrial town and port in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It is situated on the south border of the Wirral Peninsula on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal, which in turn gives access to the River...

) to meet the Chester Canal at Chester canal basin. Later, those two canal branches became part of the Shropshire Union Canal
Shropshire Union Canal
The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable canal in England; the Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the Shropshire Union system and lie partially in Wales....

 network. This canal, which runs beneath the northern section of the city walls of Chester, is navigable and remains in use today.

Proposed canal


The original plan to complete the Ellesmere Canal was to connect Chester directly to the Wrexham coalfields by building a broad-gauge waterway
Barge
A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and need to be towed by tugboats or pushed by towboats...

 with a branch to the River Dee at Holt
Holt, Wales
Holt is a medieval market town and local government community in the county borough of Wrexham, Wales. It is situated on the border with England. Holt Castle was begun by Edward I shortly after the English invasion of Wales in 1277.-Area:...

. However with the advent of railways and high land prices, the plan was eventually abandoned in the 19th century. If the waterway had been built, canal traffic would have crossed the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee in Wrexham in north east Wales....

 heading north to Chester and the River Dee.

As the route was never completed, the short length of canal north of Trevor
Trevor Basin
Trevor Basin is a Canal basin on the Llangollen Canal, situated near Trevor, in Clwyd, between Llangollen and Ruabon.The basin was originally built at the northern end of the central section of the Ellesmere Canal, just 150yds north of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.With the abandonment of the planned...

, near Wrexham
Wrexham
Wrexham is a town in Wales. It is the administrative centre of the wider Wrexham County Borough, and the largest town in North Wales, located in the east of the region. It is situated between the Welsh mountains and the lower Dee Valley close to the border with Cheshire, England...

 was infilled. The Llangollen Canal
Llangollen Canal
The Llangollen Canal is a navigable canal crossing the border between England and Wales. The waterway links Llangollen in Denbighshire, north Wales, with Hurleston in south Cheshire, via the town of Ellesmere, Shropshire....

, although designed to be primarily a water source from the River Dee, became a cruising waterway despite its inherent narrow nature.

It would be rail that was to bring Welsh coal to Chester.

Trams


Chester had an extensive tram network during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It covered an area as far west as Saltney, on the Welsh border, to Chester General station, Tarvin Road and Great Boughton in the northwest. The network featured the narrowest gauge trams (3' 6") in mainland Britain, due to an act of Parliament which deemed that they must be the least obstructive possible.

The tramway was established in 1871 by Chester Tramways Corporation. It was horse-drawn until its electrification by overhead cables in 1903. The tramway was closed in February 1930, a fate experienced by most other systems in the UK. All that remains are small areas of uncovered track inside the bus depot, and a few tram-wire supports attached to buildings on Eastgate/Foregate Street, although substantial sections of the track remain buried beneath the current road surface.

Sport


Chester was home to Chester City F.C.
Chester City F.C.
Chester City Football Club was an English football team from Chester. The club was founded as Chester F.C., and joined the Football League in 1931, spending most of their time in the lower divisions. They changed their name to Chester City in 1983. Chester won their first league title in 2004, the...

, who were founded in 1885 and elected to the Football League in 1931, and played at their Sealand Road
Sealand Road
Sealand Road was the home stadium of Chester City Football Club from 1906 until 1990. Although officially known simply as The Stadium, it was more commonly referred to as Sealand Road...

 stadium until 1990, spending two years playing in Macclesfield
Macclesfield
Macclesfield is a market town within the unitary authority of Cheshire East, the county palatine of Chester, also known as the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The population of the Macclesfield urban sub-area at the time of the 2001 census was 50,688...

 before returning to the city to the new Deva Stadium – which straddles the border of England and Wales – in 1992. The club first lost its Football League status in 2000, only to reclaim it four years later as Conference
Football Conference
The Football Conference is a football league in England which consists of three divisions called Conference National, Conference North, and Conference South. Some Football Conference clubs are fully professional, such as Luton Town, but most of them are semi-professional...

 champions, but were relegated again in 2009 and went out of business in March 2010 after 125 years in existence.

Notable former players of the club include Ian Rush
Ian Rush
Ian James Rush, MBE, is a retired football player from Flint, Wales. He is best remembered as a player for Liverpool, where he was among the top strikers in the English game in the 1980s and 1990s. He also had spells playing at Chester City, Juventus, Leeds United, Newcastle United, Sheffield...

 (who later managed the club), Cyrille Regis
Cyrille Regis
Cyrille Regis, MBE is a French-born English former footballer. His professional playing career spanned 19 years, where he made 610 league appearances and scored 159 league goals, most prolifically at West Bromwich Albion and Coventry City.-Early life:Regis was born in Maripasoula, French Guiana,...

, Arthur Albiston
Arthur Albiston
Arthur Richard Albiston is a Scottish former football player.-Career:Albiston joined Manchester United as an apprentice in July 1972, turning professional in July 1974. He made his debut in a League Cup Third Round match against local rivals Manchester City in 1974. He made 485 appearances in 14...

, Earl Barrett
Earl Barrett
Earl Delisser Barrett is an English former footballer who played in the Football League and Premier League for Manchester City, Chester City, Oldham Athletic, Aston Villa, Everton, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday. He played mainly at right back though could also adapt to a central...

, Lee Dixon
Lee Dixon
Lee Michael Dixon is a former English professional footballer born in Manchester.He formed part of the Arsenal defence from the late 1980s, through till 2002. He was capped 22 times for England, scoring once....

, Steve Harkness
Steve Harkness
Steven "Steve" Harkness is a former footballer who played for several clubs, most notably Liverpool.-Playing career:...

, Roberto Martínez
Roberto Martínez
Roberto Martínez Montoliú is a Spanish former professional footballer and is currently manager of Wigan Athletic.Martínez played as a midfielder and began his career at lower league Spanish side CF Balaguer. Two years later he went to English Division Three side Wigan Athletic...

 and Stan Pearson
Stan Pearson
Stanley Clare Pearson was an English football player. He was born in Salford.Pearson was signed by Manchester United as an amateur in December 1935 and turned professional in May 1937. His first senior game came against Chesterfield in 1937. When his career was interrupted by the war, he served...

.

Following their demise, a new team – Chester FC – was founded. They play at Chester City's Deva Stadium and were elected to the Northern Premier League Division One North
Northern Premier League Division One North
Division One North is one of the two second-tier divisions of the Northern Premier League. It is at tier 4 of the National League System, tier 8 of the English football league system...

 for the 2010–11 season, ending their first season as that division's champions, securing a place in the Northern Premier League Premier Division
Northern Premier League Premier Division
The Premier Division is the top division of the Northern Premier League. It is at Step 3 of the National League System, placing it six divisions below the Premier League...

 for the 2011–12 season.

The city also has a professional basketball team in the national league, the BBL Championship
British Basketball League
The British Basketball League, often abbreviated to the BBL, is the premier men's professional basketball league in the United Kingdom. The BBL runs two knockout competitions alongside the league championship; the BBL Cup and the BBL Trophy....

. Cheshire Jets
Cheshire Jets
The Cheshire Jets are a British professional basketball team based in the city of Chester, in Cheshire, England. Formerly known as the Chester Jets, their home court is the Northgate Arena and they play in the top-tier British Basketball League....

 play at the city's Northgate Arena
Northgate Arena
Northgate Arena is an arena and leisure centre complex in Chester, England. Built in the 1970s on the site of the Chester Northgate railway station, Northgate Arena includes swimming pools, a gymnasium, several sports halls and a sauna. The main sports hall is also used for toy and train, antique,...

 leisure centre; and a wheelchair basketball team, Celtic Warriors, formerly known as the Chester Wheelchair Jets.

Chester Rugby Club
Chester RUFC
Chester Rugby Union Football Club is a rugby union club based in Chester, Cheshire. The club is governed by the Rugby Football Union and the clubs 1st XV currently competes in National 3 North with the 2nd XV and 3rd XV playing in the North West Intermediate Rugby Union leagues.Research shows that...

 (union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

) plays in the English National League 3 North. It won the EDF Energy Intermediate Cup in the 2007–08 season and has also won the Cheshire Cup several times.

There is a successful hockey club, Chester HC, who play at the County Officers' Club on Plas Newton Lane, a Handball team Deva Handball Club, who boast to be the largest handball team in the country. Deva handball club play in National league 1 of handball, and also an American Football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 team, the Chester Romans, part of the British American Football League
British American Football League
The British American Football League was the United Kingdom's primary American Football league from 1998 until 2010. It was formerly known as the British Senior League until 2005. BAFL was the trading name for Gridiron Football League Ltd incorporated as a Company limited by guarantee....

.

Chester Racecourse
Chester Racecourse
Chester Racecourse, known as the Roodee, is according to official records the oldest racecourse still in use in England. Horse racing at Chester dates back to the early sixteenth century. It is also thought to be the smallest racecourse of significance in England at 1 mile and 1 furlong ...

 hosts several flat race
Flat racing
Flat racing is a form of Thoroughbred horse racing which is run over a level track at a predetermined distance. It differs from steeplechase racing which is run over hurdles...

 meetings from the spring to the autumn. The races take place within view of the City walls and attract tens of thousands of visitors. The May meeting includes several nationally significant races such as the Chester Vase
Chester Vase
The Chester Vase is a Group 3 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and geldings. It is run at Chester over a distance of 1 mile, 4 furlongs and 66 yards , and it is scheduled to take place each year in May....

, which is recognised as a trial for the Epsom Derby
Epsom Derby
The Derby Stakes, popularly known as The Derby, internationally as the Epsom Derby, and under its present sponsor as the Investec Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies...

.

The River Dee is home to rowing clubs, notably Grosvenor Rowing Club and Royal Chester Rowing Club, as well as two school clubs, The King's School Chester Rowing Club and Queen's Park High Rowing Club. The weir is used by a number of local canoe and kayak clubs. Each July the Chester Raft Race
Chester Raft Race
The Chester Raft Race in an annual event taking place every July on the River Dee in Chester.-External links:* – a gallery of photographs from the 2010 event....

 is held on the River Dee in aid of charity.

Chester Golf Club
Chester Golf Club
Chester is one of the oldest established golf clubs in the county of Cheshire. The club has a full calendar of competitions and inter-club matches, as well as opportunities for friendly golf. The clubhouse offers all the usual amenities eg licensed bar. Visitors are welcome.Situated in Curzon Park,...

 is near the banks of the Dee, and there are numerous private golf courses near the city, as well as a 9 hole municipal course at Westminster Park.

The Northgate Arena is the city's main leisure centre, there are smaller sports centres in Christleton and Upton. The Victorian City Baths are in the city centre.

Sunday 11th December 2011 will see the first Chester Santa Dash. A 4km run around the streets of Chester in aid of local charities, the Santa Dash is a festive event open to everyone of all ages and abilities.

Notable people

  • Sir John Vanbrugh
    John Vanbrugh
    Sir John Vanbrugh  – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. He wrote two argumentative and outspoken Restoration comedies, The Relapse and The Provoked Wife , which have become enduring stage favourites...

     (1664–1726), architect and dramatist, raised in Chester
  • John Douglas
    John Douglas (architect)
    John Douglas was an English architect who designed about 500 buildings in Cheshire, North Wales, and northwest England, in particular in the estate of Eaton Hall. He was trained in Lancaster and practised throughout his career from an office in Chester, Cheshire...

     (1830–1911), architect, lived in and had his practice in Chester, and designed many of its Victorian buildings
  • Randolph Caldecott
    Randolph Caldecott
    Randolph Caldecott was a British artist and illustrator, born in Chester. The Caldecott Medal was named in his honor. He exercised his art chiefly in book illustrations. His abilities as an artist were promptly and generously recognized by the Royal Academy. Caldecott greatly influenced...

     (1846–86), artist and book illustrator, was born in Bridge Street, Chester.
  • David Roberts
    David Roberts (engineer)
    David Roberts was the Chief Engineer and managing director of Richard Hornsby & Sons in the early 1900s...

     (1859–1928) the engineer who invented the caterpillar track, grew up in Great Boughton
    Great Boughton
    Great Boughton is a civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It includes the villages of Boughton Heath and Vicars Cross....

    .
  • Sir Adrian Boult
    Adrian Boult
    Sir Adrian Cedric Boult CH was an English conductor. Brought up in a prosperous mercantile family he followed musical studies in England and at Leipzig, Germany, with early conducting work in London for the Royal Opera House and Sergei Diaghilev's ballet company. His first prominent post was...

     (1889–1983), musical conductor, born in Liverpool Road.
  • A. S. Hornby
    A. S. Hornby
    Albert Sidney ' Hornby, usually just A. S. Hornby, 1898–1978, was an English grammarian, lexicographer, and pioneer in the field of English language learning and teaching ....

     (1898–1978), notable grammar
    Grammar
    In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics,...

    ian and lexicographer.
  • L. T. C. Rolt
    L. T. C. Rolt
    Lionel Thomas Caswall Rolt was a prolific English writer and the biographer of major civil engineering figures including Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Thomas Telford...

     (1910–74), engineering historian was born in Chester,
  • Group Captain Leonard Cheshire
    Leonard Cheshire
    Group Captain Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and Two Bars, DFC was a highly decorated British RAF pilot during the Second World War....

     VC
    Victoria Cross
    The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

    , OM
    Order of Merit
    The Order of Merit is a British dynastic order recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture...

    , DSO and Two Bars
    Distinguished Service Order
    The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...

    , DFC (1917–1992), renowned Second World War RAF bomber pilot
    RAF Bomber Command
    RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968. During World War II the command destroyed a significant proportion of Nazi Germany's industries and many German cities, and in the 1960s stood at the peak of its postwar military power with the V bombers and a supplemental...

     and founder of the Leonard Cheshire Disability
    Leonard Cheshire Disability
    Leonard Cheshire Disability is a major health and welfare charity in the United Kingdom, founded in 1948 by RAF pilot Leonard Cheshire VC.In 2006–7 it had a total expenditure of £143 million, placing it in the top 30 of UK charities.-History:...

     charity, was born in Hoole Road, Hoole, Chester (although he was brought up in Oxford
    Oxford
    The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

    ). The house where he was born (now a guest house) bears a blue plaque
    Blue plaque
    A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event, serving as a historical marker....

     attesting to this.
  • Anthony Thwaite
    Anthony Thwaite
    Anthony Simon Thwaite, OBE, is an English poet and writer. He is married to the writer Ann Thwaite. He was awarded the OBE in 1992, for services to poetry. He was mainly brought up in Yorkshire and currently lives in Norfolk....

     (born 1930), poet and writer.
  • Beatrice Tinsley
    Beatrice Tinsley
    Beatrice Muriel Hill Tinsley was a New Zealand astronomer and cosmologist whose research made fundamental contributions to the astronomical understanding of how galaxies evolve with time.-Life:...

     (née Hill) (1941–1981), astronomer
    Astronomer
    An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

     and cosmologist
    Physical cosmology
    Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion...

    , professor of astronomy at Yale University
    Yale University
    Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

     was also born in the city but was brought up in New Zealand.
  • Ian Blair
    Ian Blair
    Ian Warwick Blair, Baron Blair of Boughton, QPM is a retired British Police officer who held the position of commissioner of police of the metropolis from 2005 to 2008 and was the highest ranking officer within the Metropolitan Police Service.On 2 October 2008 Blair announced that he would...

     (born 1953), Commissioner for Metropolitan Police (retired)
  • James Hamilton, author of children's books.
  • Conor Kostick
    Conor Kostick
    Conor Kostick lives in Dublin where he teaches medieval history at Trinity College. He is the author of many historical, political and cultural articles. Epic was his first novel and was awarded a place on the International Board on Books for Young People Honours list for 2006 and on the Booklist...

     (born 1964), writer and historian.

Actors
  • Basil Radford
    Basil Radford
    Basil Radford was an English character actor who featured in many British films of the 1930s and 1940s. He trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and made his first stage appearance in July 1924...

     (1897–1952).
  • Randle Ayrton
    Randle Ayrton
    Randle Ayrton was a British actor, producer and director.-Career:Ayrton was educated at the King's School in Chester and Geneva University. In 1890 he made his stage debut at the Old Avenue Theatre in London and has been successful on stage in London and in America into the late 1930s...

     (born 1869)
  • Hugh Lloyd
    Hugh Lloyd
    Hugh Lewis Lloyd, MBE was an English actor who made his name in television and film comedy from the 1960s to the 1980s. He was best known for appearances in Hugh and I and other sitcoms of the 1960s.-Life:...

     (born 1923).
  • Ronald Pickup
    Ronald Pickup
    -Life and career:Pickup was born in Chester, England, the son of Daisy and Eric Pickup, who was a lecturer. Pickup was educated at The King's School, Chester, trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and became an Associate Member of RADA.His television work began with an episode...

     (born 1940).
  • Daniel Craig
    Daniel Craig
    Daniel Wroughton Craig is an English actor. His early film roles include Elizabeth, The Power of One, A Kid in King Arthur's Court and the television episodes Sharpe's Eagle, Zorro and The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Daredevils of the Desert...

     (born 1968) in Liverpool Road.
  • Emily Booth
    Emily Booth
    Emily Katherine Booth , also known by her stage name Emily "Bouff" Bouffante, is an English actress and television presenter.- Early life :...

     (born 1976), actress and writer.
  • Ray Coulthard (born 1968)
  • Emma Cunniffe
    Emma Cunniffe
    Emma Cunniffe is a British film, stage and television actress.Her television credits include The Lakes , "Biddy" in a TV adaptation of Great Expectations, All the King's Men, Clash of the Santas, alongside Robson Green and Mark Benton, an ITV adaptation of Appointment with Death, Clocking Off ,...

     (born 1973)
  • Adrian Bower
    Adrian Bower
    Adrian Bower is an English actor, best known for his role as physical education and geography teacher Brian Steadman in the first three series of the British comedy series Teachers...

     (born 1970)
  • John Steiner
    John Steiner
    John Steiner is an English actor. Tall, thin and gaunt, Steiner attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts and worked for a few years at the BBC. Steiner featured in a lead role in a television production of Design for Living by Noel Coward. Later he found further work primarily in films...

     (born 1941)
  • Malcolm Hebden
    Malcolm Hebden
    Malcolm Hebden is an English television and stage actor best known for his role as Norris Cole in the long-running ITV soap opera Coronation Street.-Early life:...

     (born 1940)
  • Graham Roberts (born 1929)


Cinematography
  • Peter Newbrook
    Peter Newbrook
    Peter Austin Harley Newbrook BSC was a British born cinematographer, director, producer and writer.Newbrook was born in Chester and educated at the Chester, and Worcester Cathedral schools, and the Ewell Castle School. He began his career as a trainee cameraman and focus puller with Warner...

     (1920–2009) cinematographer, director, producer and writer


Comedians
  • Russ Abbot
    Russ Abbot
    Russ Abbot is an English musician, comedian and actor who first came to public notice during the 1970s as the singer and drummer with British comedy showband the Black Abbots, later forging a prominent solo career as a television comedian with his own weekly show on British television.Continuing...

     (born 1947) (birth name Russell A. Roberts), musician, comedian and actor.
  • Bob Mills
    Bob Mills (comedian)
    Robert Edward "Bob" Mills is a British comedian, notable for his appearances in cult TV series such as In Bed with Medinner and The Show, the latter an attempt to do a non-fictional British version of The Larry Sanders Show.Born in Chester, after a very short spell training for the Merchant Navy,...

     (born 1957), comedian and gameshow host.
  • Jeff Green
    Jeff Green (comedian)
    Jeff Green is an English comedian and writer. He lives in Victoria, Australia with his wife and two children.- Stand-up :...

     (born 1964), comedian.
  • Stevie Riks
    Stevie Riks
    Stevie Riks is a British comedian and impressionist. He mainly releases material via the Internet video viewing web site YouTube...

     (born 1967), comedian, impressionist, musician.


Sport
  • Helen Willetts
    Helen Willetts
    Helen Sarah Willetts is a meteorologist on the BBC. She appears regularly on BBC News, BBC World News, BBC Red Button, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio 5 Live and BBC Radio 2, as well as BBC One. Helen is an occasional weather forecaster on the BBC News at Ten and the BBC News channel...

     (born 1972), former badminton international and weather forecaster
    Weather forecasting
    Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since the nineteenth century...

    .
  • Danny Murphy (born 1977). English football international and Liverpool F.C.
    Liverpool F.C.
    Liverpool Football Club is an English Premier League football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside. Liverpool has won eighteen League titles, second most in English football, seven FA Cups and a record seven League Cups...

     and Fulham F.C.
    Fulham F.C.
    Fulham Football Club is a professional English Premier League club based in southwest London Fulham, in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Founded in 1879, they play in the Premier League, their 11th current season...

     player.
  • Pat Sanderson
    Pat Sanderson
    Patrick Harold Sanderson is a former England international rugby union player and flanker for Worcester, the team he currently captains...

     (born 1977), international rugby union player.
  • Alex Sanderson
    Alex Sanderson
    Alexander Sanderson is a former English rugby union footballer who played in the back row for Saracens and Sale Sharks. He is the brother of Pat Sanderson who also played rugby for Littleborough RUFC....

     (born 1979), international rugby union player and younger brother of Pat.
  • Michael Owen
    Michael Owen
    Michael James Owen is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Manchester United.The son of former footballer Terry Owen, Owen began his senior career at Liverpool in 1996. He progressed through the Liverpool youth team and scored on his debut in May 1997...

     (born 1979), English football international and Liverpool F.C.
    Liverpool F.C.
    Liverpool Football Club is an English Premier League football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside. Liverpool has won eighteen League titles, second most in English football, seven FA Cups and a record seven League Cups...

     and current Manchester United player.
  • Danny Collins
    Danny Collins
    Daniel Lewis "Danny" Collins is a Welsh footballer currently playing for Ipswich Town on loan from Stoke City. Collins also plays for the Wales national football team as a defender....

     (born 1980), Sunderland A.F.C.
    Sunderland A.F.C.
    Sunderland Association Football Club is an English association football club based in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear who currently play in the Premier League...

     footballer.
  • Andy Dorman
    Andy Dorman
    Andrew "Andy" Dorman is a Wales international footballer. Born in England of English parents, he grew up in Wales and represented the Wales schools team, eventually gaining full senior international recognition when FIFA amended its rules on eligibility...

     (born 1982), Crystal Palace F.C.
    Crystal Palace F.C.
    Crystal Palace Football Club are an English Football league club based in South Norwood, London. The team plays its home matches at Selhurst Park, where they have been based since 1924. The club currently competes in the second tier of English Football, The Championship.Crystal Palace was formed in...

     footballer.
  • Ricky Walden
    Ricky Walden
    -External links:**...

     (born 1982), professional snooker
    Snooker
    Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a green baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. A regular table is . It is played using a cue and snooker balls: one white , 15 worth one point each, and six balls of different :...

     player.
  • Ben Foden
    Ben Foden
    Benjamin Foden is a rugby union footballer who plays for Northampton Saints and England. He plays at fullback or scrum-half, but can also operate on the wing...

     (born 1985) rugby player England and Northampton saints
    Northampton Saints
    Northampton Saints are a professional rugby union club from Northampton, England. The Northampton Saints were formed in 1880. They play in green, black and gold colours. They play their home games at Franklin's Gardens, which has a capacity of 13,591....

    .
  • Tom Heaton (born 1986), Cardiff City
    Cardiff city
    Cardiff City may refer to:* Cardiff city centre* Cardiff City Council* Cardiff City F.C.* Cardiff City L.F.C.* Cardiff City Stadium...

     goalkeeper.
  • Ryan Shawcross
    Ryan Shawcross
    Ryan James Shawcross is an English footballer who plays as a defender for Stoke City.He previously was on the books of Manchester United, and had loan spells at Royal Antwerp and Stoke City respectively, before joining the latter permanently during January 2008. He was appointed as Stoke's captain...

     (born 1987), Stoke City F.C.
    Stoke City F.C.
    Stoke City Football Club is an English professional football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire that plays in the Premier League. Founded in 1863, it is the oldest club in the Premier League, and considered to be the second oldest professional football club in the world, after Notts...

     footballer.
  • Steven Cousins
    Steven Cousins
    Steven Cousins is a British figure skater. He is the eight-time British national champion, the first Briton to land a triple axel in competition , and the youngest skater to win the British National Championships. He competed in eight World Figure Skating Championships and three Winter Olympics...

     (born 1972), skater.
  • Beth Tweddle
    Beth Tweddle
    Elizabeth "Beth" Kimberly Tweddle MBE is an English gymnast. Tweddle is a three time world champion having won the 2010 World Championships and 2006 World Championshipson the uneven bars and the 2009 World Championships on the floor...

     (born 1985 in Johannesburg
    Johannesburg
    Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

    , South Africa), World Champion Gymnast.
  • Doug Ellis
    Doug Ellis
    Herbert Douglas Ellis, OBE , is an entrepreneur, best known as the former chairman of Aston Villa Football Club.-Early life:...

     (born 1924), former owner of Aston Villa F.C.
    Aston Villa F.C.
    Aston Villa Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Witton, Birmingham. The club was founded in 1874 and have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, since 1897. Aston Villa were founder members of The Football League in 1888. They were also founder...

    .
  • Antonio Pedroza (born 1991), Jaguares de Chiapas
    Jaguares de Chiapas
    The Club de Fútbol Jaguares de Chiapas, is a Mexican football club now based in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, in the state of Chiapas. They currently play in Primera División de México...

     footballer.
  • Stuart Turner
    Stuart Turner (cricketer)
    Stuart Turner is a former English cricketer. Turner was a right-handed batsman who bowled right-arm medium-fast. He was born at Chester, Cheshire.-External links:* at ESPNcricinfo* at CricketArchive...

     (born 1943), former Essex
    Essex County Cricket Club
    Essex County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh national cricket structure, representing the historic county of Essex. Its limited overs team is called the Essex Eagles, their team colours this season are blue.The club plays most of its home games...

     cricketer


Music
  • Howard Skempton
    Howard Skempton
    Howard Skempton is a British composer and accordionist. Since the late 1960s, when he helped organize the Scratch Orchestra, he has been associated with the English school of experimental music...

     (born 1947), composer .
  • Steve Wright, singer of Juveniles, Fiat Lux
    Fiat Lux (band)
    Fiat Lux was an English synthpop band formed in Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, in 1982, by Steve Wright and David P Crickmore...

    , Camera Obscura
    Camera Obscura (electronic duo)
    Camera Obscura were a synth pop band formed in 1982 in York, England, by Peter Oldroyd and Nigel James. They signed to Small Wonder Records in 1983 and reached no. 32 in the UK Indie Chart with the single "Destitution". They split up in 1986 but re-formed for a tour of Germany in 2005 after signing...

     and Hoi Poloi.
  • Stephen Oliver (born 1950) Composer
  • Nemone Metaxas (born 1973) DJ and Radio presenter
  • Lee Latchford-Evans
    Lee Latchford-Evans
    Lee Latchford-Evans is an English pop singer, actor and dancer, most famous for being a member of the British pop group Steps.-Biography:...

     (born 1975) Singer of 90's pop group Steps
  • Andie Rathbone
    Andie Rathbone
    Andrew Rathbone is an English drummer and former member of the rock band Mansun.Rathbone was the third and final drummer in Mansun, brought in after the band had "internal conflict" with the previous two...

     (born 1969) drummer of Chester based indie band Mansun
    Mansun
    Mansun were an English alternative rock band formed in Chester in 1995. The band comprised vocalist/rhythm guitarist Paul Draper, bassist Stove King, lead guitarist/backing vocalist Dominic Chad, and drummer Andie Rathbone. The band broke up in May 2003....

  • Kutski
    Kutski
    Kutski , is a radio DJ. He was born in Chester, England. He currently presents BBC Radio 1's early Saturday morning show, where he plays a variety of hard dance music, including Breakbeat, Electro, Hard Trance, Hardcore and Hardstyle.-Profile:Kutski started DJing aged 15...

     (born 1982) DJ and BBC Radio 1 presenter


Curators
  • Adam Carr
    Adam Carr (curator)
    Adam Carr is a curator and writer He was recently a guest curator for Castello di Rivoli, Museum of Contemporary Art, Turin, Italy....


See also

  • Grade I listed buildings in Chester
    Grade I listed buildings in Chester
    Chester is a city and the county town of Cheshire, England. This list contains all the Grade I listed buildings in the city.*Remains of Roman Amphitheatre*Chester Cathedral*Former monastic buildings to Cathedral*Church of St John the Baptist...

  • St Paul's Church, Boughton
    St Paul's Church, Boughton
    St Paul's Church, Boughton, overlooks the River Dee in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. The church has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building, and is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of...

  • St Barnabas' Church, Chester
    St Barnabas' Church, Chester
    St Barnabas' Church, Chester is in Sibell Street, Chester, Cheshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II listed building. The church was built as a mission church financed from public subscription to serve the workers living near Chester railway station...

  • St Mary's Church, Handbridge
    St Mary's Church, Handbridge
    St Mary's Church, Handbridge is in Handbridge, an area south of the River Dee, in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It is also known as the Church of St Mary-without-the-Walls. The church has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building...

  • All Saints Church, Hoole
  • Blacon
    Blacon
    Blacon is a large suburb near Chester, in Cheshire, England, containing a mixture of private homes and substantial public council-built properties...

  • Newtown, Chester
    Newtown, Chester
    Newtown is an area of Chester, Cheshire, England.-History:left|thumb|1899 OS map of N.E. Chester showing Newtown. The Cathederal grounds of St. Werburgh can be seen to bottom left of the map...

  • Hoole
    Hoole
    Hoole is a suburb in the east of Chester, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.-History:The settlement was first mentioned in the Register of the Abbey of Saint Werburgh in 1119...


External links