Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

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The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a foreign-policy think tank
Think tank
A think tank is an organization that conducts research and engages in advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, and technology issues. Most think tanks are non-profit organizations, which some countries such as the United States and Canada provide with tax...

 based in Washington, D.C. The organization describes itself as being dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States. Founded in 1910 by Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, businessman, and entrepreneur who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century...

, its work is not formally associated with any political party.

The Endowment published the bimonthly magazine Foreign Policy until 2008.

Establishment



Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, businessman, and entrepreneur who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century...

, like other leading internationalists of his day, believed that war could be eliminated by stronger international laws and organizations. "I am drawn more to this cause than to any," he wrote in 1907. Carnegie's single largest commitment in this field was his creation of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

On his seventy-fifth birthday, November 25, 1910, Andrew Carnegie announced the establishment of the Endowment with a gift of $10 million. In his deed of gift, presented in Washington on December 14, 1910, Carnegie charged trustees to use the fund to "hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization," and he gave his trustees "the widest discretion as to the measures and policy they shall from time to time adopt" in carrying out the purpose of the fund.

Carnegie chose longtime adviser Elihu Root
Elihu Root
Elihu Root was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He was the prototype of the 20th century "wise man", who shuttled between high-level government positions in Washington, D.C...

, Senator from New York and former Secretary of War and of State, to be the Endowment's first president. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.-Background:According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who...

 in 1912, Root served until 1925. Founder trustees included Harvard University president Charles William Eliot
Charles William Eliot
Charles William Eliot was an American academic who was selected as Harvard's president in 1869. He transformed the provincial college into the preeminent American research university...

, philanthropist Robert S. Brookings
Robert S. Brookings
Robert Somers Brookings was an American businessman and philanthropist, known for his involvement with Washington University in St. Louis and his founding of the Brookings Institution.-Biography:Brookings grew up on the Little Elk Creek in Cecil County, near Baltimore, Maryland...

, former U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain Joseph Hodges Choate
Joseph Hodges Choate
Joseph Hodges Choate , was an American lawyer and diplomat.-Biography:He was born in Salem, Massachusetts on January 24, 1832. He was the son of physician George Choate and the brother of George C. S. Choate. His father's first cousin was Rufus Choate...

, former Secretary of State John W. Foster
John W. Foster
John Watson Foster was an American military man, journalist and diplomat.Born in Petersburg, Indiana, and raised in Evansville, Indiana, he was first a lawyer and then served as general for the Union in the American Civil War. Following the war he worked as a journalist, editing the Evansville...

, and Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching president Henry Smith Pritchett
Henry Smith Pritchett
Henry Smith Pritchett was an American astronomer and educator.-Biography:Pritchett was born on April 16, 1857 in Fayette, Missouri, and attended Pritchett College in Glasgow, Missouri, receiving an A.B. in 1875. He then took instruction from Asaph Hall for two years at the US Naval Observatory...

.

In 1914, the Endowment published Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars. In the same year, the Endowment helped create the Hague Academy of International Law
Hague Academy of International Law
The Hague Academy of International Law is a center for high-level education in both public and private international law housed in the Peace Palace in The Hague, The Netherlands...

. The Academy is housed in the Peace Palace
Peace Palace
The Peace Palace is a building situated in The Hague, Netherlands. It is often called the seat of international law because it houses the International Court of Justice , the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Hague Academy of International Law, and the extensive Peace Palace Library.In addition...

 in The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, and opened its doors in 1923.

Contemporary activities


The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is based out of several countries. In 1993, the Endowment launched the Carnegie Moscow Center, with the belief that, "in today's world a think tank whose mission is to contribute to global security, stability, and prosperity requires a permanent presence and a multinational outlook at the core of its operations".

Carnegie's stated goal is to become the first multinational/global think tank.

The Carnegie Endowment now has operations in several countries, with headquarters in Moscow, Beijing, Beirut
Beirut
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

, Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

, and Washington, D.C..

In 2008, faced with the onset of the global financial crisis and the increasing importance of economics in world discussions, the Endowment created a program in international economics
International economics
International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity of international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the institutions that affect them...

 headed by the former director of trade at the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

, Uri Dadush
Uri Dadush
Uri Dadush is a senior associate and the director of the "International Economics Program" at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. His work currently focuses mainly on the economic implications of the Arab Spring, and on the Euro crisis...

. The program currently publishes the International Economics Bulletin
International Economics Bulletin
The International economics Bulletin is a bi-monthly publication published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Edited by Uri Dadush, the publication draws on the expertise of Carnegie's global centers to provide a view of the economic crisis and its political implications.The...

 bi-monthly to inform on global financial issues.

Officers


Presidents
  • Elihu Root
    Elihu Root
    Elihu Root was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He was the prototype of the 20th century "wise man", who shuttled between high-level government positions in Washington, D.C...

     (1912–25)
  • Nicholas Murray Butler (1925–45)
  • Alger Hiss
    Alger Hiss
    Alger Hiss was an American lawyer, government official, author, and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department and U.N. official...

     (1946–49)
  • Joseph E. Johnson
    Joseph E. Johnson
    Joseph Esrey Johnson was an American government official who served with both the United States Department of State and the United Nations....

     (1950–71)
  • Thomas L. Hughes (1971–91)
  • Morton I. Abramowitz
    Morton I. Abramowitz
    Morton Isaac Abramowitz is an American diplomat and former State Department official.-Biography:Abramowitz was born in Lakewood Township, New Jersey on January 20, 1933. He was educated at Stanford University, receiving a B.A. in 1953. He then attended Harvard University, earning an M.A. in 1955...

     (1991–97)
  • Jessica T. Mathews (from 1997)

Chairmen
  • John Foster Dulles
    John Foster Dulles
    John Foster Dulles served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world...

     (1946–52)
  • Harvey Hollister Bundy
    Harvey Hollister Bundy
    Harvey Hollister Bundy Sr., , was an American lawyer, Special Assistant to the Secretary of War during the second World War, and father of McGeorge Bundy. Born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to McGeorge Bundy, a lawyer, he was grandson to Solomon Bundy, a lawyer and New York Congressman...

     (1952–58)

...
  • John W. Douglas
    John W. Douglas
    John Woolman Douglas was an American attorney and civil rights advocate, who pushed the cause in private practice and during the 1960s as a United States Assistant Attorney General.-Early life:...

     (1978–86)
  • Charles Zwick
    Charles Zwick
    Charles Zwick was a director of the United States' Office of Management and Budget from January 29, 1968 until January 21, 1969....

  • Robert Carswell

...
  • William H. Donaldson
    William H. Donaldson
    William Henry Donaldson was the 27th Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission , serving from February 2003 to June 2005...

     (1999–2003)
  • James C. Gaither (2003–09)
  • Richard Giordano (from 2009)

External links