Charlton, London

Charlton, London

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Charlton is a district of south
South London
South London is the southern part of London, England, United Kingdom.According to the 2011 official Boundary Commission for England definition, South London includes the London boroughs of Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Greenwich, Kingston, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Southwark, Sutton and...

 London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, England, and part of the London Borough of Greenwich
London Borough of Greenwich
The London Borough of Greenwich is an Inner London borough in south-east London, England. Taking its name from the historic town of Greenwich, the present borough was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich with part of the Metropolitan...

. It is located 7.2 miles (11.6 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London, England. It is named after the now demolished Eleanor cross that stood there, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross is now occupied by an equestrian...

. Charlton next Woolwich was an ancient parish in the county of Kent
Kent
Kent is a county in southeast England, and is one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of...

, which became part of the metropolitan area of London in 1855. It is home to Charlton Athletic F.C.
Charlton Athletic F.C.
Charlton Athletic Football Club is an English professional football club based in Charlton, in the London Borough of Greenwich. They compete in Football League One, the third tier of English football. The club was founded on 9 June 1905, when a number of youth clubs in the southeast London area,...

 and the location of Charlton House
Charlton House
Among several English houses with the name Charlton House, the most prominent is a Jacobean building in Charlton, London. It is regarded as the best-preserved ambitious Jacobean house in Greater London. It was built in 1607-12 of red brick with stone dressing, and has an "E"-plan layout...

.

Toponymy


Charlton is recoded in the 1086 Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 as Cerletone. It is formed from Old English 'ceorl' and 'tūn' and means 'farmstead of the freemen or peasants'. It is a common English placename and the parish was also known as Charlton next Woolwich to distinguish it from Charlton by Dover. During the 19th century the riverside portion of the area became known as New Charlton
New Charlton
New Charlton is the area along the south bank of the River Thames at Charlton, London, and forms part of the London Borough of Greenwich. It was historically primarily an industrial zone.-History:...

.

History


Charlton is assessed in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 of 1086 at one "sulung", which is commonly held to have been the equivalent of two hides
Hide (unit)
The hide was originally an amount of land sufficient to support a household, but later in Anglo-Saxon England became a unit used in assessing land for liability to "geld", or land tax. The geld would be collected at a stated rate per hide...

. In 1086 it was in the fee
Fiefdom
A fee was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable lands granted under one of several varieties of feudal tenure by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the...

 of Gundulf, bishop of Rochester
Gundulf of Rochester
Gundulf was a Norman monk who came to England following the Conquest. He was appointed Bishop of Rochester and Prior of the Cathedral Priory there; built castles including Rochester, Colchester and the White Tower of the Tower of London and the Priory and Cathedral Church of...

, but in 1066 it had been held from the king as two estates, by two brothers, named Godwine and Alweard. Though assessed at only one sulung, it had a slightly higher value than might be expected, at £7, both in 1066 and in 1086.

In 1093, the manor of Charlton was given to Bermondsey Abbey
Bermondsey Abbey
Bermondsey Abbey was an English Benedictine monastery. Most widely known as an 11th-century foundation, it had a precursor mentioned in the early 8th century, and was centred on what is now Bermondsey Square, the site of Bermondsey Market, Bermondsey in the London Borough of Southwark, southeast...

 by Bishop Robert Bloet
Robert Bloet
Robert Bloet was a medieval English bishop and a Chancellor of England. Born into a noble Norman family, he became a royal clerk under King William I of England. Under William I's son and successor King William II, Bloet was first named chancellor then appointed to the see of Lincoln...

 of Lincoln. In 1268, the Abbey was granted a Monday market at Charlton, as well as an annual fair of three days, centred on Trinity Sunday, the eighth Sunday after Easter.

In the early 18th century, Charlton was described by Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe , born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, and pamphleteer, who gained fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain and along with others such as Richardson,...

 as:
Apart from the Thames Barrier
Thames Barrier
The Thames Barrier is the world's second-largest movable flood barrier and is located downstream of central London. Its purpose is to prevent London from being flooded by exceptionally high tides and storm surges moving up from the sea...

 and The Valley, the area's other most notable feature is Charlton House
Charlton House
Among several English houses with the name Charlton House, the most prominent is a Jacobean building in Charlton, London. It is regarded as the best-preserved ambitious Jacobean house in Greater London. It was built in 1607-12 of red brick with stone dressing, and has an "E"-plan layout...

, a Jacobean
Jacobean architecture
The Jacobean style is the second phase of Renaissance architecture in England, following the Elizabethan style. It is named after King James I of England, with whose reign it is associated.-Characteristics:...

 mansion by architect John Thorpe
John Thorpe
John Thorpe or Thorp was an English architect. Little is known of his life, and his work is dubiously inferred, rather than accurately known, from a folio of drawings in the Sir John Soane's Museum, to which Horace Walpole called attention, in 1780, in his Anecdotes of Painting; but how far these...

, built for Sir Adam Newton between 1607 and 1612. Sir Adam was tutor to Prince Henry, son of King James I of England
James I of England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

, and was also responsible for building nearby St Luke's Church. On the death of Adam Newton, his executors Peter Newton and David Cunningham, 1st Baronet of Auchinhervie were charged to rebuild St Luke's. The church is the burial place of Spencer Perceval
Spencer Perceval
Spencer Perceval, KC was a British statesman and First Lord of the Treasury, making him de facto Prime Minister. He is the only British Prime Minister to have been assassinated...

 (1762–1812), the only British Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 to be assassinated, and of murdered civil servant Edward Drummond
Edward Drummond
Edward Drummond was a British civil servant, and was Personal Secretary to several British Prime Ministers. He was murdered by Daniel M'Naghten, whose subsequent trial gave rise to the M'Naghten Rules, the legal test of insanity used in many common law jurisdictions.Drummond was a scion of the...

. Sir William Langhorne, 1st Baronet
Sir William Langhorne, 1st Baronet
Sir William Langhorne, 1st Baronet was the Agent of Madras from January 1670 to 27 January 1678.-Family and early life:...

, is also buried there. On the northern edge of the garden of Charlton House is a mulberry
Mulberry
Morus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae. The 10–16 species of deciduous trees it contains are commonly known as Mulberries....

 tree planted in 1608 by order of King James in an effort to cultivate silkworms.

Later, Charlton House became the home of the Maryon-Wilson family, after whom a nearby park is named (another park in Charlton, Maryon Park, also named after the family, was the location for Antonioni's 1966 film Blow-Up)
Blowup
Blowup is a 1966 film directed by Michelangelo Antonioni, his first English-language film.It tells of a British photographer's accidental involvement with a murder, inspired by Julio Cortázar's short story, "Las babas del diablo" or "The Devil's Drool" , translated also as Blow-Up, and by the life...

. Since 1925, the house has been owned by the London Borough of Greenwich and has functioned as a library and community centre.

The flat land adjoining the Thames at New Charlton
New Charlton
New Charlton is the area along the south bank of the River Thames at Charlton, London, and forms part of the London Borough of Greenwich. It was historically primarily an industrial zone.-History:...

 has been a significant industrial area since Victorian times. A notable establishment was the Siemens Brothers Telegraph Works opened in 1863, which manufactured two new transatlantic cable
Transatlantic telegraph cable
The transatlantic telegraph cable was the first cable used for telegraph communications laid across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. It crossed from , Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland. The transatlantic cable connected North America...

s in the 1880s, and contributed to PLUTO
Pluto
Pluto, formal designation 134340 Pluto, is the second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun...

 in World War 2.}}

Geography


The centre of Charlton SE7 is known as "The Village" and spans down Charlton Church Lane, which is on a hillside overlooking the River Thames
River Thames
The River Thames flows through southern England. It is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. While it is best known because its lower reaches flow through central London, the river flows alongside several other towns and cities, including Oxford,...

. Old postcards from the 19th century depict the layout of the Village then as being similar to that of today. Moving away from the Village, in the opposite direction to Shooters Hill, the area termed as present day Charlton branches out towards Blackheath Royal Standard in one direction and steeply downhill in the opposite direction towards the shopping areas. This urban sprawl has led to the name New Charlton
New Charlton
New Charlton is the area along the south bank of the River Thames at Charlton, London, and forms part of the London Borough of Greenwich. It was historically primarily an industrial zone.-History:...

 being applied to a large area reaching down to the south bank of the River Thames, roughly where the Thames Barrier
Thames Barrier
The Thames Barrier is the world's second-largest movable flood barrier and is located downstream of central London. Its purpose is to prevent London from being flooded by exceptionally high tides and storm surges moving up from the sea...

 crosses the river, although the barrier itself is located at Woolwich Reach.

Charlton is also home to several parks of varying features, namely Maryon Park
Maryon Park
Maryon Park is an English urban public park located in Charlton in the London Borough of Greenwich. It is situated on the A206 south of the Thames Barrier...

, Maryon Wilson Park
Maryon Wilson Park
Maryon Wilson Park is a public park on Thorntree Road, Charlton, in the London Borough of Greenwich. It is a Local Nature Reserve.The park is known for its animal park where tours are conducted , tours typically take two hours and give children the opportunity to feed, pet and interact with the...

, Hornfair Park, named in reference to the old Horn Fair, held in October, for which Charlton was renowned in previous centuries, and Charlton Park, which is largely made up of sports pitches or playing fields. Maryon Park
Maryon Park
Maryon Park is an English urban public park located in Charlton in the London Borough of Greenwich. It is situated on the A206 south of the Thames Barrier...

 provided the location for the classic 1960s movie Blow-Up
Blow-Up
-History:Claudio Camaione and Paolo Cilione came to New York City in the late 1990s, then further on to Southern California to build their studio for recording and film editing in a villa overlooking Silver Lake...

.


The architecture of Charlton is of great diversity, and offers a vivid insight into how different parts of the area were built up, as it evolved from a Thames side village into the London suburb that it is today. Charlton is home to the magnificent Charlton House
Charlton House
Among several English houses with the name Charlton House, the most prominent is a Jacobean building in Charlton, London. It is regarded as the best-preserved ambitious Jacobean house in Greater London. It was built in 1607-12 of red brick with stone dressing, and has an "E"-plan layout...

, and has links with the classic architect Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones is the first significant British architect of the modern period, and the first to bring Italianate Renaissance architecture to England...

, a street being named after him. Other streets in Charlton named after prominent figures or places include Montcalm
Montcalm
- People :*Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, commander of the French forces in North America during the French and Indian War- Vessels :* French ship Montcalm, four ships of the French Navy...

, Prince Henry
Prince Henry
Prince Henry may refer to:*Prince Henry of Wales, known as Prince Harry, second son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and currently third in line to the throne of the United Kingdom...

, Canberra
Canberra
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

, and Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

.

There are four main pubs within the vicinity of Charlton Village, including The Bugle Horn which has the authentic feel of an English village pub. Other landmarks of interest include the village's Drinking Fountain and the impressive Roman Catholic Church on the Charlton Road which is known as Our Lady of Grace.

Our Lady of Grace church was established by the Assumptionists
Assumptionists
The Augustinians of the Assumption constitute a congregation of Catholic religious , founded in Nîmes, southern France, by Fr. Emmanuel d'Alzon in 1845, initially approved by Rome in 1857 and definitively approved in 1864 . The current Rule of Life of the congregation draws its inspiration from...

 Order. They settled in Charlton in 1903 after being expelled from France in 1900 due to supression of Holy Orders. The first nuns moved into Highcombe and set up a mission in Charlton. The current church was built in 1905 and celebrated its centenary on 17 September 2005 with a concelebrated ecumenical mass, led by Archbishop Kevin McDonald and parish priest, Fr. Michael Leach. The church has strong historic links with the Irish community in south east London are evident in the statue of Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick was a Romano-Briton and Christian missionary, who is the most generally recognized patron saint of Ireland or the Apostle of Ireland, although Brigid of Kildare and Colmcille are also formally patron saints....

 on display inside. The current presbretry was also the home of William Henry Barlow
William Henry Barlow
On 28 December 1879, the central section of the North British Railway's bridge across the River Tay near Dundee collapsed in the Tay Bridge disaster as an express train crossed it in a heavy storm. All 75 passengers and crew on the train were killed...

 (1812-1902), the eminent 19th century engineer, who designed St. Pancras Railway Station and for whom English Heritage have erected a blue plaque
Blue plaque
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event, serving as a historical marker....

 in recognition.

Charlton Village is also home to the historic Saint Luke's Church and then Charlton New Testament Church of God on Charlton Church Lane.

The contemporary population is a mixture of long established families, young professionals, and various ethnic groups, and has become very accessible for commuters in recent times due to its proximity to North Greenwich tube station
North Greenwich tube station
North Greenwich is a station on London Underground's Jubilee Line, opened on 14 May 1999.Despite its name, North Greenwich is not in the area historically known as North Greenwich, on the Isle of Dogs, north of the river; an entirely different station used to be there, between 1872 and 1926...

, Woolwich Arsenal station, Greenwich's Cutty Sark DLR station
Cutty Sark DLR station
Cutty Sark is a light metro station on the Docklands Light Railway system in central Greenwich, London. One of three DLR stations in the London Borough of Greenwich, it is also known as Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich for its location within the aforementioned district.-Location:The northernmost...

, Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf is a major business district located in London, United Kingdom. It is one of London's two main financial centres, alongside the traditional City of London, and contains many of the UK's tallest buildings, including the second-tallest , One Canada Square...

 itself, and rail links to central London. New Charlton houses many larger shops, the cinema just over the border of the Greenwich Peninsula
Greenwich Peninsula
Greenwich Peninsula is an area of South London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich.The peninsula is bounded on three sides by a loop of the Thames, between the Isle of Dogs and Silvertown. To the south is the rest of Greenwich, to the south-east is Charlton.The peninsula lies...

, as well as being close to The O2 arena (London)
The O2 arena (London)
The O2 Arena is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in the centre of The O2, a large entertainment complex on the Greenwich peninsula in London, England.With a capacity of up to 20,000 depending on the event, it is second largest...

 and Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf is a major business district located in London, United Kingdom. It is one of London's two main financial centres, alongside the traditional City of London, and contains many of the UK's tallest buildings, including the second-tallest , One Canada Square...

.

Nearest places

  • Greenwich
  • Blackheath
    Blackheath, London
    Blackheath is a district of South London, England. It is named from the large open public grassland which separates it from Greenwich to the north and Lewisham to the west...

  • Woolwich
    Woolwich
    Woolwich is a district in south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.Woolwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created...

  • Kidbrooke
    Kidbrooke
    Kidbrooke is a district of South East London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich.The district takes its name from the Kyd Brook, a watercourse which runs from Orpington to Lewisham, by which point it is part of the River Quaggy...

  • Shooter's Hill
    Shooter's Hill
    Shooter's Hill is a district and electoral ward in south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich. It lies east of Blackheath and west of Welling, south of Woolwich and north of Eltham...

  • Eltham
    Eltham, London
    -Parks and open spaces:There is a large variety of open green space in Eltham, in the form of parkland, fields and woodland.*Avery Hill Park is large, open parkland, situated to the east of Eltham. It is most notable for its Winter Garden, a hothouse containing tropical trees and plants from around...


Economy


There are large retail parks close to the river, with smaller, more specialised shops, along Charlton Church Lane and in Charlton Village.

Transport


The southern approach of the Blackwall Tunnel
Blackwall Tunnel
The Blackwall Tunnel is a pair of road tunnels underneath the River Thames in east London, linking the London Borough of Tower Hamlets with the London Borough of Greenwich, and part of the A102 road. The northern portal lies just south of the East India Dock Road in Blackwall; the southern...

 crossing of the River Thames is located to the west. It is served by Charlton railway station
Charlton railway station
Charlton railway station is in Charlton in the London Borough of Greenwich. The station and all trains serving it are operated by Southeastern...

 on the lines from London to Dartford via Greenwich and Lewisham. The area is served by London bus routes 53, 54, 161, 177, 180, 472, 486, 422, 380 and N1. North Greenwich
North Greenwich tube station
North Greenwich is a station on London Underground's Jubilee Line, opened on 14 May 1999.Despite its name, North Greenwich is not in the area historically known as North Greenwich, on the Isle of Dogs, north of the river; an entirely different station used to be there, between 1872 and 1926...

 is the nearest tube station, a short bus ride to the north.

Sport

  • Charlton is best known as the home of Charlton Athletic F.C.
    Charlton Athletic F.C.
    Charlton Athletic Football Club is an English professional football club based in Charlton, in the London Borough of Greenwich. They compete in Football League One, the third tier of English football. The club was founded on 9 June 1905, when a number of youth clubs in the southeast London area,...

     The club plays at The Valley (a former chalk pit) situated to the north of the village, close to the main road and railway line.
  • The Rectory Field, home of Blackheath Rugby Club, is on the border of Blackheath
    Blackheath, London
    Blackheath is a district of South London, England. It is named from the large open public grassland which separates it from Greenwich to the north and Lewisham to the west...

     and Charlton.

See also