Caturrita Formation

Caturrita Formation

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The Caturrita Formation is a rock formation found in Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

. Its sediment
Sediment
Sediment is naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of fluids such as wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particle itself....

s were deposited in the Paraná Basin
Parana Basin
The Paraná Basin is a large sedimentary basin situated in the central-eastern part of South America. About 75% of its areal distribution occurs in Brazil, from Mato Grosso to Rio Grande do Sul states. The remainder area is distributed in eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and northern...

. The formation has a late Carnian
Carnian
The Carnian is the lowermost stage of the Upper Triassic series . It lasted from about 228.7 till 216.5 million years ago . The Carnian is preceded by the Ladinian and is followed by the Norian...

 to early Norian
Norian
The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period. It has the rank of an age or stage . The Norian lasted from 216.5 ± 2.0 to 203.6 ± 1.5 million years ago. It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.-Stratigraphic definitions:The Norian was named after the Noric Alps in...

 age (Upper Triassic) and forms part of the Santa Maria Supersequence in the upper section of the Rosário do Sul Group.

Etymology


The formation received this name, because Caturrita is a neighbourhood (Barrio
Barrio
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood.-Usage:In its formal usage in English, barrios are generally considered cohesive places, sharing, for example, a church and traditions such as feast days...

) of Santa Maria.
In Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 Caturrita also designates the Monk parakeet
Monk Parakeet
The Monk Parakeet, also known as the Quaker Parrot, is a species of parrot, in most treatments the only member of the genus Myiopsitta. It originates from the temperate to subtropical areas of Argentina and the surrounding countries in South America...

.

Stratigraphy


The sediments of the Caturrita Formation belong to the second unit of the Santa Maria Supersequence and overlie the Alemoa Member of the Santa Maria Formation
Santa Maria Formation
The Santa Maria Formation is a sedimentary rock formation found in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has a late Ladinian – early Carnian age , and is notable for its fossils of early dinosaurs, including the herrerasaur Staurikosaurus, the basal saurischian Teyuwasu, and the basal sauropodomorph...

. The clayey sediments of the Alemoa Member gradually give way to the more sandy, rarely conglomeratic, Caturrita Formation, which finishes with an unconformity. After this erosional event follow the Rhaetian
Rhaetian
The Rhaetian is in geochronology the latest age of the Triassic period or in chronostratigraphy the uppermost stage of the Triassic system. It lasted from 203.6 ± 1.5 to 199.6 ± 0.6 million years ago...

 sediments of the Mata Sandstone, the third unit of the Santa Maria Supersequence.

The Caturrita Formation was once regarded as a member of the stratigraphically higher Botucatu Formation or was expanded to include the Mata Sandstone.

The Caturrita Formation reaches a maximum thickness of 60 meters, but generally oscillates around values of 30 meters.

Age


So far no absolute ages have been determined, but the formation is assigned to a late Carnian
Carnian
The Carnian is the lowermost stage of the Upper Triassic series . It lasted from about 228.7 till 216.5 million years ago . The Carnian is preceded by the Ladinian and is followed by the Norian...

 to early Norian
Norian
The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period. It has the rank of an age or stage . The Norian lasted from 216.5 ± 2.0 to 203.6 ± 1.5 million years ago. It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.-Stratigraphic definitions:The Norian was named after the Noric Alps in...

 age on paleontological grounds, i.e. an age range of about 220 to 215 million years BP.

Geographical occurrence


Outcrops of the Caturrita Formation are found in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

. From the town of Taquari
Taquari
-See also:*List of municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul...

 they follow for 250 kilometers a thin band in the central part of the state in an east-westerly fashion right up to Mata
Mata
-People:* Mata , for people with the surname Mata* Mata Hari , stage name of exotic dancer, courtesan and spy Margaretha Zelle* Mata Amritanandamayi , Hindu spiritual leader and guru...

.

Depositional environment


The sediments of the Caturrita Formation belong to the upper section of the Santa Maria Supersequence. In terms of sequence stratigraphy
Sequence stratigraphy
Sequence stratigraphy is a branch of geology that attempts to subdivide and link sedimentary deposits into unconformity bound units on a variety of scales and explain these stratigraphic units in terms of variations in sediment supply and variations in the rate of change in accommodation space...

 they are equivalent to a highstand systems tract. The scarlet, ephemeral, mainly clayey fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Alemoa Member gradually cede to more sandy, occasionally gravelly deposits of a braided river
Braided river
A braided river is one of a number of channel types and has a channel that consists of a network of small channels separated by small and often temporary islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots. Braided streams occur in rivers with high slope and/or large sediment load...

-system that was operational all-year-round. These deposits of the Caturrita Formation settled out in an alluvial flood-plain. The changeover in sedimentary facies was accompanied by a climatic change to more humid conditions.

The sediments are of continental nature (red beds
Red beds
Red beds are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides. Frequently, these red-colored sedimentary strata locally contain thin beds of conglomerate, marl, limestone, or some combination of...

) and form massive sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

 and siltstone
Siltstone
Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.- Description :As its name implies, it is primarily composed of silt sized particles, defined as grains 1/16 - 1/256 mm or 4 to 8 on the Krumbein phi scale...

 bodies.

Vertebrate fauna


The Caturrita Formation contains a biozone for tetrapod
Tetrapod
Tetrapods are vertebrate animals having four limbs. Amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are all tetrapods; even snakes and other limbless reptiles and amphibians are tetrapods by descent. The earliest tetrapods evolved from the lobe-finned fishes in the Devonian...

s, the so-called “Ictidosauria Assemblage Zone″ Ca-1.Ictidosaurs are trithelodontid
Trithelodontidae
The tritheledontids, also known as ictidosaurs, were small to medium-sized cynodonts. They were extremely mammal-like, highly specialized cynodonts, although they still retained a very few reptilian anatomical traits. Tritheledontids were mainly carnivorous or insectivorous, though some species...

 cynodonts, a sister group of the mammal
Mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...

s. This is the reason, why this biozone recently has been renamed as “Mammaliamorpha Cenozone” to underline the importance of the cynodont fossils. The Caturrita Formation also hosts the stratigraphic marker level “Jachaleria” named after the dicynodont Jachaleria candelariensis
Jachaleria
Jachaleria was a dicynodont herbivore that lived in the Carnian stage of the Upper Triassic, approximately 220 million years ago. Jachaleria was one of the last representatives of the dicynodonts, occurring in Argentina and Brazil...

. Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade and superorder Dinosauria. They were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous , when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of...

s and other vertebrate
Vertebrate
Vertebrates are animals that are members of the subphylum Vertebrata . Vertebrates are the largest group of chordates, with currently about 58,000 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fishes, bony fishes, sharks and rays, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds...

s have been discovered as well.

In 1998 tracks of prosauropods have been found near Faxinal do Soturno
Faxinal do Soturno
-See also:*List of municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul...

 that were most likely caused by Unaysaurus tolentinoi
Unaysaurus
Unaysaurus is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaur, and is one of the oldest dinosaurs known. It was discovered in southern Brazil,in the geopark of paleorrota, in 1998, and announced in a press conference on Thursday, December 3, 2004...

.

The fossil finds are concentrated around three major areas:
Santa Maria
Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul
Santa Maria is a municipality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. In 2007, its population was 263,403 inhabitants in a total area of 1,823 km2.-Importance:...

 and northern surroundings (Água Negra)
Faxinal do Soturno
Candelária
Candelaria
-People:*John Candelaria , American baseball pitcher*Candelaria Pérez , sergeant in the Chilean Army, hero of the Battle of Yungay*Nash Candelaria , U.S...

 and surroundings (Linha São Luis)

The following taxa have been discovered so far in the Caturrita Formation:

Synapsids

Synapsid
Synapsid
Synapsids are a group of animals that includes mammals and everything more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes. They are easily separated from other amniotes by having an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each, accounting for their name...

s of the Caturrita Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Brasilitherium
Brasilitherium
Brasilitherium was a genus of cynodont that lived during the Late Triassic. Its length was approximately 12 cm and it weighed 20 grams. It fed on insects, making it an insectivore. Brasilitherium was found in Paleorrota , a geopark located in Brazil.-External links:* *...


B. riograndensis


Brasilodon
Brasilodon
Brasilodon was a genus of cynodont that lived during the Late Triassic. Its length was approximately 12 cm and it weighed 20 grams. It fed on insects, making it an insectivore...


B. quadrangularis

Exaeretodon
Exaeretodon
Exaeretodon is a genus of traversodontid cynodont; several species are known, from various formations. E. argentinus, E. frenguelli, and E. vincei are from the Carnian-age Ischigualasto Formation of Argentina. E. major and E. riograndensis are from the Ladinian-age portion of the Santa Maria...


Irajatherium
Irajatherium
Irajatherium is a genus known only by the species Irajatherium hernadezi. . It's named in honor of Irajá Damiani Pinto.-Specie:...


I. hernandezi

Jachaleria
Jachaleria
Jachaleria was a dicynodont herbivore that lived in the Carnian stage of the Upper Triassic, approximately 220 million years ago. Jachaleria was one of the last representatives of the dicynodonts, occurring in Argentina and Brazil...


J. candelariensis

Minicynodon
Minicynodon
Minicynodon is a genus of carnivorous brasilodontid cynodont from the Late Triassic period. It lived during the late Triassic period in what is now Faxinal do Soturno, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil...


M. maieri

Riograndia
Riograndia
Riograndia is a genus of tritheledontid cynodont from the Late Triassic of South America. The type species is R. guaibensis. Riograndia guaibensis was estimated to have been about 15 cm long and 30 g in weight. Remains have been found in the Caturrita Formation of the geopark of Paleorrota...


R. guaibensis

Dinosaurs


Unnamed prosauropod genus present in Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

.
Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade and superorder Dinosauria. They were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous , when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of...

s of the Caturrita Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Guaibasaurus
Guaibasaurus
Guaibasaurus is an extinct genus of basal dinosaur known from the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.-Discovery:Guaibasaurus was originally named on the basis of the holotype, MCN PV2355, a well-preserved partial postcranial skeleton and the paratype, MCN PV2356, an...


G. candelariensis

Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

.

"Partial postcranial skeleton and a fragmentary hindlimb."

Sauropodomorph


Unaysaurus
Unaysaurus
Unaysaurus is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaur, and is one of the oldest dinosaurs known. It was discovered in southern Brazil,in the geopark of paleorrota, in 1998, and announced in a press conference on Thursday, December 3, 2004...


U. tolentinoi

Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...


Sauropodomorph

Other reptiles


Undetermined phytosaur
Phytosaur
Phytosaurs are an extinct group of large semi-aquatic Late Triassic archosaurs. Phytosaurs belong to the family Phytosauridae and the order Phytosauria. They were long-snouted and heavily armoured, bearing a remarkable resemblance to modern crocodiles in size, appearance, and lifestyle, an example...

 genus.
Misc Sauropsida
Sauropsida
Sauropsida is a group of amniotes that includes all existing reptiles and birds and their fossil ancestors, including the dinosaurs, the immediate ancestors of birds...

 of the Caturrita Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Cargninia
Cargninia
Cargninia is an extinct genus of basal lepidosaur from the Late Triassic period. It lived during the late Triassic period in what is now Faxinal do Soturno, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. It is known from the holotype UFRGS PV 1027 T, a partial dentary, recovered from the...


C. enigmatica

Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...


Lepidosaur


Clevosaurus
Clevosaurus
Clevosaurus is an extinct genus of sphenodontian reptile from the Triassic and the Jurassic periods of Nova Scotia, Great Britain, and Yunnan...


C. brasiliensis

Sphenodont

Faxinalipterus
Faxinalipterus
Faxinalipterus is a genus of pterosaur from the Late Triassic Caturrita Formation of southern Brazil.The type species, Faxinalipterus minima was named and described in 2010 by José Fernando Bonaparte, Marina Bento Soares and César Leandro Schultz. The generic name is derived from Faxinal do Soturno...


F. minima

Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...


Pterosaur
Pterosaur
Pterosaurs were flying reptiles of the clade or order Pterosauria. They existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous Period . Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight...


Proterochampsa
Proterochampsa
Proterochampsa is a genus of proterosuchid archosauromorph from the Late Triassic of Argentina.-Sources:* The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary by Kevin Padian...


Proterochampsid
Proterochampsidae
Proterochampsidae is a family of archosauriforms. Proterochampsids may have filled an ecological niche similar to modern crocodiles, and had a general crocodile-like appearance. They lived in what is now South America in the Middle and Late Triassic....


Soturnia
Soturnia
Soturnia is a genus of procolophonid reptile. It is known from rocks of the Late Triassic-age Caturrita Formation of the municipality of Faxinal do Soturno in the geopark of Paleorrota, Brazil. Soturnia was named in 2003 by Cisneros and Schultz; the type species is S. caliodon. It was a...


S. caliodon

Procolophonian
Procolophonia
The Procolophonia are a suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian till the end of the Triassic period. They were originally included as a suborder of the Cotylosauria but are now considered a clade of Parareptilia...


Sacisaurus
Sacisaurus
Sacisaurus is a dinosauriform from the Late Triassic Caturrita Formation of southern Brazil...


S. agudoensis

Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...


Silesaurid
Silesauridae
Silesauridae is an extinct clade of dinosauriformes, a group of Triassic reptiles that included early ancestors of the dinosaurs. The silesaurids were a sister clade to the dinosaurs. The family was named in 2010 by paleontologist Max C. Langer and colleagues from Brazil and Argentina...


Teyumbaita
Teyumbaita
Teyumbaita is an extinct genus of hyperodapedontine rhynchosaur from the Upper Triassic epoch of Paleorrota, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil...


T. sulcognathus

Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...


"Two nearly complete skulls and a partial skull."

Rhynchosaur
Rhynchosaur
Rhynchosaurs were a group of Triassic diapsid reptiles related to the archosaurs.-Description:Rhynchosaurs were herbivores, and at times abundant , with stocky bodies and a powerful beak...


See also



  • Paleorrota
    Paleorrota
    Paleorrota , is a geopark located in the center of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The rocks and fossils found along the route date back to the times when there was only one supercontinent Pangaea....

  • Santa Maria Formation
    Santa Maria Formation
    The Santa Maria Formation is a sedimentary rock formation found in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has a late Ladinian – early Carnian age , and is notable for its fossils of early dinosaurs, including the herrerasaur Staurikosaurus, the basal saurischian Teyuwasu, and the basal sauropodomorph...

  • List of dinosaur-bearing rock formations