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Chatha

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Chatha) (also spelt as Chattha) is a Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 Jatt tribe that inhabits parts of the Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.

History


The Chatha tribe were originally settled Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District is a district in Punjab, Pakistan.- History :The village of Asarur which has been identified as the location of Taki, an ancient town, visited by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang contains immense ruins of Buddhist origin...

, in which district they hold 184 villages. They claim to be descended from Chattha, a grandson of Prithi Rai
Prithviraj III
Prithvi Raj III, commonly known as Prithviraj Chauhan , was a king of the Hindu Chauhan dynasty, who ruled the kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century....

 Chauhan
Chauhan
Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan , , - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan...

, the Chauhan
Chauhan
Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan , , - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan...

 King of Delhi, and brother (from a different mother) of the ancestor of the heema]. In the 10th from Chattha, as otherwise stated, some 500 years ago, Dahru came from Sambhal in Moradabad, where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live, to the banks of the Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

. They were converted to Islam about 1600 AD. They rose to considerable political importance under the Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s; and the history of their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at page 402 of his Punjab Chiefs.
The Chatha tribe under the warlord Pir Mohd Khan of Rasulnagar
Rasulnagar
Rasulnagar is a town and Union council of Gujranwala District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is located at 32°20'0N 73°47'0E with an altitude of 197 metres and is part of Wazirabad Tehsil.-History:...

 and Alipur Chatha
Alipur Chatha
Alipur Chatha is a town and one of the 36 union councils of Wazirabad Tehsil of Gujranwala District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It contains ruins of the historical city of Akālgarh.-History:...

 held considerable tracts of land under his control until he lost these lands to Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 of Sukerchakia
Sukerchakia
The Sukerchakia Misl was one of 11 Sikh Misls in Punjab during the 18th century concentrated in Gujranwala and Hafizabad district in Western Punjab and ruled from...

 Sikhs, who later became Maharaja of Punjab. Under the rule of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

, the Chathas rose to considerable political importance. Chaudhary Khuda Buksh Chattha and Chaudhary Nawab Khan Chattha were generals in the army of Ranjit Singh.

Maha Singh
Maha Singh
Maha Singh Upon the death of his father, Charat Singh , he succeeded to the leadership of the Sukerchakia Misl. His son Ranjit Singh succeeded him and established the Sikh Empire...

 was a chief of the Chatha
Chatha
Chatha ) is a Punjabi Jatt tribe that inhabits parts of the Punjab in India and Pakistan. - History :The Chatha tribe were originally settled Gujranwala District, in which district they hold 184 villages...

 tribe and leader of the Sukerchakia Misl who's son Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 became the Maharajah of Punjab.

Geography


Historically Chathas have been confined to the Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District is a district in Punjab, Pakistan.- History :The village of Asarur which has been identified as the location of Taki, an ancient town, visited by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang contains immense ruins of Buddhist origin...

, in which they have 108 villages. Important Chatha villages include Ahmadnagar, Kot Bhaga and Kot PanahThey marry among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

. However, during the 18th Century, the Chatha migrated east to as far as Patiala, and in the west to Attock
Attock
Attock is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan and the headquarters of Attock District...

. As a result of these migrations, the Chatha clan is also found south-east of Rawalpindi District
Rawalpindi District
Rawalpindi is a district of Pakistan in the north of the Punjab province which contains the city of Rawalpindi. The district has an area of . It was part of Rawalpindi Division, until the year 2000 when the division was abolished...

, with Mandar Chatha, Hakim Chatha and Chatha Bakhtawar being the most important. Most of the Rawlpindi Chatha claim to be Rajput
Rajput
A Rajput is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and in some parts of Pakistan. Rajputs are descendants of one of the major ruling warrior classes in the Indian subcontinent, particularly North India...

s. In neighbouring Jhelum District
Jhelum District
Jhelum District is in the Punjab province of Pakistan. According the 1998 census the district had a population of 936,957, of which 31.48% were urban. Jhelum is known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British and later to the Pakistan armed forces due to which it is also known as...

, they are found in the villages of Chatha and Chak Chatha, and in Gujrat District
Gujrat District
Gujrat is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan. It is an ancient district located in between two famous rivers, the Jhelum and Chenab. Because of its proximity with the rivers the land is good for cultivation with rice and sugar cane as main crops...

 they are found in the village of Chatha.

Sikh Chathas


In Indian Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

, Chatha Jats who follow the Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 faith are found in the districts of Ludhiana
Ludhiana District
-Rainfall:The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September...

, Jalandhar
Jalandhar District
Jalandhar district , Jalandhar Zilā) is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India. The capital is Jalandhar City...

 and Patiala
Patiala District
Patiala district is one of the twenty districts in the state of Punjab in North-West India.Patiala District lies between 29 49’ and 30 47’ north latitude, 75 58’ and 76 54' east longitude, in the southeast part of the state...

. In Jalandhar, there main village is Dhandowal in Nakodar
Nakodar
Nakodar is a city and a municipal council in Jalandhar district in the Indian state of Punjab.The city is almost 424 km from Delhi, 24 km from Jalandhar, 45 km from Ludhiana, and about 114 km from Amritsar. Surrounding villages include[Mehatpur]Nawan Pind Jattan, Heran, Bir...

 tehsil
Tehsil
A Tehsil or Tahsil/Tahasil , also known as Taluk and Mandal, is an administrative division of some country/countries of South Asia....

. These Chatha are immigrants from Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

, and are entirely Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

. This region was also home Muslim Chatha Jats, all of whom immigrated to Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 at the time of the partition of India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

. In Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District
Gujranwala District is a district in Punjab, Pakistan.- History :The village of Asarur which has been identified as the location of Taki, an ancient town, visited by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang contains immense ruins of Buddhist origin...

, Sikh Chathas were found mainly in villages near Wazirabad
Wazirabad
AYAZ KHANWazirabad is an industrial city located in Gujranwala District, Punjab, Pakistan. Wazirabad is situated on the banks of the Chenab River nearly 100 kilometres north of Lahore on the Grand Trunk Road. It is 45 kilometres from Sialkot, 30 kilometres from the district capital - Gujranwala...

 and Hafizabad
Hafizabad
Hafizabad is a city and tehsil of Hafizabad District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is situated at 32° 4′ N. and 73° 41′ E.- History :...

. Acording to 1911 Census of India, they numbered 816.

Chatha villages in the Canal Colonies


Many Chathas migrated to Lyallpur Faisalabad
Faisalabad District
Faisalabad District is one of the districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan it had a population of 5,429,547 of which almost 42% were in Faisalabad City....

 and Montgomery (Sahiwal District
Sahiwal District
Sahiwal District is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. As of 1998, it had a population of 1,843,194 people, 16.27% of which were located in urban areas. Since 2008, Sahiwal District along with Okara District and Pakpattan District has comprised the Sahiwal Division...

) districts during the build-up of the canal network by the British.The group of six Chatha villages of Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

 is situated near the town of Chak Jhumra
Chak Jhumra
Chak Jhumra is a town and tehsil near the city of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. It is a sub-division of Faisalabad District and has a Tehsil municipal administration . Chak Jhumra Town consists of 15 union councils.-About Chak Jhumra:...

. People of these villages are peculiar in the sense that they are not direct migrants from Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

. They come from Gurdaspur District
Gurdaspur District
Gurdaspur district is a district in the state of Punjab, situated in the northwest part of the Republic of India. Gurdaspur is the district headquarters. It internationally borders Narowal District of the Pakistani Punjab, Kathua District of Jammu and Kashmir, the Punjab districts of Amritsar and...

 and are the progeny of one Chatha person who migrated from Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

 to Gurdaspur. When the Rakh Branch
Rakh Branch
The Rakh Branch is a canal in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The canal was dug in 1892 during colonial rule. The Rakh Branch originates from canal Lower Chenab...

 canal was dug they were allocated agricultural land by the British Indian Government. They came to Faisalabad in 1888 from Gurdaspur District
Gurdaspur District
Gurdaspur district is a district in the state of Punjab, situated in the northwest part of the Republic of India. Gurdaspur is the district headquarters. It internationally borders Narowal District of the Pakistani Punjab, Kathua District of Jammu and Kashmir, the Punjab districts of Amritsar and...

. The Rakh Branch
Rakh Branch
The Rakh Branch is a canal in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The canal was dug in 1892 during colonial rule. The Rakh Branch originates from canal Lower Chenab...

 canal is the same canal that irrigates much of the Tehsil Samundri
Samundri
Samundri is a city of Faisalabad District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is located at 30°48'30N 71°52'15E with an altitude of 130 metres , and lies 45 from Faisalabad. It is the headquarters of Samundri Tehsil, a subdivision of the district.-History:Samundri was on a major trade route...

 passes from Abdullah pur in Faisalabad, and also irrigates the six Chatha villages. The canal originates at Head Khanki
Head Khanki
Khanki Headworks is a headworks situated on the River Chenab in Gujranwala District of the Punjab province of Pakistan. It was constructed in 1889 and is considered to be the oldest headworks in Pakistan....

. The towns of Sangla Hill
Sangla Hill
Sangla Hill is a tehsil located in Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab Province of Pakistan.- Introduction :Sangla hill is a tehsil under district Nankana Sahib...

 and Salarwala
Salarwala
Salarwala , is located in Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan. Latitude 33.66; Longitude 73.28. It is a town situated on the Faisalabad to Lahore railway section. It is one of the oldest railway stations of pre-partition days. Many people have used it as a starting point for a railway journey...

 are also situated along this canal.

After the partition of the Punjab in 1947, many Sikh Chathas from Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

district migrated to East Punjab.