Cesena

Cesena

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Cesena is a city and comune
Comune
In Italy, the comune is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.-Importance and function:...

in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Emilia–Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. The capital is Bologna; it has an area of and about 4.4 million inhabitants....

 region of northern Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, south of Ravenna
Ravenna
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and the second largest comune in Italy by land area, although, at , it is little more than half the size of the largest comune, Rome...

 and west of Rimini
Rimini
Rimini is a medium-sized city of 142,579 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia and Ausa...

, on the Savio River
Savio River
The Savio is a river in northern Italy. Its source is near Montecoronaro on Mount Castelvecchio which is near the western side of Mount Fumaiolo. The source is at an elevation of 1,126 meters and is marked by an iron monument. A wolf and the rings of the "caveja" are on this monument. The river...

, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena
Province of Forlì-Cesena
The Province of Forlì-Cesena is a province in the Emilia–Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Forlì.It has an area of 2,377 km², and a total population of 371,318 . There are 30 comuni in the province, see Comuni of the Province of Forlì-Cesena...

. It is at the foot of the Apennines
Apennine mountains
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains or Greek oros but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine...

, and about 15 km from the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

.

History


Cesena was originally an Umbria
Umbria
Umbria is a region of modern central Italy. It is one of the smallest Italian regions and the only peninsular region that is landlocked.Its capital is Perugia.Assisi and Norcia are historical towns associated with St. Francis of Assisi, and St...

n or Etruscan
Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci...

 town, known as Caesena. After a brief spell under Gaul
Gaul
Gaul was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. The Gauls were the speakers of...

ish rule, it was taken over by Romans
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 in the 3rd century BC. It was a garrison town of strategic importance which was destroyed in the wars between Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the...

 and Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix , known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the rare distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as that of dictator...

. Pliny
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

 mentions the wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

s of Cesena as among the best.

Cesena was on the border that the Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.-Introduction:...

 shared with the Lombards
Lombards
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...

. It was presented to the Papacy by its Frankish conqueror in 754 and passed back and forth between the popes and the archbishops of Ravenna, was briefly a communal republic (1183–1198). It was then long contested between popes and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

s. The brief rule by the Forlivese Ordelaffi was crushed in 1357 by Papal
Papal States
The Papal State, State of the Church, or Pontifical States were among the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia .The Papal States comprised territories under...

 troops led by Cardinal Gil de Albornoz, after a long siege heroically endured by Cia degli Ordelaffi, wife of the Lord of Forlì
Forlì
Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. The city is situated along the Via Emilia, to the right of the Montone river, and is an important agricultural centre...

.

The little comune
Comune
In Italy, the comune is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.-Importance and function:...

revolted again in 1377 during the War of the Eight Saints
War of the Eight Saints
The War of the Eight Saints was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the Avignon Papacy.-Causes:...

. This time it was recaptured by Breton
Breton people
The Bretons are an ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. They trace much of their heritage to groups of Brythonic speakers who emigrated from southwestern Great Britain in waves from the 3rd to 6th century into the Armorican peninsula, subsequently named Brittany after them.The...

 troops of Giovanni Acuto (the English-born condottiere John Hawkwood
John Hawkwood
Sir John Hawkwood was an English mercenary or condottiero who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and Italians as Giovanni Acuto...

) under the command of Robert, Cardinal of Geneva
Antipope Clement VII
Robert of Geneva was elected to the papacy as Pope Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first Avignon antipope of the Western Schism.-Biography:...

, (later antipope Clement VII). The latter, acting as the legate
Papal legate
A papal legate – from the Latin, authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters....

 of Pope Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI
Gregory XI was pope from 1370 until his death.-Biography:He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort, in Maumont, in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin around 1336. He succeeded Pope Urban V in 1370, and was pope until 1378...

, directed the savage murder of between 2,500 and 5,000 civilians. By the laws of war at the time this was regarded as an atrocity that earned the label of the "Cesena Bloodbath" and the cardinal the "butcher of Cesena". The following year what remained of Cesena was assigned by the new pope Urban VI
Pope Urban VI
Pope Urban VI , born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 1378 to 1389.-Biography:Born in Itri, he was a devout monk and learned casuist, trained at Avignon. On March 21, 1364, he was consecrated Archbishop of Acerenza in the Kingdom of Naples...

 to Galeotto I Malatesta
Galeotto I Malatesta
Galeotto I Malatesta was an Italian condottiero, who was lord of Rimini, Fano, Ascoli Piceno, Cesena and Fossombrone.-Biography:Born in Rimini, he the son of Pandolfo I Malatesta and the brother of Malatesta II Malatesta. In 1333 he was captured while besieging Ferrara, but was soon freed and...

.

During the period 1379-1465 the city recovered and prospered under the Malatesta, who rebuilt the castle
Castle
A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble...

 (called Rocca Malatestiana
Rocca Malatestiana
The Rocca Malatestiana is a fortress in Cesena, Italy. The current structure is the third fortress built in the place, near the ruins of the two previous ones, of late-Roman and medieval age....

) overlooking the town. The Malatestiana Library
Malatestiana Library
The Malatestiana Library , also known as the Malatesta Novello Library, is a public library in Cesena, Emilia-Romagna . It was the first European civic library, i.e. belonging to the Commune and open to everybody. It was commissioned by the Lord of Cesena, Malatesta Novello...

, built by near the castle by Malatesta Novello
Malatesta Novello
Domenico Malatesta, best known as Malatesta Novello was an Italian condottiero, a member of the Malatesta family.-Biography:He was born at Brescia, the son of Pandolfo III Malatesta and Antonia da Barignano...

 (1429), is considered a fine example of a Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 library and holds many valuable manuscript
Manuscript
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

s.

After Novello's death (1465), Cesena returned to the Papal States
Papal States
The Papal State, State of the Church, or Pontifical States were among the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia .The Papal States comprised territories under...

, but was again seized by a local seignor, Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia , Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia , Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia , Prince of Squillace...

, in 1500. The city was elevated to capital of his powerful though short-lived duchy.

Cesena subsequently turned into a secondary city of the Papal States
Papal States
The Papal State, State of the Church, or Pontifical States were among the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia .The Papal States comprised territories under...

. In the 18th and 19th centuries Pope Pius VI
Pope Pius VI
Pope Pius VI , born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was Pope from 1775 to 1799.-Early years:Braschi was born in Cesena...

 and Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII , born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was a monk, theologian and bishop, who reigned as Pope from 14 March 1800 to 20 August 1823.-Early life:...

 were born in the city, which also had Pope Pius VIII
Pope Pius VIII
Pope Pius VIII , born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni was Pope in 1829 and 1830.-Biography:He was born in Cingoli, Marche, the son of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and his wife Sanzia Ghislieri. He studied Canon law and, in 1800 became bishop of Montalto...

 as bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

, gaining the title of "city of the three popes". During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

 it was stripped of numerous monasteries and churches. Some of its citizens had notable roles in the unification of Italy, in the second half of the 19th century.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 Cesena was near the Gothic Line
Gothic Line
The Gothic Line formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of German forces in Italy against the Allied Armies in Italy commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.Adolf Hitler...

, which ran along the Appennini near the city, and suffered heavily from bombing.

In 1992 it was elevated to the rank of co-capital of province, together with Forlì
Forlì
Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. The city is situated along the Via Emilia, to the right of the Montone river, and is an important agricultural centre...

.

Main sights


Cesena's monuments include:
  • the Abbey of St Maria del Monte
    Abbey of St Maria del Monte
    The Abbey of Santa Maria del Monte is a Catholic abbey in Cesena, Italy. This imposing building stands on the Colle Spaziano ....

    .
  • the Malatestian Fortress (Rocca Malatestiana), built by Cardinal Albornoz (from 1380) over a pre-existing edifice which had hosted, among the others, Frederick Barbarossa and his nephew Frederick II
    Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
    Frederick II , was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous...

    . It was completed by the Papal governor Lorenzo Zane in 1480, and was used by Cesare Borgia as jail for Caterina Sforza
    Caterina Sforza
    Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì was an Italian noblewoman, the illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan and Lucrezia Landriani, the wife of the courtier Gian Piero Landriani, a close friend of the Duke...

    . It is octagonal, with two main towers, the higher maschio and the lower foemina
  • the Piazza del Popolo
    Piazza del Popolo, Cesena
    The Piazza del Popolo is located at the heart of Cesena, and offers some of the most interesting town sights.In the middle of the square there stands the Fontana del Masini . On the southern side of the square there stands the Palazzo Comunale...

  • the Biblioteca Malatestiana, the first public library in Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

    .
  • the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist
    Cesena Cathedral
    Cesena Cathedral was dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and was founded by the papal bull of Pope Urban VI in 1378. The works started in 1385 paid for by the generosity of Andrea Malatesta, the lord of the city. It was completed around the year 1405...

    .
  • The Pinacoteca Comunale
    Pinacoteca Comunale di Cesena
    The collections of the Pinacoteca Comunale di Cesena, in Cesena, Italy, contain works by:*Antonio Aleotti *Francesco Andreini **Allegory of Charity...

     is housed in what was once a Benedictine monastery.
  • The Galleria dei dipinti antichi della Cassa di Risparmio di Cesena
    Galleria dei dipinti antichi della Cassa di Risparmio di Cesena
    The Galleria dei dipinti antichi della Cassa di Risparmio di Cesena or the Gallery of Antique Art of Cesena's Savings and Loan is a small, but publicly exhibited collection of artists mainly from Emilia-Romagna, amassed by a private financial house of Cesena, Italy...

     is housed in what was once a Celestine monastery.
  • The Teatro Alessandro Bonci
    Teatro Alessandro Bonci
    The Teatro Comunale Alessandro Bonci is an opera house in Cesena, Italy.The Bonci Theatre was built on the site of the old Spada Theatre starting in August 1843 on a design by the architect Vincenzo Ghinelli and was opened on 15 August 1846.It distinguished itself immediately with the best...

    .

Transport


Cesena railway station
Cesena railway station
Cesena railway station serves the city and comune of Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. Opened in 1861, it forms part of the Bologna–Ancona railway....

, opened in 1861, forms part of the Bologna–Ancona railway. It is situated at Piazza Giorgio Sanguinetti, to the northeast of the city centre.

Bounding communes

  • Mercato Saraceno
    Mercato Saraceno
    Mercato Saraceno is a comune in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 35 km southeast of Forlì....

  • Cesenatico
    Cesenatico
    Cesenatico is a port town with about 20,000 inhabitants on the Adriatic coast of Italy. It is located in the province of Forlì-Cesena in the region of Emilia-Romagna, about 30 km south of Ravenna...

  • Cervia
    Cervia
    Cervia is a town and comune in the province of Ravenna , central Italy.-History:Originally called Ficocle, it was probably of Greek origin and was located midway from current Cervia and Ravenna...

  • Ravenna
    Ravenna
    Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and the second largest comune in Italy by land area, although, at , it is little more than half the size of the largest comune, Rome...

  • Gambettola
    Gambettola
    Gambettola is a comune in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 25 km southeast of Forlì...

  • Montiano
    Montiano
    Montiano is a comune in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 25 km southeast of Forlì...

  • Longiano
    Longiano
    Longiano is a comune in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 30 km southeast of Forlì....

  • Roncofreddo
    Roncofreddo
    Roncofreddo is a town and comune in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km southeast of Bologna and about 30 km southeast of Forlì.-External links:*...

  • Meldola
    Meldola
    -History:The area of Meldola was inhabited since very ancient times. The Romans built here a large aqueduct which served the military port of Classis. To the 5th-6th century belongs a large patrician villa which is now under the historical centre.In the Middle Ages a castle was present, the name...

  • Bertinoro
    Bertinoro
    Bertinoro is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, Emilia-Romagna . It is located on hill, Mount Cesubeo, in Romagna, a few kilometers from the Via Emilia.-History:...

  • Sarsina
    Sarsina
    Sarsina is an Italian town situated in the province of Forlì-Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. Its territory is included in the Tuscan-Romagnolo Apennines.-History:...


Notable people

  • Nicoletta Braschi
    Nicoletta Braschi
    Nicoletta Braschi is an Italian actress and producer, best known for her work with her husband, actor and director Roberto Benigni....

    , Italian
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

     actress, best known for her work with her husband, actor and director Roberto Benigni
    Roberto Benigni
    Roberto Remigio Benigni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI is an Italian actor, comedian, screenwriter and director of film, theatre and television.- Early years :...

  • Alberto Sughi
    Alberto Sughi
    Alberto Sughi is an Italian painter.-Biography:Sughi was born in Cesena, Emilia-Romagna.A self-taught painter, by the end of his formative years he had become one of the greatest Italian artists of his generation. He started painting in the early 1950s, choosing realism in the debate between...

    , Italian
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

     painter
  • Pope Pius VI
    Pope Pius VI
    Pope Pius VI , born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was Pope from 1775 to 1799.-Early years:Braschi was born in Cesena...

    , was Pope from February 15, 1775 to August 29, 1799
  • Pope Pius VII
    Pope Pius VII
    Pope Pius VII , born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was a monk, theologian and bishop, who reigned as Pope from 14 March 1800 to 20 August 1823.-Early life:...

    , was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823.
  • Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno
    Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno
    Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno was an Italian rabbi, Biblical commentator, philosopher and physician. He was born at Cesena about 1475 and died at Bologna in 1550....

  • Alessandro Bonci
    Alessandro Bonci
    Alessandro Bonci was an Italian lyric tenor known internationally for his association with the bel canto repertoire. He sang at many famous theatres, including New York's Metropolitan Opera, Milan's La Scala and London's Royal Opera House, Covent Garden.-Career:A native of Cesena, Romagna, Bonci...

    , operatic tenor

Marco Pantani

Frazioni


Acquarola, Aie, Bagnile, Borello, Borgo di Ronta, Borgo delle Rose, Borgo Paglia, Botteghino, Budrio, Bulgaria, Bulgarnò, Calisese, Calabrina, Capannaguzzo, Carpineta, Casalbono, Casale, Case Castagnoli, Case Frini, Case Gentili, Case Missiroli, Case Scuola Vecchia, Celincordia, Celletta, Diegaro, Formignano, Gattolino, Gualdo, Il Trebbo, Lizzano, Luogoraro, Luzzena, Macerone, Madonna dell'Olivo, Martorano, Massa, Molino Cento, Monte Aguzzo, Monte Vecchio, Montereale, Monticino, Oriola, Osteria di Piavola, Paderno, Pievesestina, Pioppa, Ponte Abbadesse, Ponte Pietra, Pontecucco, Provezza, Rio Eremo, Rio Marano, Ronta, Roversano, Ruffio, Saiano, San Carlo, San Cristoforo, San Demetrio, San Giorgio, San Mamante, San Martino in Fiume, San Matteo, San Tomaso, San Vittore, Santa Lucia, Sant'Andrea in Bagnolo, Settecrociari, Tessello, Tipano, Torre del Moro, Trebbo, Valdinoce, Villa Calabra, Villa Casone.
Marco Pantani

External links