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Chaldean Catholic Church

Chaldean Catholic Church

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The Chaldean Catholic Church , is an Eastern Syriac
Syriac Christianity
Syriac or Syrian Christianity , the Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia, comprises multiple Christian traditions of Eastern Christianity. With a history going back to the 1st Century AD, in modern times it is represented by denominations primarily in the Middle East and in Kerala, India....

 particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion
Full communion
In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

 with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church. The Chaldean Catholic Church presently comprises an estimated 1,500,000 Chaldean Christians
Chaldean Christians
Chaldean Christians are ethnic Assyrian adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church, most of whom entered communion with the Catholic Church from the Church of the East, which was already Catholic, but most wanted to stray away from the Catholic Church, causing the split in the 17th and 18th...

 who are ethnic Assyrians
Assyrian people
The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

.

History


The ancient history of the Chaldean Church is the history of the Church of the East
Church of the East
The Church of the East tāʾ d-Maḏnḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, is a Christian church, part of the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity. Originally the church of the Persian Sassanid Empire, it quickly spread widely through Asia...

. It was originally named The Church of the East. Before the 1553 consecration of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa was the first Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1553 to 1555....

, the term Chaldeans had only been officially used previously by the Council of Florence
Council of Florence
The Council of Florence was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It began in 1431 in Basel, Switzerland, and became known as the Council of Ferrara after its transfer to Ferrara was decreed by Pope Eugene IV, to convene in 1438...

 in 1445 as a new name for a group of Greek
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 Nestorian
Nestorianism
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431. The doctrine, which was informed by Nestorius's studies under Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch, emphasizes the disunion between the human and divine natures of Jesus...

s of Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 who entered in Full Communion
Full communion
In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

 with the Catholic Church.

After the massacres of Tamerlane around 1400 had devastated several bishoprics, the Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, was reduced to a handful of survivors who lived in the triangular area between Amid (Diyarbakır)
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

, Salmas
Salmas
Salmas is a city in and the capital of Salmas County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 79,560, in 19,806 families....

 and Mosul
Mosul
Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

. The See
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

 was moved to Alqosh
Alqosh
Alqōsh or Alqūsh is one of the most famous Assyrian towns of the mainly East Syrian rite in Iraq. It is located north of Mosul. The name Alqosh is derived from an Akkadian name Eil-Kushtu, where "Eil" means God and "Kushtu" means righteousness or power...

, in the Mosul region and Patriarch Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) made the office of patriarch hereditary within his own family.

1552: Yohannan Sulaqa



Dissent over the hereditary succession grew until in 1552, when a group of bishops, from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas, elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa
Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa was the first Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1553 to 1555....

 as a rival Patriarch. To look for a bishop of metropolitan
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

 rank to consecrate him patriarch, Sulaqa traveled to the pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 in Rome, entered into communion with the Catholic Church and in 1553 he was consecrated bishop and elevated to the rank of patriarch taking the name of Mar Shimun VIII. He was granted the title of "Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

)", a title soon changed in "Patriarch of the Chaldeans".

Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned in the Near East
Near East
The Near East is a geographical term that covers different countries for geographers, archeologists, and historians, on the one hand, and for political scientists, economists, and journalists, on the other...

 in the same year and fixed his seat in Amid. Before to be put to death by the partisan of the patriarch of Alqosh, he ordained five metropolitan bishops thus beginning a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, the patriarchal line known as Shimun line. The area of influence of this patriarchate soon moved from Amid towards East, fixing the See, after many places, in the isolated village of Qochanis
Qochanis
Qodchanis was the capital of Hakkari and the seat of the Assyrian bishops before 1915.Its ruins are currently north of Hakkâri Province, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, and about 20 km north-east of the provincial capital Hakkâri, in the southeastern of modern Turkey.The town was inhabited by...

.

The connections with Rome loosened up under Sulaqa's successors: the last patriarch to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the 1600, the hereditary of the office was reintroduced and in 1692 the communion
Full communion
In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

 with Rome was formally broken.

1672: The Josephite line of Amid


A new start of the Chaldean Patriarchate happened in 1672 when Mar Joseph I
Joseph I (Chaldean Patriarch)
Mar Joseph I was the first incumbent of the Josephite line of Church of the East, thus being considered the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1681 to 1696.-Background situation:...

, Archbishop of Amid, entered in communion
Full communion
In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

 with Rome, separating from the Patriarchal see of Alqosh. In 1681 the Holy See
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

 granted him the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its patriarch".

All Joseph I's successors took the name of Joseph. The life of this patriarchate was difficult: at the beginning due to the vexations from the traditionalists, under which they were subject from a legal point of view, and later it struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 authorities.

Nevertheless its influence expanded from the original towns of Amid and Mardin
Mardin
Mardin is a city in southeastern Turkey. The capital of Mardin Province, it is known for its Arabic-like architecture, and for its strategic location on a rocky mountain overlooking the plains of northern Syria.-History:...

 towards the area of Mosul. The Josephite line merged in 1830 with the Alqosh patriarchate that in the meantime entered in full communion
Full communion
In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

 with Rome.

The Alqosh Patriarchate in Communion with Rome



The largest and oldest patriarchal see
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

 of the Church of the East was based at the Rabban Hormizd
Rabban Hormizd Monastery
Rabban Hormizd Monastery is an important monastery of the Chaldean Church. It is carved out in the mountains about 2 miles from Alqosh, Iraq, 28 miles north of Mosul...

 monastery of Alqosh. It spread from Aqrah
Aqrah
Aqrah is a city and district in Iraq which is located in the Ninawa Governorate. The total area of the district is km2...

 up to Seert
Siirt
- External links :* * * *...

 and Nisibis, covering in the South the rich plain of Mosul
Mosul
Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

. Already in the short period between 1610 and 1617 it entered in communion
Full communion
In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

 with Rome, and in 1771 the patriarch Eliya Denkha signed a Catholic confession of faith, but no formal union resulted. When Eliya Denkha died, his succession was disputed by two cousins: Eliyya Isho-Yab, who was recognized by Rome but soon broke the communion, and Yohannan Hormizd
Yohannan Hormizd
Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd was the last hereditary patriarch of the Eliya line of the Church of the East and the first patriarch of a united Chaldean Church...

, who considered himself a Catholic.

In 1804 after Eliyya Isho-Yab's death, Yohannan Hormizd remained the only patriarch of Alqosh. There were thus two patriarchates in Communion with Rome, the larger one in Alqosh, and in Amid that ruled by Augustine (Yousef V) Hindi
Augustine Hindi
Mar Joseph V Augustine Hindi † was the patriarchal administrator of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1781 to 1827, since 1804 he considered himself Patriarch with the name of Joseph V and from 1812 to his death he actually governed both the patriarchal sees of Alqosh and Amid of the Church of the...

. Rome chose not to choose between the two candidates, and granted neither the title of Patriarch, even if from 1811 it was Augustine Hindi who in reality ruled the Church. After Hindi's death, on the July 5, 1830, Yohannan Hormizd was formally confirmed Patriarch by Pope Pius VIII
Pope Pius VIII
Pope Pius VIII , born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni was Pope in 1829 and 1830.-Biography:He was born in Cingoli, Marche, the son of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and his wife Sanzia Ghislieri. He studied Canon law and, in 1800 became bishop of Montalto...

 with the title of Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans, and the merger of the patriarchates of Alqosh and Amid was completed.

On the other hand, the Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis
Qochanis
Qodchanis was the capital of Hakkari and the seat of the Assyrian bishops before 1915.Its ruins are currently north of Hakkâri Province, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, and about 20 km north-east of the provincial capital Hakkâri, in the southeastern of modern Turkey.The town was inhabited by...

, remained independent of the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

, with its current see in Chicago, forms the continuation of that line.

19th century: Expansion and Disaster


The following years of the Chaldean Church were marked by externally originating violence: in 1838 the monastery of Rabban Hormizd
Rabban Hormizd Monastery
Rabban Hormizd Monastery is an important monastery of the Chaldean Church. It is carved out in the mountains about 2 miles from Alqosh, Iraq, 28 miles north of Mosul...

 and the town of Alqosh was attacked by the Kurds of Soran
Soran Emirate
Soran was a Kurdish emirate that was established in 1816. It ruled over the northeastern part of Kurdistan until it was removed by Ottoman troops in 1835. Its capital for most of that time was the city of Rawanduz....

 and hundreds of Christian Syrians died and in the 1843 the Kurds started to collect as much money as they could from Christian villages, killing those who refused: more than ten thousand Christians were killed and the icons of the Rabban Hormizd monastery defaced.

In 1846 the Chaldean Church was recognized by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 as a millet
Millet (Ottoman Empire)
Millet is a term for the confessional communities in the Ottoman Empire. It refers to the separate legal courts pertaining to "personal law" under which communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own system...

, a distinctive religious community within the Empire, thus obtaining its civic emancipation. The most famous patriarch of the Chaldean Church in the 19th century was Joseph VI Audo
Joseph Audo
Mar Joseph VI Audo † was the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1847 to 1878.Joseph VI Audo was born in 1790 in Alqosh and in 1814 he became a monk of the monastery of Rabban Hormizd. He was ordained priest in 1818 and consecrated bishop of Mosul on the March 25, 1825 by the...

 who is remembered also for his clashes with Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
Blessed Pope Pius IX , born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was the longest-reigning elected Pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving from 16 June 1846 until his death, a period of nearly 32 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council in 1869, which decreed papal...

 mainly about his attempts to extend the Chaldean jurisdiction over the Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India is an East Syrian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal Church in full communion with the Catholic Church. It is one of the 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in the Catholic Church. It is the largest of the Saint Thomas Christian denominations with more than 3.6...

. This time was anyway a period of expansion for the Chaldean Catholic Church.

In the early 20th century Russian Orthodox missionaries established two dioceses in North Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

, and many people believed that the Russians could have protected them better than the English and the French. Hoping in the support of Russians, the World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 was seen as the right time to rebel against the Ottoman Empire, which answered fighting the Assyrians as military enemies. On 4 November 1914 the Turkish Enver Pasha announced the Jihad
Jihad
Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

, the holy war, against the Christians. The defeat of Russia in 1917 called a halt to the hope of political freedom. All the North Assyria was overrun by the Turkish army and the people forced to flee: most who escaped the massacres died from winter cold or hunger. The disaster struck mainly the regions of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean dioceses in North Assyria (Amid, Siirt
Siirt
- External links :* * * *...

 and Gazarta) were ruined (the Chaldeans metropolitans Addai Scher
Addai Scher
Addai Scher Also written Addai Sher, Addaï Scher and Addai Sheir , was the Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Siirt. He was killed by the Ottomans during the Assyrian Genocide.-Early life:...

 of Siirt
Siirt
- External links :* * * *...

 and Philip Abraham of Gazarta were both killed in 1915).

21st century: Eparchies around the world


A recent development in the Chaldean Catholic Church has been the creation in 2006 of the Eparchy of Oceania
Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle
The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle is in Sydney, Australia, and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop is Djibrail Kassab, appointed in 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the Apostle Chaldean Catholic Church, Bossley Park, New South Wales.-External...

, with the title of 'St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney of the Chaldeans'. This jurisdiction includes the Chaldean Catholic communities of Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 and New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, and the first Bishop, named by Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

 on 21 October 2006, is Archbishop Djibrail Kassab, until this date, Archbishop of Bassorah in Iraq.
There has been a large immigration to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 particularly to Southeast Michigan
Southeast Michigan
Southeast Michigan, also called Southeastern Michigan, is a region in the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan that is home to a majority of the state's businesses and industries as well as slightly over half of the state's population, most of whom are concentrated in Metro...

. Although the largest population resides in Southeast Michigan, there are populations in parts of California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 and Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

 as well. Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 in recent years has shown growing communities in both eastern provinces, such as Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, and in western Canada, such as Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

.

On Friday, June 10, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

, erected a new Chaldean Catholic eparchy in Toronto, Canada and named Archbishop
Archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

 Mar Yohannan Zora, who has worked alongside four priests with Catholics in Toronto (the largest community of Chaldeans) for nearly 20 years and who was previously an ad personam Archbishop
Archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

 (he will retain this rank as head of the eparchy) and the Archbishop of the Archdiocese (Archeparchy) of Ahwaz, Iran (since 1974). The new eparchy, or diocese, will be known as the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai. There are 38,000 Chaldean Catholics in Canada. Archbishop Zora was born in Batnaia, Iraq, on March 15, 1939. He was ordained in 1962 and worked in various Iraqi parishes before being transferred to Iran in 1969.

Persecution In Iraq


Chaldeans and other religious minorities in Iraq have endured extensive persecution since 2003, including the abductions and murders of their religious leaders, threats of violence or death if they do not abandon their homes and businesses, and the bombing or destruction of their churches and other places of worship. All this has occurred as anti-Christian emotions rise within Iraq. It reached its peak after the fall of Saddam and the rise of Shiite Muslims in the Iraqi government.

Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni, pastor of the Chaldean Church of the Holy Spirit, was killed on 3 June 2007 in Mosul
Mosul
Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

, Iraq alongside the subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, after he celebrated mass.

Chaldean Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho
Paulos Faraj Rahho
Archbishop Mar Paulos Faraj Rahho was the Chaldean Catholic Archeparch of Mosul, in the northern part of Iraq.Also known as Paul Faraj Rahho and Paulos Faradsch Raho he was born into an ethnic Assyrian family, he lived almost his entire life in Mosul, Iraq, which has a long established community...

 and three companions were abducted on 29 February 2008, Mosul, Iraq, and murdered a few days later.

Ecumenical relations


The Church's relations with the Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

 have improved in recent years. In 1994 Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

 and Patriarch Dinkha IV of the Assyrian Church of the East signed a Common Christological Declaration
Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East
The Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East was signed on November 11, 1994, by Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Dinkha IV...

. On the 20 July 2001, the Holy See
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

 issued a document, in agreement with the Assyrian Church of the East, named Guidelines for admission to the Eucharist
Eucharist
The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

 between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, which confirmed also the validity of the Anaphora of Addai and Mari
Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari
The Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari belongs to the East Syrian liturgical family and is in regular use in the Assyrian Church of the East, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Catholic Church. Saint Addai and Saint Mari are credited with having written it...

.

Structure


The Chaldean Catholic Church has the following dioceses:
  • Patriarchate of Babylon
    Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon
    The Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon is based in Iraq and is the only patriarchy of the Chaldean Catholic Church. The current Patriarch is Cardinal Patriarch Mar Emmanuel III Delly. The auxiliary bishops are Bishop Shlemon Warduni and Archbishop Jacques Ishaq.The cathedral church is the...

  • Metropolitan Archdioceses of Baghdad, Kirkuk, Tehran
    Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran
    The Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran is a church in Tehran. The Church was erected in 1853 in the city of Sanandaj, Iran for the Iranian Christian Senaya...

    , Urmya
  • Archdioceses of Ahwaz, Basra, Diyarbakir, Erbil, Mosul
    Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul
    The Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul is an Eastern sui juris particular church of the Catholic Church, located in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. Its followers are ethnic Assyrians and speakers of Aramaic. The diocese comprises the city of Mosul. The territory is subdivided in 12 parishes...

  • Eparchies of Aleppe, Alquoch, Amadia, Akra, Beirut, Cairo
    Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo
    The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo is an eparchy located in the city of Cairo in Egypt.-Leadership:* Bishops of Cairo ** Bishop Youssef Ibrahim Sarraf, February 6, 1984 - December 31, 2009...

    , St Peter the Apostle of San Diego
    Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter The Apostle
    Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter the Apostle is located in El Cajon, California and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop since its inception is Mar Sarhad Yawsip Jammo. It was created by Pope John Paul II in 2002. His bishopric currently sits at St...

    , St Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai of Toronto, St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney
    Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle
    The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle is in Sydney, Australia, and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop is Djibrail Kassab, appointed in 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the Apostle Chaldean Catholic Church, Bossley Park, New South Wales.-External...

    , Salmas, Sulaimaniya, Zaku
  • Territories dependent on the Patriarch: Jerusalem, Jordan

Hierarchy


The current Patriarch is Cardinal Mar Emmanuel III Delly
Emmanuel III Delly
Mar Emmanuel III Delly is the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and Primate of the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris Particular church of the Catholic Church and a Cardinal. He was born on October 6, 1927 in Tel Keppe and was ordained a priest on December 21, 1952. He was...

, elected in 2003 on the death of Mar Raphael I Bidawid
Raphael I Bidawid
Mar Raphael I Bidawid † was the patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1989-2003. He was also a Syriac scholar.-Life:He was born on April 17, 1922 in northern Iraqi city of Mosul into an ethnic Assyrian family, and took his school and seminar training in Mosul...

. In October 2007 Delly became the first Chaldean Catholic to be elevated to the rank of Cardinal
Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

 within the Catholic Church.

The present Chaldean episcopate (February 2011) is as follows:
  • Emmanuel III Delly
    Emmanuel III Delly
    Mar Emmanuel III Delly is the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and Primate of the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris Particular church of the Catholic Church and a Cardinal. He was born on October 6, 1927 in Tel Keppe and was ordained a priest on December 21, 1952. He was...

    , patriarch of Babylon (since 2003);
  • Emil Shimoun Nona
    Emil Shimoun Nona
    Emil Shimoun Nona is the current Chaldean Catholic Archbishop of Mosul in the northern part of Iraq since the consent of Pope Benedict XVI to his election on 13 November 2009. He took over the archeparchy after the murder of Paulos Faraj Rahho in early 2008.Nona, an ethnic Assyrian, was born in...

    , archbishop of Mosul (since November 2009);
  • Louis Sako, archbishop of Kirkuk (since October 2002);
  • Bashar Warda, archbishop of Arbil
    Arbil
    Arbil / Hewlêr is the fourth largest city in Iraq after Baghdad, Basra and Mosul...

    /Ankawa
    Ankawa
    Ankawa , is an Iraqi Christian town of about 30,000 people, in practice a suburb of Arbil, Erbil Governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan, northern Iraq...

     (since July 2010);
  • Ramzi Garmo, archbishop of Teheran (since February 1999);
  • Thomas Mayram, archbishop of Urmia and Salmas (since 1973);
  • Yohannan Zora, archbishop ad personam and bishop of Toronto (since June 2011);
  • Paul Karatash, archbishop of Diyarbakr (since 1977 - deceased in Istanbul, January 16, 2005) - presently vacant see);
  • Jibrail Kassab
    Archbishop Jibrail Kassab
    His Excellency Archbishop Jibrail Kassab is a prelate of the Chaldean Catholic Church who presides over the Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Sydney in Australia. He has been the bishop of this diocese since its inception on 21 October 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the...

    , archbishop of Sydney (since October 2006);
  • Yaqob Ishaq, bishop of the Curia of Babylon and titular archbishop of Nisibis (since December 2005);
  • Andraos Abouna
    Andraos Abouna
    Andraos Abouna was the Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Hirta and the auxiliary bishop of the Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon. He is an ethnic Assyrian....

    , bishop of the Curia of Babylon and titular archbishop of Hirta (since January 2003);
  • Mikha Pola Maqdassi, bishop of Alqosh (since December 2001);
  • Antony Audo, bishop of Aleppo (since January 1992);
  • Joseph Sarraf, bishop of Cairo (since 1984);
  • Michael Kassarji, bishop of Lebanon (since 2001);
  • Rabban Al-Qas, bishop of
    {{About|Chaldean church in the Middle East|Assyrian Church of the East in India|Chaldean Syrian Church}}

    {{Eastern Catholicism}}
    The Chaldean Catholic Church ({{lang-syr|ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ}}; ʿītha kaldetha qāthuliqetha), is an Eastern 
    Syriac
    Syriac Christianity
    Syriac or Syrian Christianity , the Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia, comprises multiple Christian traditions of Eastern Christianity. With a history going back to the 1st Century AD, in modern times it is represented by denominations primarily in the Middle East and in Kerala, India....

     particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion
    Full communion
    In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

     with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church. The Chaldean Catholic Church presently comprises an estimated 1,500,000 Chaldean Christians
    Chaldean Christians
    Chaldean Christians are ethnic Assyrian adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church, most of whom entered communion with the Catholic Church from the Church of the East, which was already Catholic, but most wanted to stray away from the Catholic Church, causing the split in the 17th and 18th...

     who are ethnic Assyrians
    Assyrian people
    The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

    .

    History


    The ancient history of the Chaldean Church is the history of the Church of the East
    Church of the East
    The Church of the East tāʾ d-Maḏnḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, is a Christian church, part of the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity. Originally the church of the Persian Sassanid Empire, it quickly spread widely through Asia...

    . It was originally named The Church of the East. Before the 1553 consecration of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
    Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
    Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa was the first Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1553 to 1555....

    , the term Chaldeans had only been officially used previously by the Council of Florence
    Council of Florence
    The Council of Florence was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It began in 1431 in Basel, Switzerland, and became known as the Council of Ferrara after its transfer to Ferrara was decreed by Pope Eugene IV, to convene in 1438...

     in 1445 as a new name for a group of Greek
    Greeks
    The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

     Nestorian
    Nestorianism
    Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431. The doctrine, which was informed by Nestorius's studies under Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch, emphasizes the disunion between the human and divine natures of Jesus...

    s of Cyprus
    Cyprus
    Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

     who entered in Full Communion
    Full communion
    In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

     with the Catholic Church.

    After the massacres of Tamerlane around 1400 had devastated several bishoprics, the Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

    , was reduced to a handful of survivors who lived in the triangular area{{rp|55}} between Amid (Diyarbakır)
    Diyarbakır
    Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

    , Salmas
    Salmas
    Salmas is a city in and the capital of Salmas County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 79,560, in 19,806 families....

     and Mosul
    Mosul
    Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

    . The See
    Episcopal See
    An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

     was moved to Alqosh
    Alqosh
    Alqōsh or Alqūsh is one of the most famous Assyrian towns of the mainly East Syrian rite in Iraq. It is located north of Mosul. The name Alqosh is derived from an Akkadian name Eil-Kushtu, where "Eil" means God and "Kushtu" means righteousness or power...

    , in the Mosul region and Patriarch Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) made the office of patriarch hereditary within his own family.

    1552: Yohannan Sulaqa


    {{main|Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa}}
    Dissent over the hereditary succession grew until in 1552, when a group of bishops, from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas, elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa
    Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
    Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa was the first Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1553 to 1555....

     as a rival Patriarch. To look for a bishop of metropolitan
    Metropolitan bishop
    In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

     rank to consecrate him patriarch, Sulaqa traveled to the pope
    Pope
    The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

     in Rome, entered into communion with the Catholic Church and in 1553 he was consecrated bishop and elevated to the rank of patriarch taking the name of Mar Shimun VIII. He was granted the title of "Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria
    Assyria
    Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

    )", a title soon changed in "Patriarch of the Chaldeans".

    Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned in the Near East
    Near East
    The Near East is a geographical term that covers different countries for geographers, archeologists, and historians, on the one hand, and for political scientists, economists, and journalists, on the other...

     in the same year and fixed his seat in Amid. Before to be put to death by the partisan of the patriarch of Alqosh{{rp|57}}, he ordained five metropolitan bishops thus beginning a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, the patriarchal line known as Shimun line. The area of influence of this patriarchate soon moved from Amid towards East, fixing the See, after many places, in the isolated village of Qochanis
    Qochanis
    Qodchanis was the capital of Hakkari and the seat of the Assyrian bishops before 1915.Its ruins are currently north of Hakkâri Province, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, and about 20 km north-east of the provincial capital Hakkâri, in the southeastern of modern Turkey.The town was inhabited by...

    .

    The connections with Rome loosened up under Sulaqa's successors: the last patriarch to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the 1600, the hereditary of the office was reintroduced and in 1692 the communion
    Full communion
    In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

     with Rome was formally broken.

    1672: The Josephite line of Amid


    A new start of the Chaldean Patriarchate happened in 1672 when Mar Joseph I
    Joseph I (Chaldean Patriarch)
    Mar Joseph I was the first incumbent of the Josephite line of Church of the East, thus being considered the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1681 to 1696.-Background situation:...

    , Archbishop of Amid, entered in communion
    Full communion
    In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

     with Rome, separating from the Patriarchal see of Alqosh. In 1681 the Holy See
    Holy See
    The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

     granted him the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its patriarch".

    All Joseph I's successors took the name of Joseph. The life of this patriarchate was difficult: at the beginning due to the vexations from the traditionalists, under which they were subject from a legal point of view, and later it struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish
    Ottoman Empire
    The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

     authorities.

    Nevertheless its influence expanded from the original towns of Amid and Mardin
    Mardin
    Mardin is a city in southeastern Turkey. The capital of Mardin Province, it is known for its Arabic-like architecture, and for its strategic location on a rocky mountain overlooking the plains of northern Syria.-History:...

     towards the area of Mosul. The Josephite line merged in 1830 with the Alqosh patriarchate that in the meantime entered in full communion
    Full communion
    In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

     with Rome.

    The Alqosh Patriarchate in Communion with Rome


    {{main|Yohannan Hormizd}}
    The largest and oldest patriarchal see
    Episcopal See
    An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

     of the Church of the East was based at the Rabban Hormizd
    Rabban Hormizd Monastery
    Rabban Hormizd Monastery is an important monastery of the Chaldean Church. It is carved out in the mountains about 2 miles from Alqosh, Iraq, 28 miles north of Mosul...

     monastery of Alqosh. It spread from Aqrah
    Aqrah
    Aqrah is a city and district in Iraq which is located in the Ninawa Governorate. The total area of the district is km2...

     up to Seert
    Siirt
    - External links :* * * *...

     and Nisibis, covering in the South the rich plain of Mosul
    Mosul
    Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

    . Already in the short period between 1610 and 1617 it entered in communion
    Full communion
    In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

     with Rome, and in 1771 the patriarch Eliya Denkha signed a Catholic confession of faith, but no formal union resulted. When Eliya Denkha died, his succession was disputed by two cousins: Eliyya Isho-Yab, who was recognized by Rome but soon broke the communion, and Yohannan Hormizd
    Yohannan Hormizd
    Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd was the last hereditary patriarch of the Eliya line of the Church of the East and the first patriarch of a united Chaldean Church...

    , who considered himself a Catholic.

    In 1804 after Eliyya Isho-Yab's death, Yohannan Hormizd remained the only patriarch of Alqosh. There were thus two patriarchates in Communion with Rome, the larger one in Alqosh, and in Amid that ruled by Augustine (Yousef V) Hindi
    Augustine Hindi
    Mar Joseph V Augustine Hindi † was the patriarchal administrator of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1781 to 1827, since 1804 he considered himself Patriarch with the name of Joseph V and from 1812 to his death he actually governed both the patriarchal sees of Alqosh and Amid of the Church of the...

    . Rome chose not to choose between the two candidates, and granted neither the title of Patriarch, even if from 1811 it was Augustine Hindi who in reality ruled the Church. After Hindi's death, on the July 5, 1830, Yohannan Hormizd was formally confirmed Patriarch by Pope Pius VIII
    Pope Pius VIII
    Pope Pius VIII , born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni was Pope in 1829 and 1830.-Biography:He was born in Cingoli, Marche, the son of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and his wife Sanzia Ghislieri. He studied Canon law and, in 1800 became bishop of Montalto...

     with the title of Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans{{rp|528}}, and the merger of the patriarchates of Alqosh and Amid was completed.

    On the other hand, the Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis
    Qochanis
    Qodchanis was the capital of Hakkari and the seat of the Assyrian bishops before 1915.Its ruins are currently north of Hakkâri Province, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, and about 20 km north-east of the provincial capital Hakkâri, in the southeastern of modern Turkey.The town was inhabited by...

    , remained independent of the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East
    Assyrian Church of the East
    The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

    , with its current see in Chicago, forms the continuation of that line.

    19th century: Expansion and Disaster


    The following years of the Chaldean Church were marked by externally originating violence: in 1838 the monastery of Rabban Hormizd
    Rabban Hormizd Monastery
    Rabban Hormizd Monastery is an important monastery of the Chaldean Church. It is carved out in the mountains about 2 miles from Alqosh, Iraq, 28 miles north of Mosul...

     and the town of Alqosh was attacked by the Kurds of Soran
    Soran Emirate
    Soran was a Kurdish emirate that was established in 1816. It ruled over the northeastern part of Kurdistan until it was removed by Ottoman troops in 1835. Its capital for most of that time was the city of Rawanduz....

     and hundreds of Christian Syrians died{{rp|32}} and in the 1843 the Kurds started to collect as much money as they could from Christian villages, killing those who refused: more than ten thousand Christians were killed and the icons of the Rabban Hormizd monastery defaced{{rp|298}}.

    In 1846 the Chaldean Church was recognized by the Ottoman Empire
    Ottoman Empire
    The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

     as a millet
    Millet (Ottoman Empire)
    Millet is a term for the confessional communities in the Ottoman Empire. It refers to the separate legal courts pertaining to "personal law" under which communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own system...

    , a distinctive religious community within the Empire, thus obtaining its civic emancipation. The most famous patriarch of the Chaldean Church in the 19th century was Joseph VI Audo
    Joseph Audo
    Mar Joseph VI Audo † was the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1847 to 1878.Joseph VI Audo was born in 1790 in Alqosh and in 1814 he became a monk of the monastery of Rabban Hormizd. He was ordained priest in 1818 and consecrated bishop of Mosul on the March 25, 1825 by the...

     who is remembered also for his clashes with Pope Pius IX
    Pope Pius IX
    Blessed Pope Pius IX , born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was the longest-reigning elected Pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving from 16 June 1846 until his death, a period of nearly 32 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council in 1869, which decreed papal...

     mainly about his attempts to extend the Chaldean jurisdiction over the Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
    Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
    The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India is an East Syrian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal Church in full communion with the Catholic Church. It is one of the 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in the Catholic Church. It is the largest of the Saint Thomas Christian denominations with more than 3.6...

    . This time was anyway a period of expansion for the Chaldean Catholic Church.

    In the early 20th century Russian Orthodox missionaries established two dioceses in North Assyria
    Assyria
    Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

    , and many people believed that the Russians could have protected them better than the English and the French{{rp|36}}. Hoping in the support of Russians, the World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     was seen as the right time to rebel against the Ottoman Empire, which answered fighting the Assyrians as military enemies. On 4 November 1914 the Turkish Enver Pasha announced the Jihad
    Jihad
    Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

    , the holy war, against the Christians{{rp|161}}. The defeat of Russia in 1917 called a halt to the hope of political freedom. All the North Assyria was overrun by the Turkish army and the people forced to flee: most who escaped the massacres died from winter cold or hunger. The disaster struck mainly the regions of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean dioceses in North Assyria (Amid, Siirt
    Siirt
    - External links :* * * *...

     and Gazarta) were ruined (the Chaldeans metropolitans Addai Scher
    Addai Scher
    Addai Scher Also written Addai Sher, Addaï Scher and Addai Sheir , was the Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Siirt. He was killed by the Ottomans during the Assyrian Genocide.-Early life:...

     of Siirt
    Siirt
    - External links :* * * *...

     and Philip Abraham of Gazarta were both killed in 1915).{{rp|37}}

    21st century: Eparchies around the world


    A recent development in the Chaldean Catholic Church has been the creation in 2006 of the Eparchy of Oceania
    Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle
    The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle is in Sydney, Australia, and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop is Djibrail Kassab, appointed in 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the Apostle Chaldean Catholic Church, Bossley Park, New South Wales.-External...

    , with the title of 'St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney of the Chaldeans'. This jurisdiction includes the Chaldean Catholic communities of Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

     and New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

    , and the first Bishop, named by Pope Benedict XVI
    Pope Benedict XVI
    Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

     on 21 October 2006, is Archbishop Djibrail Kassab, until this date, Archbishop of Bassorah in Iraq.
    There has been a large immigration to the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     particularly to Southeast Michigan
    Southeast Michigan
    Southeast Michigan, also called Southeastern Michigan, is a region in the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan that is home to a majority of the state's businesses and industries as well as slightly over half of the state's population, most of whom are concentrated in Metro...

    . Although the largest population resides in Southeast Michigan, there are populations in parts of California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

     and Arizona
    Arizona
    Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

     as well. Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

     in recent years has shown growing communities in both eastern provinces, such as Ontario
    Ontario
    Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

    , and in western Canada, such as Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

    .

    On Friday, June 10, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI
    Pope Benedict XVI
    Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

    , erected a new Chaldean Catholic eparchy in Toronto, Canada and named Archbishop
    Archbishop
    An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

     Mar Yohannan Zora, who has worked alongside four priests with Catholics in Toronto (the largest community of Chaldeans) for nearly 20 years and who was previously an ad personam Archbishop
    Archbishop
    An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

     (he will retain this rank as head of the eparchy) and the Archbishop of the Archdiocese (Archeparchy) of Ahwaz, Iran (since 1974). The new eparchy, or diocese, will be known as the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai. There are 38,000 Chaldean Catholics in Canada. Archbishop Zora was born in Batnaia, Iraq, on March 15, 1939. He was ordained in 1962 and worked in various Iraqi parishes before being transferred to Iran in 1969.

    Persecution In Iraq


    Chaldeans and other religious minorities in Iraq have endured extensive persecution since 2003, including the abductions and murders of their religious leaders, threats of violence or death if they do not abandon their homes and businesses, and the bombing or destruction of their churches and other places of worship. All this has occurred as anti-Christian emotions rise within Iraq. It reached its peak after the fall of Saddam and the rise of Shiite Muslims in the Iraqi government.

    Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni, pastor of the Chaldean Church of the Holy Spirit, was killed on 3 June 2007 in Mosul
    Mosul
    Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

    , Iraq alongside the subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, after he celebrated mass.

    Chaldean Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho
    Paulos Faraj Rahho
    Archbishop Mar Paulos Faraj Rahho was the Chaldean Catholic Archeparch of Mosul, in the northern part of Iraq.Also known as Paul Faraj Rahho and Paulos Faradsch Raho he was born into an ethnic Assyrian family, he lived almost his entire life in Mosul, Iraq, which has a long established community...

     and three companions were abducted on 29 February 2008, Mosul, Iraq, and murdered a few days later.

    Ecumenical relations


    The Church's relations with the Assyrian Church of the East
    Assyrian Church of the East
    The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

     have improved in recent years. In 1994 Pope John Paul II
    Pope John Paul II
    Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

     and Patriarch Dinkha IV of the Assyrian Church of the East signed a Common Christological Declaration
    Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East
    The Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East was signed on November 11, 1994, by Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Dinkha IV...

    . On the 20 July 2001, the Holy See
    Holy See
    The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

     issued a document, in agreement with the Assyrian Church of the East, named Guidelines for admission to the Eucharist
    Eucharist
    The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

     between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, which confirmed also the validity of the Anaphora of Addai and Mari
    Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari
    The Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari belongs to the East Syrian liturgical family and is in regular use in the Assyrian Church of the East, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Catholic Church. Saint Addai and Saint Mari are credited with having written it...

    .

    Structure


    The Chaldean Catholic Church has the following dioceses:
    • Patriarchate of Babylon
      Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon
      The Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon is based in Iraq and is the only patriarchy of the Chaldean Catholic Church. The current Patriarch is Cardinal Patriarch Mar Emmanuel III Delly. The auxiliary bishops are Bishop Shlemon Warduni and Archbishop Jacques Ishaq.The cathedral church is the...

    • Metropolitan Archdioceses of Baghdad, Kirkuk, Tehran
      Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran
      The Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran is a church in Tehran. The Church was erected in 1853 in the city of Sanandaj, Iran for the Iranian Christian Senaya...

      , Urmya
    • Archdioceses of Ahwaz, Basra, Diyarbakir, Erbil, Mosul
      Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul
      The Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul is an Eastern sui juris particular church of the Catholic Church, located in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. Its followers are ethnic Assyrians and speakers of Aramaic. The diocese comprises the city of Mosul. The territory is subdivided in 12 parishes...

    • Eparchies of Aleppe, Alquoch, Amadia, Akra, Beirut, Cairo
      Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo
      The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo is an eparchy located in the city of Cairo in Egypt.-Leadership:* Bishops of Cairo ** Bishop Youssef Ibrahim Sarraf, February 6, 1984 - December 31, 2009...

      , St Peter the Apostle of San Diego
      Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter The Apostle
      Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter the Apostle is located in El Cajon, California and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop since its inception is Mar Sarhad Yawsip Jammo. It was created by Pope John Paul II in 2002. His bishopric currently sits at St...

      , St Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai of Toronto, St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney
      Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle
      The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle is in Sydney, Australia, and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop is Djibrail Kassab, appointed in 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the Apostle Chaldean Catholic Church, Bossley Park, New South Wales.-External...

      , Salmas, Sulaimaniya, Zaku
    • Territories dependent on the Patriarch: Jerusalem, Jordan

    Hierarchy


    The current Patriarch is Cardinal Mar Emmanuel III Delly
    Emmanuel III Delly
    Mar Emmanuel III Delly is the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and Primate of the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris Particular church of the Catholic Church and a Cardinal. He was born on October 6, 1927 in Tel Keppe and was ordained a priest on December 21, 1952. He was...

    , elected in 2003 on the death of Mar Raphael I Bidawid
    Raphael I Bidawid
    Mar Raphael I Bidawid † was the patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1989-2003. He was also a Syriac scholar.-Life:He was born on April 17, 1922 in northern Iraqi city of Mosul into an ethnic Assyrian family, and took his school and seminar training in Mosul...

    . In October 2007 Delly became the first Chaldean Catholic to be elevated to the rank of Cardinal
    Cardinal (Catholicism)
    A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

     within the Catholic Church.

    The present Chaldean episcopate (February 2011) is as follows:
    • Emmanuel III Delly
      Emmanuel III Delly
      Mar Emmanuel III Delly is the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and Primate of the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris Particular church of the Catholic Church and a Cardinal. He was born on October 6, 1927 in Tel Keppe and was ordained a priest on December 21, 1952. He was...

      , patriarch of Babylon (since 2003);
    • Emil Shimoun Nona
      Emil Shimoun Nona
      Emil Shimoun Nona is the current Chaldean Catholic Archbishop of Mosul in the northern part of Iraq since the consent of Pope Benedict XVI to his election on 13 November 2009. He took over the archeparchy after the murder of Paulos Faraj Rahho in early 2008.Nona, an ethnic Assyrian, was born in...

      , archbishop of Mosul (since November 2009);
    • Louis Sako, archbishop of Kirkuk (since October 2002);
    • Bashar Warda, archbishop of Arbil
      Arbil
      Arbil / Hewlêr is the fourth largest city in Iraq after Baghdad, Basra and Mosul...

      /Ankawa
      Ankawa
      Ankawa , is an Iraqi Christian town of about 30,000 people, in practice a suburb of Arbil, Erbil Governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan, northern Iraq...

       (since July 2010);
    • Ramzi Garmo, archbishop of Teheran (since February 1999);
    • Thomas Mayram, archbishop of Urmia and Salmas (since 1973);
    • Yohannan Zora, archbishop ad personam and bishop of Toronto (since June 2011);
    • Paul Karatash, archbishop of Diyarbakr (since 1977 - deceased in Istanbul, January 16, 2005) - presently vacant see);
    • Jibrail Kassab
      Archbishop Jibrail Kassab
      His Excellency Archbishop Jibrail Kassab is a prelate of the Chaldean Catholic Church who presides over the Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Sydney in Australia. He has been the bishop of this diocese since its inception on 21 October 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the...

      , archbishop of Sydney (since October 2006);
    • Ya{{transl|ar|DIN|ʿ}}qob Ishaq, bishop of the Curia of Babylon and titular archbishop of Nisibis (since December 2005);
    • Andraos Abouna
      Andraos Abouna
      Andraos Abouna was the Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Hirta and the auxiliary bishop of the Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon. He is an ethnic Assyrian....

      , bishop of the Curia of Babylon and titular archbishop of Hirta (since January 2003);
    • Mikha Pola Maqdassi, bishop of Alqosh (since December 2001);
    • Antony Audo, bishop of Aleppo (since January 1992);
    • Joseph Sarraf, bishop of Cairo (since 1984);
    • Michael Kassarji, bishop of Lebanon (since 2001);
    • Rabban Al-Qas, bishop of
      {{About|Chaldean church in the Middle East|Assyrian Church of the East in India|Chaldean Syrian Church}}

      {{Eastern Catholicism}}
      The Chaldean Catholic Church ({{lang-syr|ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ}}; ʿītha kaldetha qāthuliqetha), is an Eastern 
      Syriac
      Syriac Christianity
      Syriac or Syrian Christianity , the Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia, comprises multiple Christian traditions of Eastern Christianity. With a history going back to the 1st Century AD, in modern times it is represented by denominations primarily in the Middle East and in Kerala, India....

       particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion
      Full communion
      In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

       with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church. The Chaldean Catholic Church presently comprises an estimated 1,500,000 Chaldean Christians
      Chaldean Christians
      Chaldean Christians are ethnic Assyrian adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church, most of whom entered communion with the Catholic Church from the Church of the East, which was already Catholic, but most wanted to stray away from the Catholic Church, causing the split in the 17th and 18th...

       who are ethnic Assyrians
      Assyrian people
      The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

      .

      History


      The ancient history of the Chaldean Church is the history of the Church of the East
      Church of the East
      The Church of the East tāʾ d-Maḏnḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, is a Christian church, part of the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity. Originally the church of the Persian Sassanid Empire, it quickly spread widely through Asia...

      . It was originally named The Church of the East. Before the 1553 consecration of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
      Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
      Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa was the first Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1553 to 1555....

      , the term Chaldeans had only been officially used previously by the Council of Florence
      Council of Florence
      The Council of Florence was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It began in 1431 in Basel, Switzerland, and became known as the Council of Ferrara after its transfer to Ferrara was decreed by Pope Eugene IV, to convene in 1438...

       in 1445 as a new name for a group of Greek
      Greeks
      The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

       Nestorian
      Nestorianism
      Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431. The doctrine, which was informed by Nestorius's studies under Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch, emphasizes the disunion between the human and divine natures of Jesus...

      s of Cyprus
      Cyprus
      Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

       who entered in Full Communion
      Full communion
      In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

       with the Catholic Church.

      After the massacres of Tamerlane around 1400 had devastated several bishoprics, the Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China
      China
      Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

      , was reduced to a handful of survivors who lived in the triangular area{{rp|55}} between Amid (Diyarbakır)
      Diyarbakır
      Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

      , Salmas
      Salmas
      Salmas is a city in and the capital of Salmas County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 79,560, in 19,806 families....

       and Mosul
      Mosul
      Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

      . The See
      Episcopal See
      An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

       was moved to Alqosh
      Alqosh
      Alqōsh or Alqūsh is one of the most famous Assyrian towns of the mainly East Syrian rite in Iraq. It is located north of Mosul. The name Alqosh is derived from an Akkadian name Eil-Kushtu, where "Eil" means God and "Kushtu" means righteousness or power...

      , in the Mosul region and Patriarch Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) made the office of patriarch hereditary within his own family.

      1552: Yohannan Sulaqa


      {{main|Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa}}
      Dissent over the hereditary succession grew until in 1552, when a group of bishops, from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas, elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa
      Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa
      Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa was the first Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, from 1553 to 1555....

       as a rival Patriarch. To look for a bishop of metropolitan
      Metropolitan bishop
      In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

       rank to consecrate him patriarch, Sulaqa traveled to the pope
      Pope
      The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

       in Rome, entered into communion with the Catholic Church and in 1553 he was consecrated bishop and elevated to the rank of patriarch taking the name of Mar Shimun VIII. He was granted the title of "Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria
      Assyria
      Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

      )", a title soon changed in "Patriarch of the Chaldeans".

      Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned in the Near East
      Near East
      The Near East is a geographical term that covers different countries for geographers, archeologists, and historians, on the one hand, and for political scientists, economists, and journalists, on the other...

       in the same year and fixed his seat in Amid. Before to be put to death by the partisan of the patriarch of Alqosh{{rp|57}}, he ordained five metropolitan bishops thus beginning a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, the patriarchal line known as Shimun line. The area of influence of this patriarchate soon moved from Amid towards East, fixing the See, after many places, in the isolated village of Qochanis
      Qochanis
      Qodchanis was the capital of Hakkari and the seat of the Assyrian bishops before 1915.Its ruins are currently north of Hakkâri Province, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, and about 20 km north-east of the provincial capital Hakkâri, in the southeastern of modern Turkey.The town was inhabited by...

      .

      The connections with Rome loosened up under Sulaqa's successors: the last patriarch to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the 1600, the hereditary of the office was reintroduced and in 1692 the communion
      Full communion
      In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

       with Rome was formally broken.

      1672: The Josephite line of Amid


      A new start of the Chaldean Patriarchate happened in 1672 when Mar Joseph I
      Joseph I (Chaldean Patriarch)
      Mar Joseph I was the first incumbent of the Josephite line of Church of the East, thus being considered the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1681 to 1696.-Background situation:...

      , Archbishop of Amid, entered in communion
      Full communion
      In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

       with Rome, separating from the Patriarchal see of Alqosh. In 1681 the Holy See
      Holy See
      The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

       granted him the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its patriarch".

      All Joseph I's successors took the name of Joseph. The life of this patriarchate was difficult: at the beginning due to the vexations from the traditionalists, under which they were subject from a legal point of view, and later it struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish
      Ottoman Empire
      The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

       authorities.

      Nevertheless its influence expanded from the original towns of Amid and Mardin
      Mardin
      Mardin is a city in southeastern Turkey. The capital of Mardin Province, it is known for its Arabic-like architecture, and for its strategic location on a rocky mountain overlooking the plains of northern Syria.-History:...

       towards the area of Mosul. The Josephite line merged in 1830 with the Alqosh patriarchate that in the meantime entered in full communion
      Full communion
      In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

       with Rome.

      The Alqosh Patriarchate in Communion with Rome


      {{main|Yohannan Hormizd}}
      The largest and oldest patriarchal see
      Episcopal See
      An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

       of the Church of the East was based at the Rabban Hormizd
      Rabban Hormizd Monastery
      Rabban Hormizd Monastery is an important monastery of the Chaldean Church. It is carved out in the mountains about 2 miles from Alqosh, Iraq, 28 miles north of Mosul...

       monastery of Alqosh. It spread from Aqrah
      Aqrah
      Aqrah is a city and district in Iraq which is located in the Ninawa Governorate. The total area of the district is km2...

       up to Seert
      Siirt
      - External links :* * * *...

       and Nisibis, covering in the South the rich plain of Mosul
      Mosul
      Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

      . Already in the short period between 1610 and 1617 it entered in communion
      Full communion
      In Christian ecclesiology, full communion is a relationship between church organizations or groups that mutually recognize their sharing the essential doctrines....

       with Rome, and in 1771 the patriarch Eliya Denkha signed a Catholic confession of faith, but no formal union resulted. When Eliya Denkha died, his succession was disputed by two cousins: Eliyya Isho-Yab, who was recognized by Rome but soon broke the communion, and Yohannan Hormizd
      Yohannan Hormizd
      Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd was the last hereditary patriarch of the Eliya line of the Church of the East and the first patriarch of a united Chaldean Church...

      , who considered himself a Catholic.

      In 1804 after Eliyya Isho-Yab's death, Yohannan Hormizd remained the only patriarch of Alqosh. There were thus two patriarchates in Communion with Rome, the larger one in Alqosh, and in Amid that ruled by Augustine (Yousef V) Hindi
      Augustine Hindi
      Mar Joseph V Augustine Hindi † was the patriarchal administrator of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1781 to 1827, since 1804 he considered himself Patriarch with the name of Joseph V and from 1812 to his death he actually governed both the patriarchal sees of Alqosh and Amid of the Church of the...

      . Rome chose not to choose between the two candidates, and granted neither the title of Patriarch, even if from 1811 it was Augustine Hindi who in reality ruled the Church. After Hindi's death, on the July 5, 1830, Yohannan Hormizd was formally confirmed Patriarch by Pope Pius VIII
      Pope Pius VIII
      Pope Pius VIII , born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni was Pope in 1829 and 1830.-Biography:He was born in Cingoli, Marche, the son of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and his wife Sanzia Ghislieri. He studied Canon law and, in 1800 became bishop of Montalto...

       with the title of Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans{{rp|528}}, and the merger of the patriarchates of Alqosh and Amid was completed.

      On the other hand, the Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis
      Qochanis
      Qodchanis was the capital of Hakkari and the seat of the Assyrian bishops before 1915.Its ruins are currently north of Hakkâri Province, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, and about 20 km north-east of the provincial capital Hakkâri, in the southeastern of modern Turkey.The town was inhabited by...

      , remained independent of the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East
      Assyrian Church of the East
      The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

      , with its current see in Chicago, forms the continuation of that line.

      19th century: Expansion and Disaster


      The following years of the Chaldean Church were marked by externally originating violence: in 1838 the monastery of Rabban Hormizd
      Rabban Hormizd Monastery
      Rabban Hormizd Monastery is an important monastery of the Chaldean Church. It is carved out in the mountains about 2 miles from Alqosh, Iraq, 28 miles north of Mosul...

       and the town of Alqosh was attacked by the Kurds of Soran
      Soran Emirate
      Soran was a Kurdish emirate that was established in 1816. It ruled over the northeastern part of Kurdistan until it was removed by Ottoman troops in 1835. Its capital for most of that time was the city of Rawanduz....

       and hundreds of Christian Syrians died{{rp|32}} and in the 1843 the Kurds started to collect as much money as they could from Christian villages, killing those who refused: more than ten thousand Christians were killed and the icons of the Rabban Hormizd monastery defaced{{rp|298}}.

      In 1846 the Chaldean Church was recognized by the Ottoman Empire
      Ottoman Empire
      The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

       as a millet
      Millet (Ottoman Empire)
      Millet is a term for the confessional communities in the Ottoman Empire. It refers to the separate legal courts pertaining to "personal law" under which communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own system...

      , a distinctive religious community within the Empire, thus obtaining its civic emancipation. The most famous patriarch of the Chaldean Church in the 19th century was Joseph VI Audo
      Joseph Audo
      Mar Joseph VI Audo † was the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1847 to 1878.Joseph VI Audo was born in 1790 in Alqosh and in 1814 he became a monk of the monastery of Rabban Hormizd. He was ordained priest in 1818 and consecrated bishop of Mosul on the March 25, 1825 by the...

       who is remembered also for his clashes with Pope Pius IX
      Pope Pius IX
      Blessed Pope Pius IX , born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was the longest-reigning elected Pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving from 16 June 1846 until his death, a period of nearly 32 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council in 1869, which decreed papal...

       mainly about his attempts to extend the Chaldean jurisdiction over the Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
      Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
      The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India is an East Syrian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal Church in full communion with the Catholic Church. It is one of the 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in the Catholic Church. It is the largest of the Saint Thomas Christian denominations with more than 3.6...

      . This time was anyway a period of expansion for the Chaldean Catholic Church.

      In the early 20th century Russian Orthodox missionaries established two dioceses in North Assyria
      Assyria
      Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

      , and many people believed that the Russians could have protected them better than the English and the French{{rp|36}}. Hoping in the support of Russians, the World War I
      World War I
      World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

       was seen as the right time to rebel against the Ottoman Empire, which answered fighting the Assyrians as military enemies. On 4 November 1914 the Turkish Enver Pasha announced the Jihad
      Jihad
      Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

      , the holy war, against the Christians{{rp|161}}. The defeat of Russia in 1917 called a halt to the hope of political freedom. All the North Assyria was overrun by the Turkish army and the people forced to flee: most who escaped the massacres died from winter cold or hunger. The disaster struck mainly the regions of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean dioceses in North Assyria (Amid, Siirt
      Siirt
      - External links :* * * *...

       and Gazarta) were ruined (the Chaldeans metropolitans Addai Scher
      Addai Scher
      Addai Scher Also written Addai Sher, Addaï Scher and Addai Sheir , was the Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Siirt. He was killed by the Ottomans during the Assyrian Genocide.-Early life:...

       of Siirt
      Siirt
      - External links :* * * *...

       and Philip Abraham of Gazarta were both killed in 1915).{{rp|37}}

      21st century: Eparchies around the world


      A recent development in the Chaldean Catholic Church has been the creation in 2006 of the Eparchy of Oceania
      Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle
      The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle is in Sydney, Australia, and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop is Djibrail Kassab, appointed in 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the Apostle Chaldean Catholic Church, Bossley Park, New South Wales.-External...

      , with the title of 'St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney of the Chaldeans'. This jurisdiction includes the Chaldean Catholic communities of Australia
      Australia
      Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

       and New Zealand
      New Zealand
      New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

      , and the first Bishop, named by Pope Benedict XVI
      Pope Benedict XVI
      Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

       on 21 October 2006, is Archbishop Djibrail Kassab, until this date, Archbishop of Bassorah in Iraq.
      There has been a large immigration to the United States
      United States
      The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

       particularly to Southeast Michigan
      Southeast Michigan
      Southeast Michigan, also called Southeastern Michigan, is a region in the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan that is home to a majority of the state's businesses and industries as well as slightly over half of the state's population, most of whom are concentrated in Metro...

      . Although the largest population resides in Southeast Michigan, there are populations in parts of California
      California
      California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

       and Arizona
      Arizona
      Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

       as well. Canada
      Canada
      Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

       in recent years has shown growing communities in both eastern provinces, such as Ontario
      Ontario
      Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

      , and in western Canada, such as Saskatchewan
      Saskatchewan
      Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

      .

      On Friday, June 10, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI
      Pope Benedict XVI
      Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

      , erected a new Chaldean Catholic eparchy in Toronto, Canada and named Archbishop
      Archbishop
      An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

       Mar Yohannan Zora, who has worked alongside four priests with Catholics in Toronto (the largest community of Chaldeans) for nearly 20 years and who was previously an ad personam Archbishop
      Archbishop
      An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

       (he will retain this rank as head of the eparchy) and the Archbishop of the Archdiocese (Archeparchy) of Ahwaz, Iran (since 1974). The new eparchy, or diocese, will be known as the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai. There are 38,000 Chaldean Catholics in Canada. Archbishop Zora was born in Batnaia, Iraq, on March 15, 1939. He was ordained in 1962 and worked in various Iraqi parishes before being transferred to Iran in 1969.

      Persecution In Iraq


      Chaldeans and other religious minorities in Iraq have endured extensive persecution since 2003, including the abductions and murders of their religious leaders, threats of violence or death if they do not abandon their homes and businesses, and the bombing or destruction of their churches and other places of worship. All this has occurred as anti-Christian emotions rise within Iraq. It reached its peak after the fall of Saddam and the rise of Shiite Muslims in the Iraqi government.

      Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni, pastor of the Chaldean Church of the Holy Spirit, was killed on 3 June 2007 in Mosul
      Mosul
      Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

      , Iraq alongside the subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, after he celebrated mass.

      Chaldean Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho
      Paulos Faraj Rahho
      Archbishop Mar Paulos Faraj Rahho was the Chaldean Catholic Archeparch of Mosul, in the northern part of Iraq.Also known as Paul Faraj Rahho and Paulos Faradsch Raho he was born into an ethnic Assyrian family, he lived almost his entire life in Mosul, Iraq, which has a long established community...

       and three companions were abducted on 29 February 2008, Mosul, Iraq, and murdered a few days later.

      Ecumenical relations


      The Church's relations with the Assyrian Church of the East
      Assyrian Church of the East
      The Assyrian Church of the East, officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical...

       have improved in recent years. In 1994 Pope John Paul II
      Pope John Paul II
      Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

       and Patriarch Dinkha IV of the Assyrian Church of the East signed a Common Christological Declaration
      Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East
      The Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East was signed on November 11, 1994, by Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Dinkha IV...

      . On the 20 July 2001, the Holy See
      Holy See
      The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

       issued a document, in agreement with the Assyrian Church of the East, named Guidelines for admission to the Eucharist
      Eucharist
      The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

       between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, which confirmed also the validity of the Anaphora of Addai and Mari
      Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari
      The Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari belongs to the East Syrian liturgical family and is in regular use in the Assyrian Church of the East, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Catholic Church. Saint Addai and Saint Mari are credited with having written it...

      .

      Structure


      The Chaldean Catholic Church has the following dioceses:
      • Patriarchate of Babylon
        Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon
        The Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon is based in Iraq and is the only patriarchy of the Chaldean Catholic Church. The current Patriarch is Cardinal Patriarch Mar Emmanuel III Delly. The auxiliary bishops are Bishop Shlemon Warduni and Archbishop Jacques Ishaq.The cathedral church is the...

      • Metropolitan Archdioceses of Baghdad, Kirkuk, Tehran
        Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran
        The Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran is a church in Tehran. The Church was erected in 1853 in the city of Sanandaj, Iran for the Iranian Christian Senaya...

        , Urmya
      • Archdioceses of Ahwaz, Basra, Diyarbakir, Erbil, Mosul
        Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul
        The Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Mosul is an Eastern sui juris particular church of the Catholic Church, located in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. Its followers are ethnic Assyrians and speakers of Aramaic. The diocese comprises the city of Mosul. The territory is subdivided in 12 parishes...

      • Eparchies of Aleppe, Alquoch, Amadia, Akra, Beirut, Cairo
        Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo
        The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Cairo is an eparchy located in the city of Cairo in Egypt.-Leadership:* Bishops of Cairo ** Bishop Youssef Ibrahim Sarraf, February 6, 1984 - December 31, 2009...

        , St Peter the Apostle of San Diego
        Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter The Apostle
        Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Peter the Apostle is located in El Cajon, California and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop since its inception is Mar Sarhad Yawsip Jammo. It was created by Pope John Paul II in 2002. His bishopric currently sits at St...

        , St Thomas the Apostle of Detroit, Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai of Toronto, St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney
        Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle
        The Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle is in Sydney, Australia, and is immediately subject to the Holy See. The bishop is Djibrail Kassab, appointed in 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the Apostle Chaldean Catholic Church, Bossley Park, New South Wales.-External...

        , Salmas, Sulaimaniya, Zaku
      • Territories dependent on the Patriarch: Jerusalem, Jordan

      Hierarchy


      The current Patriarch is Cardinal Mar Emmanuel III Delly
      Emmanuel III Delly
      Mar Emmanuel III Delly is the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and Primate of the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris Particular church of the Catholic Church and a Cardinal. He was born on October 6, 1927 in Tel Keppe and was ordained a priest on December 21, 1952. He was...

      , elected in 2003 on the death of Mar Raphael I Bidawid
      Raphael I Bidawid
      Mar Raphael I Bidawid † was the patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church from 1989-2003. He was also a Syriac scholar.-Life:He was born on April 17, 1922 in northern Iraqi city of Mosul into an ethnic Assyrian family, and took his school and seminar training in Mosul...

      . In October 2007 Delly became the first Chaldean Catholic to be elevated to the rank of Cardinal
      Cardinal (Catholicism)
      A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

       within the Catholic Church.

      The present Chaldean episcopate (February 2011) is as follows:
      • Emmanuel III Delly
        Emmanuel III Delly
        Mar Emmanuel III Delly is the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and Primate of the Chaldean Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris Particular church of the Catholic Church and a Cardinal. He was born on October 6, 1927 in Tel Keppe and was ordained a priest on December 21, 1952. He was...

        , patriarch of Babylon (since 2003);
      • Emil Shimoun Nona
        Emil Shimoun Nona
        Emil Shimoun Nona is the current Chaldean Catholic Archbishop of Mosul in the northern part of Iraq since the consent of Pope Benedict XVI to his election on 13 November 2009. He took over the archeparchy after the murder of Paulos Faraj Rahho in early 2008.Nona, an ethnic Assyrian, was born in...

        , archbishop of Mosul (since November 2009);
      • Louis Sako, archbishop of Kirkuk (since October 2002);
      • Bashar Warda, archbishop of Arbil
        Arbil
        Arbil / Hewlêr is the fourth largest city in Iraq after Baghdad, Basra and Mosul...

        /Ankawa
        Ankawa
        Ankawa , is an Iraqi Christian town of about 30,000 people, in practice a suburb of Arbil, Erbil Governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan, northern Iraq...

         (since July 2010);
      • Ramzi Garmo, archbishop of Teheran (since February 1999);
      • Thomas Mayram, archbishop of Urmia and Salmas (since 1973);
      • Yohannan Zora, archbishop ad personam and bishop of Toronto (since June 2011);
      • Paul Karatash, archbishop of Diyarbakr (since 1977 - deceased in Istanbul, January 16, 2005) - presently vacant see);
      • Jibrail Kassab
        Archbishop Jibrail Kassab
        His Excellency Archbishop Jibrail Kassab is a prelate of the Chaldean Catholic Church who presides over the Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Sydney in Australia. He has been the bishop of this diocese since its inception on 21 October 2006. His bishopric currently sits as St. Thomas the...

        , archbishop of Sydney (since October 2006);
      • Ya{{transl|ar|DIN|ʿ}}qob Ishaq, bishop of the Curia of Babylon and titular archbishop of Nisibis (since December 2005);
      • Andraos Abouna
        Andraos Abouna
        Andraos Abouna was the Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Hirta and the auxiliary bishop of the Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon. He is an ethnic Assyrian....

        , bishop of the Curia of Babylon and titular archbishop of Hirta (since January 2003);
      • Mikha Pola Maqdassi, bishop of Alqosh (since December 2001);
      • Antony Audo, bishop of Aleppo (since January 1992);
      • Joseph Sarraf, bishop of Cairo (since 1984);
      • Michael Kassarji, bishop of Lebanon (since 2001);
      • Rabban Al-Qas, bishop of {{transl
        Amadiya (Chaldean Diocese)
        Amadiya was a diocese of the Chaldean Church for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The diocese was named for the hilltop city of Amadiya in northern Iraq, and in 1913 included Amadiya itself and sixteen villages in the Tigris plain near the town of Dohuk and in the Sapna and Gomel...

         (since December 2001) and apostolic administrator of Erbil;
      • Petros Hanna Issa al-Harboli, bishop of Zakho
        Zakho (Chaldean Diocese)
        Zakho was a diocese of the Chaldean Church in the second half of the 19th century and for most of the 20th century. The diocese of Zakho was merged with the Chaldean diocese of Amadiya in 1987.- Background :The diocese of Zakho was founded in 1851...

         (since December 2001);
      • Ibrahim Ibrahim, bishop of the Eastern United States (since April 1982);
      • Sarhad Joseph Jammo
        Mar Sarhad Yawsip Jammo
        Mar Sarhad Yawsip Hermiz Jammo is a prelate of the Chaldean Catholic Church who presides over the Eparchy of St. Peter The Apostle in the United States. He has been the bishop of this diocese since its inception on July 25, 2002. His bishopric currently sits at St. Peter's Chaldean Catholic...

        , bishop of the Western United States (since July 2002); and
      • Shlemon Warduni
        Shlemon Warduni
        Bishop Mar Shlemon Warduni is Auxiliary Bishop of the Patriarchate of Babylon, Iraq, of the Chaldean Catholic Church. In 2003 he was the Locum tenens of the Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans.-Life:...

        , patriarchal auxiliary of Baghdad (since 2001).


      The Chaldo-Assyrian Catholic Church in Iran is governed by the Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran
      Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran
      The Chaldean Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tehran is a church in Tehran. The Church was erected in 1853 in the city of Sanandaj, Iran for the Iranian Christian Senaya...

       It has Archdioceses in Tehran, Urmih, and Ahwaz (Ahwaz is vacant), and a diocese of Sanandaj.

      Liturgy


      The Chaldean Catholic Church uses the East Syrian Rite
      East Syrian Rite
      The East Syrian Rite is a Christian liturgy, also known as the Assyro-Chaldean Rite, Assyrian or Chaldean Rite, and the Persian Rite although it originated in Edessa, Mesopotamia...

      .

      A slight reform of the liturgy was effective since 6 January 2007. The aims are to uniform the many different uses of each parish, to clean up the things added in the centuries simply to imitate the Roman rite
      Roman Rite
      The Roman Rite is the liturgical rite used in the Diocese of Rome in the Catholic Church. It is by far the most widespread of the Latin liturgical rites used within the Western or Latin autonomous particular Church, the particular Church that itself is also called the Latin Rite, and that is one of...

      , and for pastoral reasons. The main elements of variations are: the Anaphora
      Anaphora (liturgy)
      The Anaphora is the most solemn part of the Divine liturgy, Mass, or other Christian Communion rite where the offerings of bread and wine are consecrated as the body and blood of Christ. This is the usual name for this part of the Liturgy in Eastern Christianity, but it is more often called the...

       said aloud by the priest, the return to the ancient architecture of the churches, the restoration of the ancient use which is to prepare the bread and wine before the beginning of the service, the removal from the creed
      Creed
      A creed is a statement of belief—usually a statement of faith that describes the beliefs shared by a religious community—and is often recited as part of a religious service. When the statement of faith is longer and polemical, as well as didactic, it is not called a creed but a Confession of faith...

       of the words Filioque.

      Notable Chaldean Catholics


      The best-known figures include Iraqi former foreign minister and deputy prime minister Tariq Aziz
      Tariq Aziz
      Tariq Aziz and Deputy Prime Minister of Iraq and a close advisor of former President Saddam Hussein. Their association began in the 1950s when both were activists for the then-banned Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party...

      , as well as Anna Eshoo
      Anna Eshoo
      Anna Georges Eshoo is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1993. She is a member of the Democratic Party. The district, which includes part of Silicon Valley, includes the cities of Redwood City, Sunnyvale, Mountain View and Palo Alto...

      , who is a member of the United States House of Representatives
      United States House of Representatives
      The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

      .

      see also List of Assyrians

      See also


      {{Portal|Assyrians|Syriac Christianity}}
      • List of Chaldean Catholic Patriarchs of Babylon
      • Eastern Catholicism
      • Liturgies: East Syrian Rite
        East Syrian Rite
        The East Syrian Rite is a Christian liturgy, also known as the Assyro-Chaldean Rite, Assyrian or Chaldean Rite, and the Persian Rite although it originated in Edessa, Mesopotamia...

        , Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari
        Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari
        The Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari belongs to the East Syrian liturgical family and is in regular use in the Assyrian Church of the East, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Catholic Church. Saint Addai and Saint Mari are credited with having written it...

      • Assyrian People
        Assyrian people
        The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

      • Names of Syriac Christians
        Names of Syriac Christians
        The various communities of indigenous pre-Arab Neo-Aramaic-speaking people of Iraq, Syria, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, the Palestinian Territories and the surrounding areas advocate different terms for ethnic self-designation...


      External links


      {{Commons category}}
      {{Chaldean Catholic Hierarchy}}
      {{Syriacs}}
      {{Catholicism}}