Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage

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{{multiple issues|cleanup=March 2011|update=March 2011|wikify=March 2011|expert = March 2011}} {{More footnotes|date=March 2011}} [[File:Carbon sequestration-2009-10-07.svg|thumb|350px|Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a coal-fired plant]] Carbon capture and storage (CCS), alternatively referred to as carbon capture and sequestration, is a technology to prevent large quantities of {{co2}} from being released into the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuel in power generation and other industries. It is often regarded as a means of [[mitigation of global warming|mitigating]] the contribution of [[fossil fuel]] emissions to [[global warming]]. The process is based on capturing [[carbon dioxide]] ({{co2}}) from large [[point source pollution|point sources]], such as [[fossil fuel power plant]]s, and storing it in such a way that it does not enter the atmosphere. It can also be used to describe the [[Carbon dioxide scrubber|scrubbing]] of {{co2}} from ambient air as a [[geoengineering]] technique. Although {{co2}} has been injected into geological formations for various purposes, the long term storage of {{co2}} is a relatively new concept. The first commercial example was Weyburn in 2000. An integrated pilot-scale CCS power plant was to begin operating in September 2008 in the eastern [[Germany|German]] power plant [[Schwarze Pumpe]] run by utility [[Vattenfall]], in the hope of answering questions about technological feasibility and economic efficiency. CCS applied to a modern conventional power plant could reduce {{co2}} emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80-90% compared to a plant without CCS. The [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|IPCC]] estimates that the economic potential of CCS could be between 10% and 55% of the total carbon mitigation effort until year 2100. Capturing and compressing {{co2}} requires much energy and would increase the fuel needs of a coal-fired plant with CCS by 25%-40%. These and other system costs are estimated to increase the cost of energy from a new power plant with CCS by 21-91%. These estimates apply to purpose-built plants near a storage location; applying the technology to preexisting plants or plants far from a storage location would be more expensive. Recent industry reports suggest that with successful research, development and deployment (RD&D), sequestered coal-based electricity generation in 2025 will cost less than unsequestered coal-based electricity generation today. Storage of the {{co2}} is envisaged either in deep geological formations, in deep ocean masses, or in the form of [[mineral]] [[carbonate]]s. In the case of deep ocean storage, there is a risk of greatly increasing the problem of [[ocean acidification]], an issue that also stems from the excess of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere and oceans. Geological formations are currently considered the most promising sequestration sites. The [[National Energy Technology Laboratory]] (NETL) reported that North America has enough storage capacity at its current rate of production for more than 900 years worth of carbon dioxide. A general problem is that long term predictions about submarine or underground storage security are very difficult and uncertain, and there is still the risk that {{co2}} might leak from the storage into the atmosphere.

Capture

{{Main|Carbon dioxide scrubber|carbon dioxide air capture|Clean coal}} Capturing {{co2}} might be applied to large point sources, such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major {{co2}} emissions, [[natural gas processing]], synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based [[hydrogen production]] plants. Air capture is also possible. Air away from the point source also contains [[oxygen]], however, and so capturing and scrubbing the {{co2}} from the air, and then storing the {{co2}}, could slow down the [[oxygen cycle]] in the [[biosphere]]. Concentrated {{co2}} from the combustion of [[coal]] in [[oxygen]] is relatively pure, and could be directly processed. In other instances, especially with air capture, a [[Carbon dioxide scrubber|scrubbing]] process would be needed.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Organisms that produce [[ethanol]] by [[Ethanol fermentation|fermentation]] generate cool, essentially pure {{co2}} that can be pumped underground. Fermentation produces slightly less {{co2}} than ethanol by weight. World ethanol production in 2008 is expected to be about {{convert|16|e9USgal|m3}}. Broadly, three different types of technologies for scrubbing exist: post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfuel combustion: *In [[post combustion capture]], the {{co2}} is removed after combustion of the fossil fuel — this is the scheme that would be applied to fossil-fuel burning power plants. Here, carbon dioxide is captured from [[flue gas]]es at [[Fossil fuel power plant|power station]]s or other large point sources. The technology is well understood and is currently used in other industrial applications, although not at the same scale as might be required in a commercial scale power station. *The technology for pre-combustion is widely applied in fertilizer, chemical, gaseous fuel (H2, CH4), and power production. In these cases, the fossil fuel is partially oxidized, for instance in a [[gasification|gasifier]]. The resulting [[syngas]] (CO and H2O) is [[Water gas shift reaction|shifted]] into {{co2}} and more H2. The resulting {{co2}} can be captured from a relatively pure exhaust stream. The H2 can now be used as fuel; the carbon dioxide is removed before combustion takes place. There are several advantages and disadvantages when compared to conventional post combustion carbon dioxide capture. The {{co2}} is removed after combustion of fossil fuels, but before the flue gas is expanded to atmospheric pressure. This scheme is applied to new fossil fuel burning power plants, or to existing plants where re-powering is an option. The capture before expansion, i.e. from pressurized gas, is standard in almost all industrial {{co2}} capture processes, at the same scale as will be required for utility power plants. *In [[oxy-fuel combustion]] the fuel is burned in oxygen instead of air. To limit the resulting flame temperatures to levels common during conventional combustion, cooled flue gas is recirculated and injected into the combustion chamber. The flue gas consists of mainly carbon dioxide and water vapour, the latter of which is condensed through cooling. The result is an almost pure carbon dioxide stream that can be transported to the sequestration site and stored. Power plant processes based on oxyfuel combustion are sometimes referred to as "zero emission" cycles, because the {{co2}} stored is not a fraction removed from the flue gas stream (as in the cases of pre- and post-combustion capture) but the flue gas stream itself. A certain fraction of the {{co2}} generated during combustion will inevitably end up in the condensed water. To warrant the label "zero emission" the water would thus have to be treated or disposed of appropriately. The technique is promising, but the initial air separation step demands a lot of energy. An alternate method which is under development, is [[chemical looping combustion]] (CLC). Chemical looping uses a metal oxide as a solid oxygen carrier. Metal oxide particles react with a solid, liquid or gaseous fuel in a [[fluidization|fluidized bed]] combustor, producing solid metal particles and a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The water vapor is condensed, leaving pure carbon dioxide which can then be sequestered. The solid metal particles are circulated to another fluidized bed where they react with air, producing heat and regenerating metal oxide particles that are recirculated to the fluidized bed combustor. A variant of chemical looping is [[calcium looping]], which uses the alternating carbonation and then calcination of a [[calcium oxide]] based carrier as a means of capturing {{co2}}.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} A few engineering proposals have been made for the more difficult task of capturing {{co2}} directly from the air, but work in this area is still in its infancy. Capture costs are estimated to be higher than from point sources, but may be feasible for dealing with emissions from diffuse sources such as automobiles and aircraft. The theoretically required energy for air capture is only slightly more than for capture from point sources. The additional costs come from the devices that use the natural air flow. Global Research Technologies demonstrated a pre-prototype of air capture technology in 2007. Removing {{co2}} from the [[atmosphere]] is a form of [[geoengineering]] by [[greenhouse gas remediation]]. Techniques of this type have received widespread [[media coverage]] as they offer the promise of a comprehensive solution to [[global warming]] if they can be coupled with effective [[carbon sequestration]] technologies. It is more usual to see such techniques proposed for air capture, than for flue gas treatment. Carbon dioxide capture and storage is more commonly proposed on plants burning [[coal]] in [[oxygen]] extracted from the air, which means the {{co2}} is highly concentrated and no [[Carbon dioxide scrubber|scrubbing]] process is necessary. According to the Wallula Energy Resource Center in Washington state, by gasifying coal, it is possible to capture approximately 65% of carbon dioxide embedded in it and sequester it in a solid form.

Transport

After capture, the {{co2}} would have to be transported to suitable storage sites. This is done by pipeline, which is generally the cheapest form of transport. In 2008, there were approximately 5,800 km of {{co2}} pipelines in the United States, used to transport {{co2}} to oil production fields where it is then injected into older fields to extract oil. The injection of {{co2}} to produce oil is generally called [[Enhanced Oil Recovery]] or EOR.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} In addition, there are several pilot programs in various stages to test the long-term storage of {{co2}} in non-oil producing geologic formations. According to the Congressional Research Service, "There are important unanswered questions about pipeline network requirements, economic regulation, utility cost recovery, regulatory classification of {{co2}} itself, and pipeline safety. Furthermore, because {{co2}} pipelines for [[enhanced oil recovery]] are already in use today, policy decisions affecting {{co2}} pipelines take on an urgency that is unrecognized by many. Federal classification of {{co2}} as both a commodity (by the Bureau of Land Management) and as a pollutant (by the Environmental Protection Agency) could potentially create an immediate conflict which may need to be addressed not only for the sake of future CCS implementation, but also to ensure consistency of future CCS with {{co2}} pipeline operations today." A COA conveyor belt system or ship could also be utilized for transport. These methods are currently used for transporting {{co2}} for other applications.

Sequestration

{{Main|Carbon sequestration}} Various forms have been conceived for permanent storage of {{co2}}. These forms include gaseous storage in various deep geological formations (including saline formations and exhausted gas fields), liquid storage in the ocean, and solid storage by reaction of {{co2}} with metal [[oxide]]s to produce stable [[carbonate]]s.

Geological storage

Also known as geo-sequestration, this method involves injecting carbon dioxide, generally in [[supercritical fluid|supercritical]] form, directly into underground geological formations. [[Oil field]]s, [[gas field]]s, saline formations, unmineable [[coal seam]]s, and saline-filled basalt formations have been suggested as storage sites. Various physical (e.g., highly impermeable [[caprock]]) and geochemical trapping mechanisms would prevent the {{co2}} from escaping to the surface. {{co2}} is sometimes injected into declining oil fields to [[enhanced oil recovery|increase oil recovery]]. Approximately 30 to 50 million metric tonnes of {{co2}} are injected annually in the United States into declining oil fields. This option is attractive because the geology of hydrocarbon reservoirs is generally well understood and storage costs may be partly offset by the sale of additional oil that is recovered. Disadvantages of old oil fields are their geographic distribution and their limited capacity, as well as the fact that subsequent burning of the additional oil so recovered will offset much or all of the reduction in {{co2}} emissions. Unmineable coal seams can be used to store {{co2}} because the {{co2}} molecules attach to the surface of coal. The technical feasibility, however, depends on the permeability of the coal bed. In the process of absorption the coal releases previously absorbed [[methane]], and the methane can be recovered ([[enhanced coal bed methane recovery]]). The sale of the methane can be used to offset a portion of the cost of the {{co2}} storage. Burning the resultant methane, however, would produce {{co2}}, which would negate some of the benefit of sequestering the original {{co2}}. Saline formations contain highly mineralized brines, and have so far been considered of no benefit to humans. Saline aquifers have been used for storage of chemical waste in a few cases. The main advantage of saline aquifers is their large potential storage volume and their common occurrence. The major disadvantage of saline aquifers is that relatively little is known about them, especially compared to oil fields. To keep the cost of storage acceptable, the geophysical exploration may be limited, resulting in larger uncertainty about the aquifer structure. Unlike storage in oil fields or coal beds, no side product will offset the storage cost. Leakage of {{co2}} back into the atmosphere may be a problem in saline aquifer storage. Current research shows, however, that several trapping mechanisms immobilize the {{co2}} underground, reducing the risk of leakage. For well-selected, designed and managed geological storage sites, the IPCC estimates that {{co2}} could be trapped for millions of years, and the sites are likely to retain over 99% of the injected {{co2}} over 1,000 years. In 2009 it was reported that scientists had mapped {{convert|6000|sqmi|km2|sigfig=2}} of rock formations in the U.S. that could be used to store 500 years' worth of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions.

Ocean storage

Another proposed form of carbon storage is in the oceans. Several concepts have been proposed: * 'Dissolution' injects {{co2}} by ship or pipeline into the ocean water column at depths of 1000 – 3000 m, forming an upward-plume, and the {{co2}} subsequently dissolves in seawater. * Through 'lake' deposits, by injecting {{co2}} directly into the sea at depths greater than 3000 m, where high-pressure liquefies {{co2}}, making it denser than water, and forms a downward-plume that may accumulate on the sea floor as a 'lake', and is expected to delay dissolution of {{co2}} into the ocean and atmosphere, possibly for millennia. * Use a chemical reaction to combine {{co2}} with a carbonate mineral (such as [[limestone]]) to form [[bicarbonate]](s), for example: CO2 + [[Calcium carbonate|CaCO3]] + H2O → [[Calcium bicarbonate|Ca(HCO3)2(aq)]]. However, the aqueous bicarbonate solution must not be allowed to dry out, or else the reaction will reverse. * Store the {{co2}} in solid [[clathrate hydrate]]s already existing on the ocean floor, or growing more solid clathrate. The environmental effects of oceanic storage are generally negative, and poorly understood. Large concentrations of {{co2}} could kill ocean organisms, but another problem is that dissolved {{co2}} would eventually equilibrate with the atmosphere, so the storage would not be permanent. In addition, as part of the {{co2}} reacts with the water to form [[carbonic acid]], H2CO3, the acidity of the ocean water increases. The resulting environmental effects on [[benthic]] life forms of the [[bathypelagic]], [[abyssopelagic]] and [[hadopelagic]] zones are poorly understood. Even though life appears to be rather sparse in the deep ocean basins, energy and chemical effects in these deep basins could have far reaching implications. Much more work is needed to define the extent of the potential problems. The time it takes water in the deeper oceans to circulate to the surface has been estimated to be approximately 1600 years, depending on currents and other changing conditions. Costs for deep ocean disposal of liquid {{co2}} are estimated at US$40−80/tonne of {{co2}} (2002 USD). This figure covers the cost of sequestration at the power plant and naval transport to the disposal site. The bicarbonate approach would reduce the pH effects and enhance the retention of {{co2}} in the ocean, but this would also increase the costs and other environmental effects. An additional method of long term ocean based sequestration is to gather crop residue such as corn stalks or excess hay into large weighted bales of biomass and deposit it in the [[alluvial fan]] areas of the deep ocean basin. Dropping these residues in alluvial fans would cause the residues to be quickly buried in silt on the sea floor, sequestering the biomass for very long time spans. Alluvial fans exist in all of the world's oceans and seas where river deltas fall off the edge of the continental shelf, such as the Mississippi alluvial fan in the [[Gulf of Mexico]] and the Nile alluvial fan in the [[Mediterranean Sea]]. Unfortunately, biomass and crop residues form an extremely important and valuable component of topsoil and sustainable agriculture. Removing them from the terrestrial equation is fraught with problems.{{Citation needed|date=April 2011}} If fertilized crops were used, it would exacerbate nutrient depletion and increase dependence on chemical fertilizers and, therefore, petrochemicals, thus defeating the original intentions of reducing {{CO2}} in the atmosphere. However it is more likely that less-expensive cellulosic energy-crops would be used, and these are typically unfertilized; although, it is likely that petrochemicals would still be used for harvesting and transport.

Mineral storage

In this process, {{co2}} is [[exothermic]]ally reacted with available metal oxides, which in turn produces stable carbonates. This process occurs naturally over many years and is responsible for a great amount of surface [[limestone]]. The reaction rate can be made faster, for example by reacting at higher temperatures and/or pressures, or by pre-treatment of the minerals, although this method can require additional energy. The [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|IPCC]] estimates that a power plant equipped with CCS using mineral storage will need 60-180% more energy than a power plant without CCS. The economics of mineral carbonation at scale are now being tested in a world first pilot plant project based in Newcastle, Australia. New techniques for mineral activation and reaction have been developed the GreenMag Group and the University of Newcastle and funded by the [[New South Wales]] and Australian Governments to be operational by 2013. A study on mineral sequestration in the US states:
Carbon sequestration by reacting naturally occurring Mg and Ca containing minerals with {{co2}} to form carbonates has many unique advantages. Most notabl[e] is the fact that carbonates have a lower energy state than {{co2}}, which is why mineral carbonation is thermodynamically favorable and occurs naturally (e.g., the weathering of rock over geologic time periods). Secondly, the raw materials such as magnesium based minerals are abundant. Finally, the produced carbonates are unarguably stable and thus re-release of {{co2}} into the atmosphere is not an issue. However, conventional carbonation pathways are slow under ambient temperatures and pressures. The significant challenge being addressed by this effort is to identify an industrially and environmentally viable carbonation route that will allow mineral sequestration to be implemented with acceptable economics.
The following table lists principal metal oxides of [[Crust (geology)|Earth's Crust]]. Theoretically, up to 22% of this mineral mass is able to form [[carbonate]]s. NEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINE
Earthen Oxide Percent of Crust Carbonate [[Standard enthalpy change of reaction|Enthalpy change]] (kJ/mol)
SiO259.71
Al2O315.41
[[CaO]]4.90[[Calcium carbonate|CaCO3]] -179
[[MgO]]4.36[[Magnesium carbonate|MgCO3]] -117
[[Sodium oxide|Na2O]]3.55[[Sodium carbonate|Na2CO3]]
[[FeO]]3.52[[Iron carbonate|FeCO3]]
[[Potassium oxide|K2O]]2.80[[Potassium carbonate|K2CO3]]
[[Fe2O3|Fe2O3]]2.63[[Iron carbonate|FeCO3]]
21.76All Carbonates
NEWLINENEWLINE

Energy requirements

The energy requirements of sequestration processes may be significant. In one paper, sequestration consumed 25 percent of the plant's rated 600 megawatt output capacity. :After adding CO2 capture and compression, the capacity of the coal-fired power plant is reduced to 457 MW.

Leakage

[[Image:Tml15-16 Nc.jpg|thumb|300 px|Lake Nyos as it appeared fewer than two weeks after the eruption; August 29, 1986.]] A major concern with CCS is whether leakage of stored {{co2}} will compromise CCS as a climate change mitigation option. For well-selected, designed and managed geological storage sites, IPCC estimates that risks are comparable to those associated with current hydrocarbon activity. {{co2}} could be trapped for millions of years, and although some leakage occurs upwards through the soil, well selected storage sites are likely to retain over 99% of the injected {{co2}} over 1000 years.{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}} Leakage through the injection pipe is a greater risk. Although the injection pipe is usually protected with [[non-return valve]]s to prevent release on a power outage, there is still a risk that the pipe itself could tear and leak due to the pressure. The [[Berkel en Rodenrijs]] incident in December 2008 was an example, where a modest release of {{CO2}} from a pipeline under a bridge resulted in the deaths of some ducks sheltering there. . In order to measure accidental carbon releases more accurately and decrease the risk of fatalities through this type of leakage, the implementation of {{co2}} alert meters around the project perimeter has been proposed. In 1986 a large leakage of naturally sequestered {{co2}} rose from [[Lake Nyos]] in [[Cameroon]] and asphyxiated 1,700 people. While the carbon had been sequestered naturally, some point to the event as evidence for the potentially catastrophic effects of sequestering carbon artificially. The Lake Nyos disaster resulted from a volcanic event, which very suddenly released as much as a cubic kilometre of {{CO2}} gas from a pool of naturally occurring {{CO2}} under the lake in a deep narrow valley. The location of this pool of {{CO2}} is not a place where man can inject or store {{CO2}}, and this pool was not known about nor monitored until after the occurrence of the natural disaster. For ocean storage, the retention of {{co2}} would depend on the depth. The IPCC estimates 30–85% of the sequestered carbon dioxide would be retained after 500 years for depths 1000–3000 m. Mineral storage is not regarded as having any risks of leakage. The IPCC recommends that limits be set to the amount of leakage that can take place. This might rule out deep ocean storage as an option. It should be noted that at the conditions of the deeper oceans, (about 400 bar or 40 MPa, 280 K) water–{{co2}}(l) mixing is very low (where carbonate formation/acidification is the rate limiting step), but the formation of water-{{co2}} hydrates, a kind of solid water cage that surrounds the {{co2}}, is favorable. To further investigate the safety of {{co2}} sequestration, Norway's [[Sleipner gas field]] can be studied, as it is the oldest plant that stores {{co2}} on an industrial scale. According to an environmental assessment of the gas field which was conducted after ten years of operation, the author affirmed that geosequestration of {{co2}} was the most definite form of permanent geological storage of {{co2}}:
Available geological information shows absence of major tectonic events after the deposition of the Utsira formation [saline reservoir]. This implies that the geological environment is tectonically stable and a site suitable for carbon dioxide storage. The solubility trapping [is] the most permanent and secure form of geological storage.
In March 2009 StatoilHydro issued a study showing the slow spread of {{CO2}} in the formation after more than 10 years operation. Phase I of the [[Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project]] in [[Weyburn, Saskatchewan]], Canada has determined that the likelihood of stored {{co2}} release is less than one percent in 5,000 years. A January 2011 report, however, claimed [[Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project#Claims of leaking|evidence of leakage]] in land above that project. This report was strongly refuted by the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale {{CO2}} Monitoring and Storage Project, which issued an eight page analysis of the study, claiming that it showed no evidence of leakage from the reservoir. Detailed geological histories of basins are required and should utilize the multi-billion dollar petroleum seismic data sets to decrease the risk associated with fault stability. On injection of {{CO2}} into the earth, there is a major pressure front that can break the seal and make faults unstable. The Gippsland Basin in Australia has a 3D-GEO seismic megavolume that consists of 30+ 3D seismic volumes that have been merged. Such data-sets can image faults at a resolution of 15 meters over an area {{convert|62|mi}} by {{convert|62|mi}}. By mid 2010 the first full geological study of the Gippsland Basin will become openfile by [http://www.3d-geo.com 3D-GEO], making CCS fault risk workflow available with the associated data that constrains it. In other basins around the world, such studies are not available and can only be bought at a price tag of greater than a million dollars. The liability of potential leak(s) is one of the largest barriers to large-scale CCS.

Carbon dioxide recycling

Recycling {{CO2}} may offer a response to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions from major stationary (industrial) emitters in the near to medium term{{Citation needed|date=September 2010}}, but is usually not considered as CCS. Technologies under development, such as Bio CCS Algal Synthesis{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}}, utilises pre-smokestack {{CO2}} (such as from a coal fired power station) as a useful feedstock input to the production of oil-rich algae in solar membranes to produce oil for plastics and transport fuel (including aviation fuel), and nutritious stock-feed for farm animal production{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}}. The {{CO2}} and other captured greenhouse gases are injected into the membranes containing waste water and select strains of algae causing, together with sunlight or UV light, an oil rich biomass that doubles in mass every 24 hours{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}}. The Bio CCS Algal Synthesis process is based on earth science photosynthesis: the technology is entirely retrofittable and collocated with the emitter, and the capital outlays may offer a return upon investment due to the high value commodities produced (oil for plastics, fuel and feed). Bio CCS Algal Synthesis test facilities are being trialed at Australia's three largest coal fired power stations (Tarong, Queensland; Eraring, NSW; Loy Yang, Victoria) using piped pre-emission smokestack {{CO2}} (and other greenhouse gases) as feedstock to grow oil-rich algal biomass in enclosed membranes for the production of plastics, transport fuel and nutritious animal feed. Another potentially useful way of dealing with industrial sources of {{co2}} is to convert it into hydrocarbons where it can be stored or reused as fuel or to make plastics. There are a number of projects investigating this possibility. [[Carbon dioxide scrubber|Carbon dioxide scrubbing]] variants exist based on [[potassium carbonate]] which can be used to create liquid fuels, though this process requires a great deal of energy input. Although the creation of fuel from atmospheric {{co2}} is not a [[geoengineering]] technique, nor does it actually function as [[greenhouse gas remediation]], it nevertheless is potentially useful in the creation of a [[low carbon]] economy.

Single step methods: methanol

A proven process to produce a hydrocarbon is to make [[methanol]]. Methanol is rather easily synthesized from {{co2}} and H2 (See [[Green Methanol Synthesis]]). Based on this fact the idea of a [[methanol economy]] was born.

Single step methods: hydrocarbons

At the department of Industrial Chemistry and Engineering of Materials at the University of Messina, Italy, there is a project to develop a system which works like a fuel-cell in reverse, whereby a catalyst is used that enables sunlight to split water into hydrogen ions and oxygen gas. The ions cross a membrane where they react with the {{co2}} to create hydrocarbons.

Two step methods

If {{co2}} is heated to 2400°C, it splits into carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen. The [[Fischer-Tropsch process]] can then be used to convert the CO into hydrocarbons. The required temperature can be achieved by using a chamber containing a mirror to focus sunlight on the gas. Rival teams are developing such chambers, at Solarec and at [[Sandia National Laboratories]], both based in New Mexico. According to Sandia these chambers could provide enough fuel to power 100% of domestic vehicles using 5800 km²; unlike biofuels this would not take fertile land away from crops but would be land that is not being used for anything else. [[James May]], the British TV presenter, visited a demonstration plant in a programe in his 'Big Ideas' series.

Industrial-scale projects

As of mid 2011, there were eight large scale integrated CCS projects in operation. The Global CCS Institute identified 74 large scale integrated projects in its 2011 Global Status of CCS report. For more information see [http://www.globalccsinstitute.com Global CCS Institute] website. For information on EU projects see [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/ Zero Emissions Platform] website

In Salah {{CO2}} Injection — Northern Africa

In Salah is a fully operational onshore gas field with {{CO2}} injection. {{CO2}} is separated from produced gas and reinjected in the producing hydrocarbon reservoir zones. Since 2004, about 1 Mt/a of {{CO2}} has been captured during [[natural gas]] extraction and injected into the Krechba geologic formation at a depth of 1,800m.

Sleipner {{CO2}} Injection — Norway

Sleipner is a fully operational offshore gas field with {{CO2}} injection. {{CO2}} is separated from produced gas and reinjected in a saline aquifer above the hydrocarbon reservoir zones.

Snøhvit {{CO2}} Injection — Norway

Snøhvit is a fully operational offshore gas field with {{CO2}} injection. The LNG plant is located onshore. {{CO2}} is separated from produced gas and injected in a saline aquifer below the H/C reservoir zones offshore. This [[liquefied natural gas]] (LNG) plant captures 0.7 Mt/a of {{CO2}} and injects it into the Tubåen [[sandstone]] formation 2,600m under the seabed for storage.

Weyburn Operations — Canada

The oil field is currently operating while injecting {{CO2}} to increase oil production. This project captures about 2.8 Mt/a of {{CO2}} from a coal gasification plant located in [[North Dakota]], USA, transports this by pipeline 320 km across the Canadian border and injects it into depleting oil fields where it is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

Salt Creek Enhanced Oil Recovery — USA

[[Anadarko Petroleum Corporation]] will build a pipeline to inject {{CO2}} in existing [[Salt Creek Oil Field]] for enhanced oil recovery. Anadarko has injected 5.12 billion cubic metres of carbon dioxide into the field as part of a project to tease more oil from the field and in the process sequester a greenhouse gas that would otherwise have to be discharged into the atmosphere.

Enid Fertilizer — USA

The Enid Fertilizer plant sends 675,000 tonnes of {{CO2}} to be used for EOR. The pipeline and wells are operated separately by Anadarko Petroleum.

Sharon Ridge EOR — USA

{{CO2}} from Mitchell, Gray Ranch, Puckett, and Turrell gas processing plants is transported via the Val Verde and CRC pipelines for EOR (incl. Sharon Ridge EOR field).

Rangely Weber Sand Unit {{CO2}} Injection Project — USA

[[ChevronTexaco]], the current owner/operator of the Rangely Weber Sand Unit, has been injecting carbon dioxide into the Rangely Oil Field since 1986 to increase the total volume of recoverable crude oil.

Canada

The federal government in the 2008 and 2009 budgets has invested approximately $1.4 billion in Carbon Capture and Storage development.

Alberta

In July 2008, the Government of Alberta announced a $2 billion investment in four large-scale carbon capture and storage projects. In 2009, letters of intent were signed with four project proponents. A grant agreement with the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line was signed in 2010. The remaining three agreements with Swan Hills Synfuels, Shell's Quest Project and Pioneer Project will likely be signed in 2011.

British Columbia

[[Spectra Energy]]'s Fort Nelson Project is proposed but still needs to secure funding.

Saskatchewan

Sask Power's Boundary Dam Project is proposed but still needs to secure funding.

Pilot Projects

The Alberta Saline Aquifer Project (ASAP), Husky Upgrader and Ethanol Plant pilot, Heartland Area Redwater Project (HARP), Wabamun Area Sequestration Project(WASP), and Aquistore. Another Canadian initiative is the Integrated {{co2}} Network (I{{CO2}}N), a group of industry participants providing a framework for carbon capture and storage development in Canada. Other Canadian organizations related to CCS include CCS 101, Carbon Management Canada, IPAC {{CO2}}, and the Canadian Clean Power Coalition.

Italy

A project exists in Porto Tolle, Italy, where a coal-fired energy plant of more than 2,500 megawatts (MW), planned to be set up next year,{{When|date=March 2011}} will utilize a CCS unit for abating {{CO2}} emissions coming from a 300 MW power production line. The project has been cancelled in May 2011. See: [http://microsites.ccsnetwork.eu/porto-tolle Key facts: Porto Tolle]. [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/projects/eu-projects/xdetails/6.html?mn=1 Project Overview]

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, a 68 megawatt oxyfuel plant ("Zero Emission Power Plant") was being planned to be operational in 2009. This project was later canceled. ROAD (Rotterdam Capture and Storage Demonstration project) is a joint project by E.ON Benelux and Electrabel Nederland / GDF SUEZ Group. Every year, starting in 2015 ROAD will capture around 1.1 million tonnes of CO2 at the new power plant on the Maasvlakte. This will be stored in depleted gas reservoirs under the North Sea. [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/projects/eu-projects/xdetails/2.html?mn=5 CCS Project Overview]

Norway

In Norway, the {{CO2}} Technology Centre (TCM) at Mongstad began construction in 2009, and was scheduled for completion early in 2012. It was to include two capture technology plants (one advanced amine and one chilled ammonia), both capturing fluegas from two sources. In addition, it would have included a gas fired power plant and refinery cracker fluegas (similar to coal-fired power plant fluegas). Total capacity was to be 100,000 tons of {{CO2}} per year. The project was delayed to 2014, 2018, and then indefinitely. At 80% completion, project cost rose to USD 985 million. Then in October 2011, Aker Solutions' wrote off its investment in Aker Clean Carbon, declaring the carbon sequestration market to be "dead".

Poland

In Belchatów, Poland, a lignite-fired energy plant of more than 858 MW is planned to be in operation in 2013. See: [http://microsites.ccsnetwork.eu/belchatow Key facts: Belchatów]. [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/projects/eu-projects/xdetails/4.html?mn=3 CCS Project Overview].

United States

In October 2007, the Bureau of Economic Geology at the [[University of Texas at Austin]] received a 10-year, $38 million subcontract to conduct the first intensively monitored long-term project in the United States studying the feasibility of injecting a large volume of {{co2}} for underground storage. The project is a research program of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), funded by the [[National Energy Technology Laboratory]] of the [[U.S. Department of Energy]] (DOE). The SECARB partnership will demonstrate {{co2}} injection rate and storage capacity in the Tuscaloosa-Woodbine geologic system that stretches from Texas to Florida. The region has the potential to store more than 200 billion tons{{Vague|date=September 2008}} of {{co2}} from major point sources in the region, equal to about 33 years of overall U.S. emissions at present rates. Beginning in fall 2007, the project will inject {{co2}} at the rate of one million tons{{Vague|date=September 2008}} per year, for up to 1.5 years, into brine up to 10,000 feet (3,000 m) below the land surface near the Cranfield oil field, which lays about {{convert|15|mi|km}} east of [[Natchez, Mississippi]]. Experimental equipment will measure the ability of the subsurface to accept and retain {{co2}}. Currently, the United States government has approved the construction of what is touted as the world's first CCS power plant, [[FutureGen]]. On January 29, 2008, however, the Department of Energy announced it was recasting the FutureGen project, and, on June 24, 2008, DoE published a funding opportunity announcement seeking proposals for an IGCC project, with integrated CCS, of at least 250MW. Examples of carbon sequestration at an existing US coal plant can be found at utility company [[Luminant]]'s pilot version at its Big Brown Steam Electric Station in [[Fairfield, Texas]]. This system is converting carbon from smokestacks into [[baking soda]]. Skyonic plans to circumvent storage problems of liquid {{co2}} by storing baking soda in mines, landfills, or simply to be sold as industrial or food grade baking soda. Green Fuel Technologies is piloting and implementing algae based carbon capture, circumventing storage issues by then converting algae into fuel or feed. In November 2008, the DOE awarded a $66.9 million eight-year grant to a research partnership headed by [[Montana State University – Bozeman|Montana State University]] to demonstrate that underground geologic formations “can store huge volumes of carbon dioxide economically, safely and permanently.”{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Researchers under the Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Project plan to inject up to one million tonnes of {{CO2}} into [[sandstone]] beneath southwestern Wyoming. In the United States, four different [[synthetic fuel]] projects are moving forward, which have publicly announced plans to incorporate carbon capture and storage: # American Clean Coal Fuels, in their Illinois Clean Fuels (ICF) project, is developing a {{convert|30000|oilbbl|m3|adj=on}} per day biomass and [[coal to liquids]] project in [[Oakland, Illinois]], which will market the {{co2}} created at the plant for enhanced oil recovery applications. The project is expected to come online in mid-2013. By combining sequestration and [[biomass]] feedstocks, the ICF project will achieve dramatic reductions in the life-cycle carbon footprint of the fuels they produce. If sufficient biomass is used, the plant should have the capability to go life-cycle carbon negative, meaning that effectively, for each gallon of their fuel that is used, carbon is pulled out of the air, and put into the ground. # Baard Energy, in their Ohio River Clean Fuels project, is developing a {{convert|53000|oilbbl/d|m3/d|abbr=on}} coal and biomass to liquids project, which has announced plans to market the plant’s {{co2}} for enhanced oil recovery. # Rentech is developing a {{convert|29600|oilbbl|m3|adj=on}} per day coal and biomass to liquids plant in [[Natchez, Mississippi]], which will market the plant’s {{co2}} for enhanced oil recovery. The first phase of the project is expected in 2011. # DKRW{{Who|date=March 2011}} is developing a {{convert|15000|-|20000|oilbbl|m3|adj=on}} per day [[coal to liquids]] plant in [[Medicine Bow, Wyoming]], which will market its plant’s {{co2}} for [[enhanced oil recovery]]. The project is expected to begin operation in 2013. In October 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy awarded grants to twelve Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) projects to conduct a Phase 1 feasibility study. The DOE plans to select 3 to 4 of those projects to proceed into Phase 2, design and construction, with operational startup to occur by 2015. [[Battelle Memorial Institute]], Pacific Northwest Division, Boise, Inc., and [[Fluor Corporation]] are studying a CCS system for capture and storage of {{co2}} emissions associated with the pulp and paper production industry. The site of the study is the Boise White Paper L.L.C. paper mill located near the township of Wallula in Southeastern Washington State. The plant generates approximately 1.2 MMT of {{co2}} annually from a set of three recovery boilers that are mainly fired with black liquor, a recycled byproduct formed during the pulping of wood for paper-making. Fluor Corporation will design a customized version of their Econamine Plus carbon capture technology. The Fluor system also will be designed to remove residual quantities of remnant air pollutants from stack gases as part of the {{co2}} capture process. Battelle is leading preparation of an Environmental Information Volume (EIV) for the entire project, including geologic storage of the captured {{co2}} in deep flood basalt formations that exist in the greater region. The EIV will describe the necessary site characterization work, sequestration system infrastructure, and monitoring program to support permanent sequestration of the {{co2}} captured at the plant. In addition to individual carbon capture and sequestration projects, there are a number of U.S. programs designed to research, develop, and deploy CCS technologies on a broad scale. These include the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) Carbon Sequestration Program, regional carbon sequestration partnerships and the [[Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum]] (CSLF).

United Kingdom

The government of the United Kingdom has launched a tender process for a CCS demonstration project. The project will use post-combustion technology on coal-fired power generation at 300-400 megawatts or equivalent. The project aims to be operational by 2014. The Government announced in June 2008 that four companies had prequalified for the following stages of the competition: BP Alternative Energy International Limited, EON UK Plc, Peel Power Limited and Scottish Power Generation Limited. BP has subsequently withdrawn from the competition, claiming it could not find a power generator partner, and RWE [[npower (UK)|npower]] is seeking a judicial review of the process after it did not qualify. Doosan Babcock has modified their Clean Combustion Test Facility (CCTF) in Renfrew, Scotland to create the largest Oxyfuel test facility currently in the world.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Oxyfuel firing on pulverized coal with recycled flue gas demonstrates the operation of a full scale 40 MW burner for use in coal-fired boilers. Sponsors of the project include the UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR,) as well as a group of industrial sponsors and university partners comprising Scottish and Southern Energy (Prime Sponsor), E.ON UK PLC, Drax Power Limited, ScottishPower, EDF Energy, Dong Energy Generation, Air Products Plc (Sponsors), and Imperial College and University of Nottingham (University Partners). In August 2010, clean energy new-comers [[B9 Coal]] announced their intention to join the competition with a CCS project in the North East of England. The proposal combines [[AFC Energy|alkaline fuel cells]] with [[underground coal gasification]] for upwards of 90% carbon capture as a by-product. It is the only project of its kind to join the competition, using coal reserves in an environmentally friendly and efficient way.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} After costs increased to 13 billion pounds in 2011, the UK withdrew its support and ScottishPower cancelled its CSS project with Aker Clean Carbon.

China

In Beijing, as of 2009, one major power plant is capturing and re-selling a small fraction of its {{co2}} emissions.

Germany

The German industrial area of [[Schwarze Pumpe]], about {{convert|4|km|mi|}} south of the city of [[Spremberg]], is home to the world's first CCS coal plant. [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/projects/index.php?option=com_projects&view=xdetails&id=5&Itemid=142 CCS Project Overview]. The mini pilot plant is run by an [[Alstom]]-built [[oxy-fuel]] boiler and is also equipped with a flue gas cleaning facility to remove [[fly ash]] and [[sulphur dioxide]]. The Swedish company [[Vattenfall AB]] invested some 70 million [[Euro]]s in the two year project, which began operation September 9, 2008. The power plant, which is rated at 30 [[megawatt]]s, is a pilot project to serve as a prototype for future full-scale power plants. 240 tonnes a day of {{co2}} are being trucked {{convert|350|km|mi|sp=us}} where it will be injected into an empty gas field. Germany's [[Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland|BUND group]] called it a "[[fig leaf]]". For each tonne of coal burned, 3.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide is produced. German utility [[RWE]] operates a pilot-scale {{co2}} scrubber at the lignite-fired [[Niederaußem power station]] built in cooperation with [[BASF]] (supplier of detergent) and [[The Linde Group|Linde]] engineering. In Jänschwalde, Germany, a pla is in the works for an Oxyfuel boiler, rated at 650 thermal MW (around 250 electric MW), which is about 20 times more than Vattenfall's 30 MW pilot plant under construction, and compares to today’s largest Oxyfuel test rigs of 0.5 MW. Post-combustion capture technology will also be demonstrated at Jänschwalde. See: [http://microsites.ccsnetwork.eu/jaenschwalde Key facts: Jänschwalde].

Australia

{{Main|Carbon capture and storage in Australia}} The Federal Resources and Energy Minister Martin Ferguson opened the first geosequestration project in the southern hemisphere in April 2008. The demonstration plant is near Nirranda South in South Western Victoria. (35.31°S 149.14°E) The plant is owned by the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC). CO2CRC is a non profit research collaboration supported by government and industry. The project has stored and monitored over 65,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide-rich gas which was extracted from a natural gas reservoir via a well, compressed and piped 2.25 km to a new well. There the gas has been injected into a depleted natural gas reservoir approximately two kilometers below the surface. The project has moved to a second stage and is investigating carbon dioxide trapping in a saline aquifer 1500 meters below the surface. The Otway Project is a research and demonstration project, focused on comprehensive monitoring and verification. This plant does not propose to capture {{co2}} from coal fired power generation, though two CO2CRC demonstration projects at a Victorian power station and research gasifier are demonstrating solvent, membrane, and adsorbent capture technologies from coal combustion. Currently, only small-scale projects are storing {{co2}} stripped from the products of combustion of coal burnt for electricity generation at coal fired [[power stations]]. Work currently being carried out by the GreenMag Group and the [[University of Newcastle]] and funded by the [[New South Wales]] and Australian Governments and industry intends to have a working mineral carbonation pilot plant in operation by 2013. View the full list of Zero Emission Projects for fossil fuel power plant in Europe [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/projects/eu-projects.html EU Projects]

Limitations of CCS for power stations

One limitation of CCS is its energy penalty. The technology is expected to use between 10 and 40 percent of the energy produced by a power station. Wide-scale adoption of CCS may erase efficiency gains of the last 50 years, and increase resource consumption by one third. Even taking the fuel penalty into account, however, overall levels of {{co2}} abatement would remain high at approximately 80-90%, compared to a plant without CCS. It is theoretically possible for CCS, when combined with combustion of biomass, to result in net negative emissions, but this is not currently feasible given the lack of development of CCS technologies and the limitations of biomass production. The use of CCS can reduce {{CO2}} emissions from the stacks of coal power plants by 85-90% or more, but it has no effect on {{CO2}} emissions due to the mining and transport of coal. It will actually "increase such emissions and of air pollutants per unit of net delivered power and will increase all ecological, land-use, air-pollution, and water-pollution impacts from coal mining, transport, and processing, because the CCS system requires 25% more energy, thus 25% more coal combustion, than does a system without CCS". Another concern regards the permanence of storage schemes. It is claimed that safe and permanent storage of {{co2}} cannot be guaranteed and that even very low leakage rates could undermine any climate mitigation effect. The IPCC concludes, however,, that the proportion of {{co2}} retained in appropriately selected and managed geological reservoirs is very likely to exceed 99% over 100 years and is likely to exceed 99% over 1,000 years. Finally, there is the issue of cost. [[Greenpeace]] claims that CCS could lead to a doubling of plant costs. CCS though may remain economically attractive in comparison to other forms of low carbon electricity generation. It is also claimed by opponents to CCS that money spent on CCS will divert investments away from other solutions to climate change.

Cost

Although the processes involved in CCS have been demonstrated in other industrial applications, no commercial scale projects which integrate these processes exist; the costs therefore are somewhat uncertain. Some recent credible estimates indicate that a carbon price of US$60 per US-ton is required to make capture and storage competitive, corresponding to an increase in electricity prices of about US 6c per kWh (based on typical coal fired power plant emissions of 2.13 pounds {{co2}} per kWh). This would double the typical US industrial electricity price (now at around 6c per kWh) and increase the typical retail residential electricity price by about 50% (assuming 100% of power is from coal, which may not necessarily be the case, as this varies from state to state). Similar (approximate) price increases would likely be expected in coal dependent countries such as Australia, because the capture technology and chemistry, as well as the transport and injection costs from such power plants would not, in an overall sense, vary significantly from country to country.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} The reasons that CCS is expected to cause such power price increases are several. Firstly, the increased energy requirements of capturing and compressing {{co2}} significantly raises the operating costs of CCS-equipped power plants. In addition, there are added investment and capital costs. The process would increase the fuel requirement of a plant with CCS by about 25% for a coal-fired plant, and about 15% for a gas-fired plant. The cost of this extra fuel, as well as storage and other system costs, are estimated to increase the costs of energy from a power plant with CCS by 30-60%, depending on the specific circumstances. Pre-commercial CCS demonstration projects are likely to be more expensive than mature CCS technology; the total additional costs of an early large scale CCS demonstration project are estimated to be €0.5-1.1 billion per project over the project lifetime.Other applications are possible. In the belief that use of sequestered carbon could be harnessed to offset the cost of capture and storage, Walker Architects published the first CO2 gas CAES application, proposing the use of sequestered CO2 for Energy Storage on October 24, 2008. To date the feasibility of such potential offsets to the cost have not been examined. NEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINE
An estimate of costs of energy with and without CCS (2002 US$ per [[kWh]])
Natural gas combined cycle Pulverized coal Integrated gasification combined cycle
Without capture (reference plant) 0.03 - 0.05 0.04 - 0.05 0.04 - 0.06
With capture and geological storage 0.04 - 0.08 0.06 - 0.10 0.06 - 0.09
(Cost of capture and geological storage) 0.01 - 0.03 0.02 - 0.05 0.02 - 0.03
With capture and [[Enhanced oil recovery]] 0.04 - 0.07 0.05 - 0.08 0.04 - 0.08
All costs refer to costs for energy from newly built, large-scale plants. Natural gas combined cycle costs are based on natural gas prices of US$2.80–4.40 per GJ ([[lower heating value|LHV]] based). Energy costs for PC and IGCC are based on [[bituminous coal]] costs of US$1.00–1.50 per GJ [[lower heating value|LHV]]. Note that the costs are very dependent on fuel prices (which change continuously), in addition to other factors such as capital costs. Also note that for EOR, the savings are greater for higher oil prices. Current gas and oil prices are substantially higher than the figures used here. All figures in the table are from Table 8.3a in [IPCC, 2005].
NEWLINENEWLINE The cost of CCS depends on the cost of capture and storage, which varies according to the method used. Geological storage in saline formations or depleted oil or gas fields typically cost US$0.50–8.00 per tonne of {{co2}} injected, plus an additional US$0.10–0.30 for monitoring costs. When storage is combined with [[enhanced oil recovery]] to extract extra oil from an oil field, however, the storage could yield net benefits of US$10–16 per tonne of {{co2}} injected (based on 2003 oil prices). This would likely negate some of the effect of the carbon capture when the oil was burnt as fuel. Even taking this into account, as the table above shows, the benefits do not outweigh the extra costs of capture.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Cost of electricity generated by different sources including those incorporating CCS technologies can be found in [[cost of electricity by source]]. * If CO2 capture was part of a fuel cycle then the CO2 would have value rather than be a cost. The proposed Solar Fuel or methane cycle proposed by the Franhofer Institute amongst others is an example. This "solar fuel" cycle uses the excess electrical renewable energy that cannot be used instantanously in the grid which otherwise would be wasted to create hydrogen via electrolysis of water . The hydrogen is then combined with CO2 to create synthetic natural gas SNG and stored in the gas network. CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O Sabatier reaction The natural gas is used to create electrical energy (and hopefully the heat used as well CHP) on demand when there is not enough sun (photovoltaic, CSP...) or wind (turbines) or water (hydro, ocean current, waves,...). The CO2 is captured from the exhaust waste of the combined cycle gas turbine CCGT (and other biomass fuels) and used to creat more methane. The methane cycle is a low carbon economy. The German natural gas grid for example has 2 months of storage, more than enough to see out renewable energy low production points. The methane power cycle is used in conjuction with direct renewable energy use, maximised energy efficiency, etc. to create a 100% renewable energy system for all energy needs (power, transportation, etc.). See the latest Cost Report on the Cost of CO2 Capture produced by the [http://www.zeroemissionsplatform.eu/library/publication/166-zep-cost-report-capture.html Zero Emissions Platform]

Environmental effects

{{Ref improve section|date=January 2009}} The theoretical merit of CCS systems is the reduction of {{co2}} emissions by up to 90%, depending on plant type. Generally, environmental effects from use of CCS arise during power production, {{co2}} capture, transport, and storage. Issues relating to storage are discussed in those sections. Additional energy is required for {{co2}} capture, and this means that substantially more fuel has to be used, depending on the plant type. For new super-critical pulverized coal (PC) plants using current technology, the extra energy requirements range from 24-40%, while for natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants the range is 11-22% and for coal-based gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems it is 14-25% [IPCC, 2005]. Obviously, fuel use and environmental problems arising from mining and extraction of coal or gas increase accordingly. Plants equipped with [[flue gas desulfurization]] (FGD) systems for [[sulfur dioxide]] control require proportionally greater amounts of limestone, and systems equipped with [[selective catalytic reduction]] systems for [[NOx|nitrogen oxides produced during combustion]] require proportionally greater amounts of [[ammonia]]. IPCC has provided estimates of air emissions from various CCS plant designs (see table below). While {{co2}} is drastically reduced though never completely captured, emissions of air pollutants increase significantly, generally due to the energy penalty of capture. Hence, the use of CCS entails a reduction in air quality. NEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINE
Emissions to air from plants with CCS (kg/(MW•h))
Natural gas combined cycle Pulverized coal Integrated gasification combined cycle
{{co2}} 43 (-89%) 107 (−87%) 97 (−88%)
NOX 0.11 (+22%) 0.77 (+31%) 0.1 (+11%)
SOX - 0.001 (−99.7%) 0.33 (+17.9%)
Ammonia 0.002 (before: 0) 0.23 (+2200%) -
Based on Table 3.5 in [IPCC, 2005]. Between brackets the increase or decrease compared to a similar plant without CCS.
NEWLINENEWLINE

Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Document at COP16

On December 4, 2006 at COP16, The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, at its thirty-third session, issued a draft document recommending the inclusion of Carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations in Clean Development Mechanism project activities. This remains subject to a final agreement at COP17 in [[Durban]], however, which would require that a series of environmental risk and leakage concerns be resolved.

See also

{{Portal box|Energy|Sustainable development}} * [[Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage]] * [[Biosequestration]] * [[Carbon capture and storage (timeline)]] * [[Carbon cycle re-balancing]] * [[Carbon sequestration]] * [[Carbon sink]] * [[Clean coal]] * [[Comparisons of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions]] * [[Exhaust gas]] * [[Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion]] * [[Flue gas stacks]] * [[Flue gas desulfurization]] * [[Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle]] * [[Landfill gas]] * [[Limnic eruption]] * [[Low-carbon economy]] * [[IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme]]

External links

*[http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/sequestration/index.html DOE Fossil Energy] Department of Energy programs in carbon dioxide capture and storage. *[http://www.powerplantccs.com/ccs/cap/fut/alg/alg.html Algae based CCS, {{CO2}} Capture with Algae] *[http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon_seq/refshelf/atlas/index.html 2007 NETL Carbon Sequestration Atlas] * [http://www.greenfacts.org/en/co2-capture-storage/index.htm Scientific Facts on {{co2}} Capture and Storage], a peer-reviewed summary of the IPCC Special Report on CCS. *[http://www.jsg.utexas.edu/carboncapture/carbonsequestration.html Carbon Sequestration News] Recent news articles on {{co2}} capture and storage. *[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=burying-climate-change "Burying Climate Change: Efforts Begin to Sequester Carbon Dioxide from Power Plants"], West Virginia hosts the world's first power plant to inject some of its {{CO2}} emissions underground for permanent storage, [[Scientific American]], September 22, 2009. *[http://www.energy.eu/ Mitigate your Carbon emissions by planting trees] Green EU Initiative *[http://www.scientificamerican.com/report.cfm?id=carbon-capture-storage-ccs A Guide To Carbon Capture And Storage: Can carbon capture and storage save the climate from the consequences of fossil fuel burning?] *[http://www.powerplantccs.com Powerplantccs Power Plant Carbon Capture, Storage, {{CO2}} Sequestration] *[http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?19+Duke+Envtl.+L.+&+Pol%27y+F.+211+pdf Paving the Legal Path for Carbon Sequestration from Coal] 2009 journal article on CCS legal questions. {{DEFAULTSORT:Carbon Capture And Storage}}