Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Candomblé

Candomblé

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Candomblé'
Start a new discussion about 'Candomblé'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia

Candomblé is an African-originated or Afro-Brazilian religion
Afro-American religion
Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of the southern United States...

, practised chiefly in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 by the "povo de santo" (people of saint). It originated in the cities of Salvador
Salvador, Bahia
Salvador is the largest city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first...

, the capital of Bahia
Bahia
Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size...

 and Cachoeira, at the time one of the main commercial crossroads for the distribution of products and slave trade to other parts of Bahia state in Brazil. Although Candomblé is practiced primarily in Brazil, it is also practiced in other countries in the Americas, including Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama; and in Europe in Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The religion is based in the anima (soul) of Nature, and is also known as Animism. It was developed in Brazil with the knowledge of African Priests that were enslaved and brought to Brazil, together with their mythology, their culture and language, between 1549 and 1888.

The rituals involve the possession of the initiated by Orishas, offerings and sacrifices of the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdom, healing, dancing/trance and percussion. Candomblé draws inspiration from a variety of people of the African Diaspora, but it mainly features aspects of Yoruba orisha
Orisha
An Orisha is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system....

 veneration.

Overview


In many parts of Latin America, Orishás are now conflated with Roman Catholic saints. This religion, like many African religions, is an oral tradition and therefore has not been put into text throughout the years. Only recently have scholars and people of this religion begun to write down their practices. The name Batuque is also used, especially before the 19th century when Candomblé became more common. Both words are believed to derive from a Bantu
Bantu languages
The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

-family language, mainly that of (Kongo Kingdom).

Candomblé may be called Macumba in some regions, notably Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.Rio de Janeiro has the second largest economy of Brazil behind only São Paulo state.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast...

 and São Paulo
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy. Named after Saint Paul, São Paulo has the largest population, industrial complex, and economic production in the country. It is the richest state in Brazil...

, although Macumba
Macumba
Macumba is a word of African origins. Various explanations of its meaning include "a musical instrument", the name of a Central African deity, and simply "magic". It was the name used for all Bantu religious practices mainly in Bahia Afro-Brazilian in the 19th Century...

 has a distinct set of practices more akin to European witchcraft
Witchcraft
Witchcraft, in historical, anthropological, religious, and mythological contexts, is the alleged use of supernatural or magical powers. A witch is a practitioner of witchcraft...

. Candomblé can also be distinguished from Umbanda
Umbanda
Umbanda is an Afro-Brazilian religion that blends African religions with Catholicism, Spiritism and Kardecism, and considerable indigenous lore....

, a religion founded in the early 20th century by combining African elements with Kardecism; and from similar African-derived religions such as Quimbanda
Quimbanda
Quimbanda is an Afro-Brazilian religion practiced primarily in the urban city centers of Brazil. Quimbanda practices are typically associated with magic, rituals involving animal sacrifice and marginal locations, orishas, exus, and pomba gira spirits. Quimbanda was originally contained under the...

, Haitian Vodou, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

n Santería
Santería
Santería is a syncretic religion of West African and Caribbean origin influenced by Roman Catholic Christianity, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla Lucumi, or Lukumi. Its liturgical language, a dialect of Yoruba, is also known as Lucumi....

, and Obeah
Obeah
Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic, sorcery, and religious practices derived from West African, and specifically Igbo origin. Obeah is similar to other African derived religions including Palo, Voodoo, Santería, rootwork, and most of all hoodoo...

, which developed independently of Candomblé and are virtually unknown in Brazil.

There are 2 million Candombles worldwide http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/candomble/.

Nations


Brazilian slaves came from a number of African ethnic group
Ethnic group
An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

s, including Igbo
Igbo people
Igbo people, also referred to as the Ibo, Ebo, Eboans or Heebo are an ethnic group living chiefly in southeastern Nigeria. They speak Igbo, which includes various Igboid languages and dialects; today, a majority of them speak English alongside Igbo as a result of British colonialism...

, Yoruba
Yoruba people
The Yoruba people are one of the largest ethnic groups in West Africa. The majority of the Yoruba speak the Yoruba language...

, Ewe, Fon
Fon people
The Fon people, or Fon nu, are a major West African ethnic and linguistic group in the country of Benin, and southwest Nigeria, made up of more than 3,500,000 people. The Fon language is the main language spoken in Southern Benin, and is a member of the Gbe language group...

, and Bantu. Slave handlers classified them by the shore of embarkment, so the relation to their actual ethnicity may be accurate or not. As the religion developed semi-independently in different regions of the country, among different ethnic groups, it evolved into several "sects" or nations (nações), distinguished chiefly by the set of worshiped deities, as well as the music and language used in the rituals
Sacred language
A sacred language, "holy language" , or liturgical language, is a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.-Concept:...

.

The division into nations was also influenced by the religious and beneficent brotherhoods (irmandades) of Brazilian slaves organized by the Catholic Church in the 18th and 19th centuries. These fraternities, organized along ethnic lines to allow preaching in the slaves' native languages, provided a legitimate cover for slave reunions, and ultimately may have aided the establishment of Candomblé.

The following list is a rough classification of the major nations and sub-nations, and their sacred languages:
  • Ketu
    Candomblé Ketu
    Candomblé Ketu is the largest and most influential nation of Candomblé, a religion widely practiced in Brazil...

     or Queto – Yoruba language
    Yoruba language
    Yorùbá is a Niger–Congo language spoken in West Africa by approximately 20 million speakers. The native tongue of the Yoruba people, it is spoken, among other languages, in Nigeria, Benin, and Togo and in communities in other parts of Africa, Europe and the Americas...

     (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese)
    • Efã and Ijexá in Bahia
      Bahia
      Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size...

    • Nagô or Eba in Pernambuco
      Pernambuco
      Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

    • Oió-ijexá or Batuque-de-Nação in Rio Grande do Sul
      Rio Grande do Sul
      Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

    • Mina-nagô or Tambor-de-Mina in Maranhão
      Maranhão
      Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

    • Xambá in Alagoas
      Alagoas
      Alagoas is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco ; Sergipe ; Bahia ; and the Atlantic Ocean . It occupies an area of 27,767 km², being slightly larger than Haiti...

       and Pernambuco
      Pernambuco
      Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

       (nearly extinct).
  • Bantu
    Candomblé Bantu
    Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

     or Angola
    Candomblé Bantu
    Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

     – mix of Bantu
    Bantu languages
    The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

     (Kikongo and Kimbundo) languages
    • Caboclo (A new deity that is the mixture between an Indian
      Indigenous peoples of the Americas
      The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

       and a white European
      European ethnic groups
      The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

      )
  • Jeje
    Candomblé Jejé
    Candomblé Jeje is the Candomblé cult that the Vodous of Kingdom of Dahomey brought to the Brazil by enslaved Africans in various regions of West Africa and Central Africa. These Voduns are the rich, complex and high Fon mythology...

     – Ewe
    Ewe language
    Ewe is a Niger–Congo language spoken in Ghana, Togo and Benin by approximately six million people. Ewe is part of a cluster of related languages commonly called Gbe, spoken in southeastern Ghana, Togo, and parts of Benin. Other Gbe languages include Fon, Gen, Phla Phera, and Aja...

    , Fon
    Fon language
    Fon is part of the Gbe language cluster and belongs to the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo languages. Fon is spoken mainly in Benin by approximately 1.7 million speakers, by the Fon people...

    , and Gen
    Gen language
    Gen is a Gbe language spoken in the southeast of Togo in the Maritime Region. It is also spoken in the Mono Department of Benin. It is part of the Volta–Niger branch of the major African Niger–Congo language family...

     languages (Jeje)
    • Mina Jeje in Maranhão
      Maranhão
      Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

    • Babaçuê in Pará
      Pará
      Pará is a state in the north of Brazil. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it also borders Guyana and Suriname, and to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Belém.Pará is the most populous state...

    • Fun Fún in Panamá
      Panama
      Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...




Candomblé (kɐ̃dõˈblɛ) is an African-originated or Afro-Brazilian religion
Afro-American religion
Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of the southern United States...

, practised chiefly in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 by the "povo de santo" (people of saint). It originated in the cities of Salvador
Salvador, Bahia
Salvador is the largest city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first...

, the capital of Bahia
Bahia
Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size...

 and Cachoeira, at the time one of the main commercial crossroads for the distribution of products and slave trade to other parts of Bahia state in Brazil. Although Candomblé is practiced primarily in Brazil, it is also practiced in other countries in the Americas, including Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama; and in Europe in Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The religion is based in the anima (soul) of Nature, and is also known as Animism. It was developed in Brazil with the knowledge of African Priests that were enslaved and brought to Brazil, together with their mythology, their culture and language, between 1549 and 1888.

The rituals involve the possession of the initiated by Orishas, offerings and sacrifices of the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdom, healing, dancing/trance and percussion. Candomblé draws inspiration from a variety of people of the African Diaspora, but it mainly features aspects of Yoruba orisha
Orisha
An Orisha is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system....

 veneration.

Overview


In many parts of Latin America, Orishás are now conflated with Roman Catholic saints. This religion, like many African religions, is an oral tradition and therefore has not been put into text throughout the years. Only recently have scholars and people of this religion begun to write down their practices. The name Batuque is also used, especially before the 19th century when Candomblé became more common. Both words are believed to derive from a Bantu
Bantu languages
The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

-family language, mainly that of (Kongo Kingdom).

Candomblé may be called Macumba in some regions, notably Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.Rio de Janeiro has the second largest economy of Brazil behind only São Paulo state.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast...

 and São Paulo
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy. Named after Saint Paul, São Paulo has the largest population, industrial complex, and economic production in the country. It is the richest state in Brazil...

, although Macumba
Macumba
Macumba is a word of African origins. Various explanations of its meaning include "a musical instrument", the name of a Central African deity, and simply "magic". It was the name used for all Bantu religious practices mainly in Bahia Afro-Brazilian in the 19th Century...

 has a distinct set of practices more akin to European witchcraft
Witchcraft
Witchcraft, in historical, anthropological, religious, and mythological contexts, is the alleged use of supernatural or magical powers. A witch is a practitioner of witchcraft...

. Candomblé can also be distinguished from Umbanda
Umbanda
Umbanda is an Afro-Brazilian religion that blends African religions with Catholicism, Spiritism and Kardecism, and considerable indigenous lore....

, a religion founded in the early 20th century by combining African elements with Kardecism; and from similar African-derived religions such as Quimbanda
Quimbanda
Quimbanda is an Afro-Brazilian religion practiced primarily in the urban city centers of Brazil. Quimbanda practices are typically associated with magic, rituals involving animal sacrifice and marginal locations, orishas, exus, and pomba gira spirits. Quimbanda was originally contained under the...

, Haitian Vodou, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

n Santería
Santería
Santería is a syncretic religion of West African and Caribbean origin influenced by Roman Catholic Christianity, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla Lucumi, or Lukumi. Its liturgical language, a dialect of Yoruba, is also known as Lucumi....

, and Obeah
Obeah
Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic, sorcery, and religious practices derived from West African, and specifically Igbo origin. Obeah is similar to other African derived religions including Palo, Voodoo, Santería, rootwork, and most of all hoodoo...

, which developed independently of Candomblé and are virtually unknown in Brazil.

There are 2 million Candombles worldwide http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/candomble/.

Nations


Brazilian slaves came from a number of African ethnic group
Ethnic group
An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

s, including Igbo
Igbo people
Igbo people, also referred to as the Ibo, Ebo, Eboans or Heebo are an ethnic group living chiefly in southeastern Nigeria. They speak Igbo, which includes various Igboid languages and dialects; today, a majority of them speak English alongside Igbo as a result of British colonialism...

, Yoruba
Yoruba people
The Yoruba people are one of the largest ethnic groups in West Africa. The majority of the Yoruba speak the Yoruba language...

, Ewe, Fon
Fon people
The Fon people, or Fon nu, are a major West African ethnic and linguistic group in the country of Benin, and southwest Nigeria, made up of more than 3,500,000 people. The Fon language is the main language spoken in Southern Benin, and is a member of the Gbe language group...

, and Bantu. Slave handlers classified them by the shore of embarkment, so the relation to their actual ethnicity may be accurate or not. As the religion developed semi-independently in different regions of the country, among different ethnic groups, it evolved into several "sects" or nations (nações), distinguished chiefly by the set of worshiped deities, as well as the music and language used in the rituals
Sacred language
A sacred language, "holy language" , or liturgical language, is a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.-Concept:...

.

The division into nations was also influenced by the religious and beneficent brotherhoods (irmandades) of Brazilian slaves organized by the Catholic Church in the 18th and 19th centuries. These fraternities, organized along ethnic lines to allow preaching in the slaves' native languages, provided a legitimate cover for slave reunions, and ultimately may have aided the establishment of Candomblé.

The following list is a rough classification of the major nations and sub-nations, and their sacred languages:
  • Ketu
    Candomblé Ketu
    Candomblé Ketu is the largest and most influential nation of Candomblé, a religion widely practiced in Brazil...

     or Queto – Yoruba language
    Yoruba language
    Yorùbá is a Niger–Congo language spoken in West Africa by approximately 20 million speakers. The native tongue of the Yoruba people, it is spoken, among other languages, in Nigeria, Benin, and Togo and in communities in other parts of Africa, Europe and the Americas...

     (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese)
    • Efã and Ijexá in Bahia
      Bahia
      Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size...

    • Nagô or Eba in Pernambuco
      Pernambuco
      Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

    • Oió-ijexá or Batuque-de-Nação in Rio Grande do Sul
      Rio Grande do Sul
      Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

    • Mina-nagô or Tambor-de-Mina in Maranhão
      Maranhão
      Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

    • Xambá in Alagoas
      Alagoas
      Alagoas is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco ; Sergipe ; Bahia ; and the Atlantic Ocean . It occupies an area of 27,767 km², being slightly larger than Haiti...

       and Pernambuco
      Pernambuco
      Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

       (nearly extinct).
  • Bantu
    Candomblé Bantu
    Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

     or Angola
    Candomblé Bantu
    Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

     – mix of Bantu
    Bantu languages
    The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

     (Kikongo and Kimbundo) languages
    • Caboclo (A new deity that is the mixture between an Indian
      Indigenous peoples of the Americas
      The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

       and a white European
      European ethnic groups
      The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

      )
      • Jeje
        Candomblé Jejé
        Candomblé Jeje is the Candomblé cult that the Vodous of Kingdom of Dahomey brought to the Brazil by enslaved Africans in various regions of West Africa and Central Africa. These Voduns are the rich, complex and high Fon mythology...

         – Ewe
        Ewe language
        Ewe is a Niger–Congo language spoken in Ghana, Togo and Benin by approximately six million people. Ewe is part of a cluster of related languages commonly called Gbe, spoken in southeastern Ghana, Togo, and parts of Benin. Other Gbe languages include Fon, Gen, Phla Phera, and Aja...

        , Fon
        Fon language
        Fon is part of the Gbe language cluster and belongs to the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo languages. Fon is spoken mainly in Benin by approximately 1.7 million speakers, by the Fon people...

        , and Gen
        Gen language
        Gen is a Gbe language spoken in the southeast of Togo in the Maritime Region. It is also spoken in the Mono Department of Benin. It is part of the Volta–Niger branch of the major African Niger–Congo language family...

         languages (Jeje)
        • Mina Jeje in Maranhão
          Maranhão
          Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

        • Babaçuê in Pará
          Pará
          Pará is a state in the north of Brazil. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it also borders Guyana and Suriname, and to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Belém.Pará is the most populous state...

        • Fun Fún in Panamá
          Panama
          Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...




      Candomblé (kɐ̃dõˈblɛ) is an African-originated or Afro-Brazilian religion
      Afro-American religion
      Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of the southern United States...

      , practised chiefly in Brazil
      Brazil
      Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

       by the "povo de santo" (people of saint). It originated in the cities of Salvador
      Salvador, Bahia
      Salvador is the largest city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first...

      , the capital of Bahia
      Bahia
      Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size...

       and Cachoeira, at the time one of the main commercial crossroads for the distribution of products and slave trade to other parts of Bahia state in Brazil. Although Candomblé is practiced primarily in Brazil, it is also practiced in other countries in the Americas, including Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama; and in Europe in Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The religion is based in the anima (soul) of Nature, and is also known as Animism. It was developed in Brazil with the knowledge of African Priests that were enslaved and brought to Brazil, together with their mythology, their culture and language, between 1549 and 1888.

      The rituals involve the possession of the initiated by Orishas, offerings and sacrifices of the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdom, healing, dancing/trance and percussion. Candomblé draws inspiration from a variety of people of the African Diaspora, but it mainly features aspects of Yoruba orisha
      Orisha
      An Orisha is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system....

       veneration.

      Overview


      In many parts of Latin America, Orishás are now conflated with Roman Catholic saints. This religion, like many African religions, is an oral tradition and therefore has not been put into text throughout the years. Only recently have scholars and people of this religion begun to write down their practices. The name Batuque is also used, especially before the 19th century when Candomblé became more common. Both words are believed to derive from a Bantu
      Bantu languages
      The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

      -family language, mainly that of (Kongo Kingdom).

      Candomblé may be called Macumba in some regions, notably Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro (state)
      Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.Rio de Janeiro has the second largest economy of Brazil behind only São Paulo state.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast...

       and São Paulo
      São Paulo (state)
      São Paulo is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy. Named after Saint Paul, São Paulo has the largest population, industrial complex, and economic production in the country. It is the richest state in Brazil...

      , although Macumba
      Macumba
      Macumba is a word of African origins. Various explanations of its meaning include "a musical instrument", the name of a Central African deity, and simply "magic". It was the name used for all Bantu religious practices mainly in Bahia Afro-Brazilian in the 19th Century...

       has a distinct set of practices more akin to European witchcraft
      Witchcraft
      Witchcraft, in historical, anthropological, religious, and mythological contexts, is the alleged use of supernatural or magical powers. A witch is a practitioner of witchcraft...

      . Candomblé can also be distinguished from Umbanda
      Umbanda
      Umbanda is an Afro-Brazilian religion that blends African religions with Catholicism, Spiritism and Kardecism, and considerable indigenous lore....

      , a religion founded in the early 20th century by combining African elements with Kardecism; and from similar African-derived religions such as Quimbanda
      Quimbanda
      Quimbanda is an Afro-Brazilian religion practiced primarily in the urban city centers of Brazil. Quimbanda practices are typically associated with magic, rituals involving animal sacrifice and marginal locations, orishas, exus, and pomba gira spirits. Quimbanda was originally contained under the...

      , Haitian Vodou, Cuba
      Cuba
      The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

      n Santería
      Santería
      Santería is a syncretic religion of West African and Caribbean origin influenced by Roman Catholic Christianity, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla Lucumi, or Lukumi. Its liturgical language, a dialect of Yoruba, is also known as Lucumi....

      , and Obeah
      Obeah
      Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic, sorcery, and religious practices derived from West African, and specifically Igbo origin. Obeah is similar to other African derived religions including Palo, Voodoo, Santería, rootwork, and most of all hoodoo...

      , which developed independently of Candomblé and are virtually unknown in Brazil.

      There are 2 million Candombles worldwide http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/candomble/.

      Nations


      Brazilian slaves came from a number of African ethnic group
      Ethnic group
      An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

      s, including Igbo
      Igbo people
      Igbo people, also referred to as the Ibo, Ebo, Eboans or Heebo are an ethnic group living chiefly in southeastern Nigeria. They speak Igbo, which includes various Igboid languages and dialects; today, a majority of them speak English alongside Igbo as a result of British colonialism...

      , Yoruba
      Yoruba people
      The Yoruba people are one of the largest ethnic groups in West Africa. The majority of the Yoruba speak the Yoruba language...

      , Ewe, Fon
      Fon people
      The Fon people, or Fon nu, are a major West African ethnic and linguistic group in the country of Benin, and southwest Nigeria, made up of more than 3,500,000 people. The Fon language is the main language spoken in Southern Benin, and is a member of the Gbe language group...

      , and Bantu. Slave handlers classified them by the shore of embarkment, so the relation to their actual ethnicity may be accurate or not. As the religion developed semi-independently in different regions of the country, among different ethnic groups, it evolved into several "sects" or nations (nações), distinguished chiefly by the set of worshiped deities, as well as the music and language used in the rituals
      Sacred language
      A sacred language, "holy language" , or liturgical language, is a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.-Concept:...

      .

      The division into nations was also influenced by the religious and beneficent brotherhoods (irmandades) of Brazilian slaves organized by the Catholic Church in the 18th and 19th centuries. These fraternities, organized along ethnic lines to allow preaching in the slaves' native languages, provided a legitimate cover for slave reunions, and ultimately may have aided the establishment of Candomblé.

      The following list is a rough classification of the major nations and sub-nations, and their sacred languages:
      • Ketu
        Candomblé Ketu
        Candomblé Ketu is the largest and most influential nation of Candomblé, a religion widely practiced in Brazil...

         or Queto – Yoruba language
        Yoruba language
        Yorùbá is a Niger–Congo language spoken in West Africa by approximately 20 million speakers. The native tongue of the Yoruba people, it is spoken, among other languages, in Nigeria, Benin, and Togo and in communities in other parts of Africa, Europe and the Americas...

         (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese)
        • Efã and Ijexá in Bahia
          Bahia
          Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size...

        • Nagô or Eba in Pernambuco
          Pernambuco
          Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

        • Oió-ijexá or Batuque-de-Nação in Rio Grande do Sul
          Rio Grande do Sul
          Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

        • Mina-nagô or Tambor-de-Mina in Maranhão
          Maranhão
          Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

        • Xambá in Alagoas
          Alagoas
          Alagoas is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco ; Sergipe ; Bahia ; and the Atlantic Ocean . It occupies an area of 27,767 km², being slightly larger than Haiti...

           and Pernambuco
          Pernambuco
          Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

           (nearly extinct).
      • Bantu
        Candomblé Bantu
        Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

         or Angola
        Candomblé Bantu
        Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

         – mix of Bantu
        Bantu languages
        The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

         (Kikongo and Kimbundo) languages
        • Caboclo (A new deity that is the mixture between an Indian
          Indigenous peoples of the Americas
          The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

           and a white European
          European ethnic groups
          The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

          )
          • Jeje
            Candomblé Jejé
            Candomblé Jeje is the Candomblé cult that the Vodous of Kingdom of Dahomey brought to the Brazil by enslaved Africans in various regions of West Africa and Central Africa. These Voduns are the rich, complex and high Fon mythology...

             – Ewe
            Ewe language
            Ewe is a Niger–Congo language spoken in Ghana, Togo and Benin by approximately six million people. Ewe is part of a cluster of related languages commonly called Gbe, spoken in southeastern Ghana, Togo, and parts of Benin. Other Gbe languages include Fon, Gen, Phla Phera, and Aja...

            , Fon
            Fon language
            Fon is part of the Gbe language cluster and belongs to the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo languages. Fon is spoken mainly in Benin by approximately 1.7 million speakers, by the Fon people...

            , and Gen
            Gen language
            Gen is a Gbe language spoken in the southeast of Togo in the Maritime Region. It is also spoken in the Mono Department of Benin. It is part of the Volta–Niger branch of the major African Niger–Congo language family...

             languages (Jeje)
            • Mina Jeje in Maranhão
              Maranhão
              Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

            • Babaçuê in Pará
              Pará
              Pará is a state in the north of Brazil. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it also borders Guyana and Suriname, and to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Belém.Pará is the most populous state...

            • Fun Fún in Panamá
              Panama
              Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...


          Beliefs


          Candomblé is a polytheistic religion and worships a number of gods
          Deity
          A deity is a recognized preternatural or supernatural immortal being, who may be thought of as holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, and respected by believers....

          , derived from African deities:
          • the Orisha
            Orisha
            An Orisha is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system....

            s of Yoruba and Ketashi mythology (Ketu nation), spelled Orixás
            Orisha
            An Orisha is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system....

            in Portuguese
            Portuguese language
            Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

            ;
          • the Voduns of the Ewe and Fon (Jeje nation); and
          • the Nkisi
            Nkisi
            Nkisi . The term Nkisi is the general name for a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits...

            s (Minkisi
            Nkisi
            Nkisi . The term Nkisi is the general name for a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits...

            ) of the Bantu (Angola nation and Congo
            Candomblé Bantu
            Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

            ).
          • Tabela Orixas-Voduns-Nkisis


          These deities were created by a supreme God: Olodumare, Olorun
          Olorun
          Olòrún is the Yorùbá name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions , Who is either the sole entity in monotheism, or a single entity in polytheism...

           etc. of the Yoruba, Zambi or Zambiapongo of the Bantu, and Nana Buluku
          Nana Buluku
          Nana Buluku is the Supreme Deity of the Fon from Dahomey.In Dahomey mythology, Nana Buluku is an androgynous deity creator of the Universe and all that exists in it...

           of the Fon.

          On the other hand, deities from one nation may be acculturated as "guests" in houses and ceremonies of another nation, besides those of the latter. Some nations assign new names to guest spirits, while some retain the names used in the nation of origin.

          Syncretism


          There is also an Islamic-linked sect within Candomblé which was more common during the slave days in Brazil. Slaves coming from West Africa had been acculturated with Muslim traditions. These Malês set aside Fridays as the day to worship deities as do the Muslims for prayer and meditation. Malês were the instigators of many slave revolts in Brazil leading in all white with amulets and skull caps as in traditional Islam.

          In this regard, it is worth noting that some Candomblé rites have also incorporated local Native American
          Indigenous peoples of the Americas
          The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

           gods — which, to the Church, were just as pagan as the Orixás — because they were seen as the "Orishas of the land". Finally, one should keep in mind that many (if not most) practitioners of Candomblé through the times had not only African roots but European ones as well.

          Although syncretism still seems to be prevalent, in recent years the lessening of religious and racial prejudices has given rise to a "traditionalist" movement in Candomblé, that rejects the Christian elements and seeks to recreate a "pure" cult based exclusively in Africa.

          Rituals


          The Candomblé ritual (toque) has two parts: the preparation, attended only by priests and initiates, which may start a week in advance; and a festive public "mass" and banquet that starts in the late evening and ends around midnight.

          In the first part, initiates and aides wash and iron the costumes for the ceremony, and decorate the house with paper flags and festoons, in the colors favored by the Orixas that are to be honored on that occasion. They also prepare food for the banquet. Some domestic animals are slaughtered; some parts reserved for sacrifice, the rest is prepared for the banquet. On the day of the ceremony, starting in the early morning, cowrie-shell divination
          Cowrie-shell divination
          Cowrie shell divination refers to several distinct form of divination using cowrie shells that are part of the rituals and religious beliefs of several religions...

          s (jogo de búzios) are performed, and sacrifices are offered to the desired Orixás, and to the messenger spirit (Exú
          Eshu
          Èṣù is both an orisha and one of the most well-known deities of the Yoruba mythology and its related New World traditions.He has a wide range of responsibilities: the protector of travelers, deity of roads, particularly...

           in Ketu).

          In the public part of the ceremony, children-of-saint (mediunic priests) invoke and "incorporate" Orixás, falling into a trance-like state. After having fallen into trance, the priest-spirits perform dances symbolic of the Orixá's attributes, while the babalorixá or father of saint (leading male priest) leads songs that celebrate the spirit's deeds. The ceremony ends with a banquet.

          Candomblé music, an essential part of the ritual, derives from African music and has had a strong influence in other popular (non-religious) Brazilian music styles. The word batuque, for instance, has entered the Brazilian vernacular as a synonym of "rhythmic percussion music".

          Temples and priesthood



          Candomblé temple
          Temple
          A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out...

          s are called houses (casas), plantations (roças), or yards (terreiros). Most Candomblé houses are small, independently owned and managed by the respective higher priests (female mãe-de-santo
          Mãe-de-santo
          A Mãe-de-santo is a priestess in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means mother of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "iyalorishá", a title given to priest women in African religions. Iyá means mother, and the...

           or male pai-de-santo
          Pai-de-santo
          A Pai-de-santo is a male priest in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means father of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "babalorishá", a title given to the African religions priests. Babá means father, and the...

          ). A few of the older and larger houses have a more institutional character and more formal hierarchy. There is no central administration. Inside the place of worship are the altars to the Orixás, or Pejis.

          Candomblé priesthood is organized into symbolic families, whose members are not necessarily relatives in the common sense. Each family owns and manages one house. In most Candoblé houses, especially the larger ones, the head of the family is always a woman, the mãe-de-santo
          Mãe-de-santo
          A Mãe-de-santo is a priestess in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means mother of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "iyalorishá", a title given to priest women in African religions. Iyá means mother, and the...

           or ialorixá (mother-of-saint), seconded by the pai-de-santo
          Pai-de-santo
          A Pai-de-santo is a male priest in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means father of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "babalorishá", a title given to the African religions priests. Babá means father, and the...

           or babalorixá (father-of-saint). The priests and priestesses may also be known as babalaos (interpreters of búzios), babas, babaloshas and candomblezeiros. Some houses have a more flexible hierarchy which allows the male pai-de-santo
          Pai-de-santo
          A Pai-de-santo is a male priest in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means father of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "babalorishá", a title given to the African religions priests. Babá means father, and the...

          to be the head priest. Often during the slave period, the women became the diviners and healers which was not part of African tradition; however, the male slaves were constantly working and did not have the time to take care of daily instances. Or, nursing the children, the women were in the capacity of teaching the knowledge of their old religions to the newer generations.

          Admission to the priesthood and progression in the hierarchy is conditioned to approval by the Orixás, possession of the necessary qualities, learning the necessary knowledge, and performance of lengthy initiation rites, which last seven years or more. There are generally two types of priesthood in the different nations of Candomble, and they are made up of those who fall in trance by the Orixá (iyawo) and those who do not (Oga – male/Ekeji – female). It is important not to confuse the meaning and usage of the Yoruba term iyawò (bride in Yoruba) with other African derived religions that use the same term with different meanings.

          The seclusion period for the initiation of an iyawo lasts generally 21 days in the Ketu nation and varies depending on the nation. The iyawo's role in the religion is assigned by a divination made by her/his babalorixá/ialorixá; one function that an iyawo can be assigned for is to take care of neophytes as they in their initiatic seclusion period, becoming an expert in all the Orisa foods, becoming an iya or babalorisa themselves, or knowing all ritual songs, etc... The iyawos follow a 7 years period of apprenticeship within which they offer periodical sacrifices in order to reinforce their initiatic links in the form of the so-called obligations of 1, 3 and 7 years. At the 7th year, the iyawos earn their title and can get a honorific title or religious post (oye in Yoruba). Once the iyawo has accomplished their 7th year cycle obligation, they become elders (egbon in Yoruba, egbomi in Brazil, which means my elder) within their religious family.

          The other priesthood is reserved for those who do not fall in trance. Ogas and Ekejis do not endure the same path to eldership as do iyawos; they are regarded as elders immediately after their initiation. Their role is to help the baba/ialorixá in different specific ritual tasks like drumming, singing, cooking, taking care of the orixá shrines and when he/she comes down in possession trance, etc... Ogas and Ekejis usually do not go on to become baba/ialorixá, nor do they open their own temples or have filhos de santo (they do not initiate others).

          Some Well Known Temples in Salvador, Bahia


          • Ketu, Efon and Nago nations
            Nago/Yoruba tradition
            • Ilé Axé Iyá Nassô Oká (Casa Branca do Engenho Velho)
            • Ilé Iyá Omi Axé Iyamassê (Terreiro do Gantois)
            • Ilé Axé Opô Afonjá
            • Ilé Maroialaji
              Ile Maroia Laji
              Ile Maroia Laji is one of the oldest Candomblé temples in Salvador, Brazil, in the neighborhood of Matatu de Brotas. It was designated a National Heritage Site in 2005...

               (also known as Alaketu)
            • Ilé Axé Oxumarê (male or female leadership)
            • Terreiro do Cobre
            • Asé Yangba Oloroke ti Efon (male or female leadership)
            • Casa de Nago (in São Luís
              São Luís, Maranhão
              São Luís is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão. The city is located on Ilha de São Luís in the Baía de São Marcos , an extension of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the estuary of Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru and other rivers. Its coordinates are 2.53° south, 44.30° west...

              , state of Maranhão
              Maranhão
              Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighbored by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent...

              )
            • Ilé Axé Obá Ogunté (Sítio do Pai Adão – in Recife
              Recife
              Recife is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in Brazil with 4,136,506 inhabitants, the largest metropolitan area of the North/Northeast Regions, the 5th-largest metropolitan influence area in Brazil, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco. The population of the city proper...

              , state of Pernambuco
              Pernambuco
              Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. There are about of beaches, some of the most beautiful in the...

              )

          • Jeje nation
            Ewe-Fon tradition
            • Zoogodô Bogum Male Rundó (Terreiro do Bogum)
            • Casa das Minas (in São Luís, state of Maranhão)
            • Kwe Ceja Unde (Roça do Ventura – City of Cachoeira, state of Bahia)
            • Rumpame Runtoloji (City of Cachoeira, state of Bahia)

          Priesthood Initiation


          In Brazil: Ifá
          Ifá
          Ifá refers to the system of divination and the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odú Ifá. Yoruba religion identifies Orunmila as the Grand Priest; as that which revealed Oracle divinity to the world...

          , Egungun
          Egungun
          Egungun is a part of the Yoruba pantheon of divinities. In the indeginous religious system of the West African tribe of that name, the spirit is of central importance...

          , Orisha
          Orisha
          An Orisha is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system....

           (Orixa), Vodun and Nkisi
          Nkisi
          Nkisi . The term Nkisi is the general name for a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits...

          , are separated by type of priesthood initiation
          Initiation
          Initiation is a rite of passage ceremony marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components...

          .
          • Ifá
            Ifá
            Ifá refers to the system of divination and the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odú Ifá. Yoruba religion identifies Orunmila as the Grand Priest; as that which revealed Oracle divinity to the world...

             only initiation Babalawos, do not come into trance.
          • Egungun
            Egungun
            Egungun is a part of the Yoruba pantheon of divinities. In the indeginous religious system of the West African tribe of that name, the spirit is of central importance...

             only initiation Babaojés, do not come into trance.
          • Candomblé Ketu
            Candomblé Ketu
            Candomblé Ketu is the largest and most influential nation of Candomblé, a religion widely practiced in Brazil...

             initiation Iyawos, come into trance with Orixá.
          • Candomblé Jeje
            Candomblé Jejé
            Candomblé Jeje is the Candomblé cult that the Vodous of Kingdom of Dahomey brought to the Brazil by enslaved Africans in various regions of West Africa and Central Africa. These Voduns are the rich, complex and high Fon mythology...

             initiation Vodunsis, come into trance with Vodun.
          • Candomblé Bantu
            Candomblé Bantu
            Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

             initiation Muzenzas, come into trance with Nkisi.

          Priesthood


          The Candomblée priesthood is divided into:
          • Iyalorixá
            Mãe-de-santo
            A Mãe-de-santo is a priestess in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means mother of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "iyalorishá", a title given to priest women in African religions. Iyá means mother, and the...

             or Mãe-de-santo
            Mãe-de-santo
            A Mãe-de-santo is a priestess in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means mother of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "iyalorishá", a title given to priest women in African religions. Iyá means mother, and the...

             (female), and Babalorixá
            Pai-de-santo
            A Pai-de-santo is a male priest in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means father of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "babalorishá", a title given to the African religions priests. Babá means father, and the...

             or Pai-de-santo
            Pai-de-santo
            A Pai-de-santo is a male priest in Umbanda, Candomblé and other African-Brazilian religions. In Portuguese those words means father of saint, which is a improper translation from the Yoruba language word "babalorishá", a title given to the African religions priests. Babá means father, and the...

             (male) - Orixás' priests
          • Doté or Doné – Voduns' priests
          • Tateto or Mameto – Nkisi
            Nkisi
            Nkisi . The term Nkisi is the general name for a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits...

            s' priests
          • Babalawo
            Babalawo
            Babalawo is a Yorùbá chieftaincy title that denotes a Priest of Ifá. Ifa is a divination system that represents the teachings of the Orisha Orunmila, the Spirit of Wisdom, who in turn serves as the oracular representative of God...

             – Orunmila-Ifas' priests, Worship of Ifá
            Ifá
            Ifá refers to the system of divination and the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odú Ifá. Yoruba religion identifies Orunmila as the Grand Priest; as that which revealed Oracle divinity to the world...

          • Bokonon – Vodun Fa
            FA
            Fa or FA may refer to:- Education :* Falmouth Academy* Foxcroft Academy* Friends Academy* Fryeburg Academy- Finance :* Federal Association, Federal Savings Bank* Financial adviser* Financial analyst- Government and law :...

            s' priests
          • BabalOsanyin – Osanyins' priests
          • Babaojé – Egungun
            Egungun
            Egungun is a part of the Yoruba pantheon of divinities. In the indeginous religious system of the West African tribe of that name, the spirit is of central importance...

            s' priests

          See also

          • Candomblé Jejé
            Candomblé Jejé
            Candomblé Jeje is the Candomblé cult that the Vodous of Kingdom of Dahomey brought to the Brazil by enslaved Africans in various regions of West Africa and Central Africa. These Voduns are the rich, complex and high Fon mythology...

          • Candomblé Ketu
            Candomblé Ketu
            Candomblé Ketu is the largest and most influential nation of Candomblé, a religion widely practiced in Brazil...

          • Candomblé Bantu
            Candomblé Bantu
            Bantu, also called Batuque or Angola, is one of the major sects of Candomblé, an African faith tradition practiced in Brazil. It developed among slaves who spoke Bantu languages.-Deities:...

          • Gerard Béhague
            Gerard Béhague
            Gerard Henri Béhague was an eminent Franco-American ethnomusicologist and professor of Latin American music. His specialty was the music of Brazil and the Andean countries and the influence of West Africa on the music of the Caribbean and South America, especially Candomblé music...

            , candomblé music expert

          Books

          • Bastide, Roger. Le candomblé de Bahia . 2001, Paris, Plon.
          • Bramley, Serge. Macumba. 1994 – City Lights Books.
          • Brown, Diana. Umbanda: Religion and Politics in Urban Brazil. 1994 – Columbia University Press.
          • Capone, Stefania. Searching for Africa in Brazil. Power and Tradition in Candomblé . Duke University Press, 2010.
          • Carneiro, Edison. "The Structure of African Cults in Bahia" Civilzacao Brasileira, Rio De Janeiro. 1936–37.
          • Gordon, Jacob U. " Yoruba Cosmology And Culture in Brazil: A Study of African Survivals in the New World." Journal of Black Studies, Vol.10, No 2. (December 1979): P. 231- 244
          • Herkovits, Melville J. "The Social Organization of the Afrobrazilian Candomble." Proceedings of the Congress São Paulo, 1955.
          • Johnson, Paul Christopher. "Secrets, Gossip, and Gods The Transformation of Brazilian Candomblé". 2002 – Oxford University Press.
          • Landes, Ruth.
            Ruth Landes
            Ruth Landes was an American cultural anthropologist best known for studies on Brazilian candomblé cults and her published study on the topic, City of Women...

              The City of Women. 1994 – University of New Mexico Press.
          • Matory, J. Lorand. Black Atlantic Religion: Tradition, Transnationalism, and Matriarchy in the Afro-Brazilian Candomblé . 2005 – Princeton University Press.
          • Matory, J. Lorand. "Gendered Agendas: The Secrets Scholars Keep about Yoruba-Atlantic Religion." Gender & History 15, no. 3 (November 2003): p. 409–439."
          • Omari-Tunkara, Mikelle S. "Manipulating the Sacred: Yoruba Art, Ritual, and Resistance in Brazilian Candomble". 2005 – Wayne State University Press.
          • Reis, João José. "Candomblé in Nineteenth-Century Bahia: Priests, Followers, Clients" in Rethinking the African Diaspora:The Making of a Black Atlantic World in the Bight of Benin and Brazil Mann, Kristina and Bay, Edna G. Ed. Geu Heuman and James Walvin. 2001-Frank Cass
          • Reis, João José. Slave Rebellion in Brazil:The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia (Baltimore and London:The Johns Hopkins University Press,1995).
          • Souty, Jérôme. Pierre Fatumbi Verger: Du Regard Détaché à la Connaissance Initiatique, Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 2007.
          • Voeks, Robert A. "Sacred Leaves of Candomble: African Magic, Medicine, and Religion in Brazil." Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1997.
          • Verger, Pierre Fatumbi. "Dieux D'Afrique. Paul Hartmann, Paris (1st edition, 1954; 2nd edition, 1995). 400pp, 160 b/w photos, ISBN 2-909571-13-0.
          • McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. "The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil." 1998. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-545-3
          • Wafer, Jim. Taste of Blood: Spirit Possession in Brazilian Candomble. 1991 – University of Pennsylvania Press.

          External links



          Portuguese


          French


          English