Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Overview
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 crown corporation that serves as the national public radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 and television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 broadcaster. Radio-Canada is the national French language broadcast arm of the corporation.

Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Canadian Broadcasting Corporation'
Start a new discussion about 'Canadian Broadcasting Corporation'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 crown corporation that serves as the national public radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 and television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 broadcaster. Radio-Canada is the national French language broadcast arm of the corporation.

Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It is commercial free and offers both local and national programming...

, CBC Radio 2, Première Chaîne, Espace musique
Espace musique
Espace musique is the French-language music radio service of Canada's national public broadcaster, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation...

and the international radio service Radio Canada International
Radio Canada International
Radio Canada International is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation . Until 1970, it was known as the CBC International Service and was sometimes referred to as the "Voice of Canada" in its early years.- The early years :The idea for creating an...

. Television operations include CBC Television
CBC Television
CBC Television is a Canadian television network owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the national public broadcaster.Although the CBC is supported by public funding, the television network supplements this funding with commercial advertising revenue, in contrast to CBC Radio which are...

, Télévision de Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada is a Canadian French language television network. It is owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, known in French as Société Radio-Canada. Headquarters are at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal, which is also home to the network's flagship station, CBFT-DT...

, CBC News Network, le Réseau de l'information
Réseau de l'information
Réseau de l'information is a Canadian French language Category C news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. RDI began broadcasting on January 1, 1995, and is considered the French-language equivalent of the CBC News Network, also owned by the CBC....

, ARTV
ARTV
ARTV is a Canadian French language Category A specialty channel specializing in the arts and culture; including music, dance, theatre, visual arts as well as films and scripted television series.-History:...

 (part ownership), Documentary and Bold. The CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

 under the names CBC North
CBC North
CBC North is the name for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's radio and television service in the Canadian Arctic. Originally known as the CBC Northern Service, its first operations began in 1958 with radio broadcasts including the takeover of CFYK, originally a Royal Canadian Signal...

 and Radio Nord Québec. The CBC owns 20.2% of satellite radio
Satellite radio
Satellite radio is an analogue or digital radio signal that is relayed through one or more satellites and thus can be received in a much wider geographical area than terrestrial FM radio stations...

 broadcaster Canadian Satellite Radio Holdings
Sirius XM Canada
Sirius XM Canada is a Canadian radio broadcasting company, which operates as a Canadian affiliate of Sirius XM Radio. The company received approval from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission on April 11, 2011 to merge the formerly distinct XM Radio Canada and Sirius Canada...

, operator of Sirius Canada
Sirius Canada
Sirius Canada is a Canadian company, a partnership between Slaight Communications, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Sirius Satellite Radio, which was one of three services licensed by the CRTC on June 16, 2005 to introduce satellite radio service to Canada.On November 24, 2010, following...

 and XM Radio Canada
XM Radio Canada
XM Radio Canada was the operating name of Canadian Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. , a Canadian communications and media company, which was incorporated in 2002 to broadcast satellite radio in Canada...

, which airs additional CBC services including CBC Radio 3
CBC Radio 3
CBC Radio 3 is a radio station that consists of two parts devoted to Canadian arts and music: a radio service which is available on Sirius Satellite Radio and streaming audio, and several daily and weekly podcasts from the CBC Radio 3 website...

 and Bande à part
Bande à part (radio)
Bande à part is the name of a website and a Sirius Satellite Radio station in Canada that are devoted primarily to French Canadian arts and music....

.

CBC/Radio-Canada television stations are currently in the process of an over-the-air digital television transition. However, the transition will result in the loss of either or both CBC TV or Télévision de Radio-Canada over-the-air in many cities.

CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English, French and eight Aboriginal
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

 languages on its domestic radio service; in nine languages on its international radio service, Radio Canada International
Radio Canada International
Radio Canada International is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation . Until 1970, it was known as the CBC International Service and was sometimes referred to as the "Voice of Canada" in its early years.- The early years :The idea for creating an...

; and in eight languages on its Web-based radio service RCI Viva, a service for recent and aspiring immigrants to Canada.

The financial structure and the nature of the CBC often place it in the same category as other high-end national broadcasters, such as the British broadcaster BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

, although unlike the BBC (and more like the Irish network RTÉ
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the public service broadcaster of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television, radio and the Internet. The radio service began on January 1, 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on December 31, 1961, making...

), the CBC employs commercial advertising to supplement its federal funding on its television broadcasts. The radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974. Since then, its radio service, like the BBC, has been commercial-free.

History




In 1929, the Aird Commission
Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting
The Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting, otherwise known as the Aird Commission, was chaired by John Aird and examined Canada's broadcasting industry. The report released its findings in 1929 when it concluded that Canada was in need of a publicly funded radio broadcast system...

 on public broadcasting
Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.Public broadcasting may be...

 recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U.S.-based networks began to expand into Canada.
Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry
Graham Spry
- Further reading :*Babe, Robert. "Graham Spry" in Canadian Communications Thought: Ten Foundational Writers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7949-0.*McChesney, Robert W. , Canadian Journal of Communication 24....

 and Alan Plaunt
Alan Plaunt
Alan Butterworth Plaunt was a Canadian broadcasting pioneer, journalist and activist.The son of a wealthy lumber family, Plaunt attended the University of Toronto and University of Oxford and was a keen observer of the fledgling British Broadcasting Corporation while in Britain becoming a believer...

 lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League
Canadian Radio League
The Canadian Radio League was a public pressure group led by Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt to mobilize support for the establishment of public broadcasting in Canada...

. In 1932 the government of R.B. Bennett established the CBC’s predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission was Canada's first public broadcaster and the immediate precursor to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.-Origins:...

 (CRBC).

The CRBC took over a network of radio station
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

s formerly set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage primarily in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

. Leonard Brockington
Leonard Brockington
Leonard Walter Brockington, CMG, QC, LLD was a Canadian lawyer, civil servant, public figure, and the first head of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ....

 was the CBC’s first chairman.

For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada. This was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada. It began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960.

Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 (CBFT
CBFT
CBFT is the flagship station of Télévision de Radio-Canada, the French language television network of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Its studios and master control are located at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal....

), and a station in Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 (CBLT) opening two days later. The CBC’s first privately owned affiliate
Affiliate
An affiliate is a commercial entity with a relationship with a peer or a larger entity.- Corporate structure :A corporation may be referred to as an affiliate of another when it is related to it but not strictly controlled by it, as with a subsidiary relationship, or when it is desired to avoid...

 television station, CKSO
CICI-TV
CICI-TV is a Canadian television station, broadcasting in Sudbury, Ontario. It is an owned-and-operated station of the CTV Television Network, and is the flagship station of that network's system in northern Ontario, CTV Northern Ontario....

 in Sudbury, Ontario, launched in October 1953. (At the time, all private stations were expected to affiliate with the CBC, a condition that relaxed in 1960–61 with the launch of CTV
CTV television network
CTV Television Network is a Canadian English language television network and is owned by Bell Media. It is Canada's largest privately-owned network, and has consistently placed as Canada's top-rated network in total viewers and in key demographics since 2002, after several years trailing the rival...

.)

From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network
Trans-Canada Network
The Trans-Canada Network was the name assigned to the main English-language radio network of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation to distinguish it from the CBC's second network, the Dominion Network. Today, it is known as CBC Radio One...

 and the Dominion Network
Dominion Network
The Dominion Network was the second English-language radio network of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from January 1, 1944 to 1962.It consisted of the CBC-owned CJBC radio station in Toronto and a series of 34 privately owned affiliates from coast-to-coast...

. The latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio. (In the late 1990s, CBC Radio was rebranded as CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It is commercial free and offers both local and national programming...

 and CBC Stereo as CBC Radio Two. The latter was re-branded slightly in 2007 as CBC Radio 2.)

On July 1, 1958, CBC’s television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC’s own The Forest Rangers
The Forest Rangers
The Forest Rangers was a Canadian television series that ran from 1963 to 1965. It was a co-production between CBC Television and ITC Entertainment and was Canada's first television show produced in colour...

in 1963. However, colour television broadcasts did not begin until July 1, 1966, and full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north."

Frontier Coverage Package


Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day. The tapes were flown into communities to be shown, then transported to other communities, often by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication
Television syndication
In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations, without going through a broadcast network, though the process of syndication may conjure up structures like those of a network itself, by its very...

. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to almost a month for small communities.

The first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in 1967, the second in Whitehorse
Whitehorse, Yukon
Whitehorse is Yukon's capital and largest city . It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1476 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in...

 in 1968. Additional stations were added from 1969 to 1972. Most stations were fitted for the Anik satellite signal during 1973, carrying 12 hours of colour programming. Broadcasts were geared to either the Atlantic time zone (UTC−4 or −3) or the Pacific time zone (UTC−8 or −7) even though the audience resided in communities in time zones varying from UTC−5 to UTC−8.

Some of these stations used non-CBC callsigns such as CFWH-TV
CFWH-TV
CFWH-TV is the television call sign for the CBC's television station in Whitehorse, Yukon. Commencing transmissions on 26 November 1968, it was one of ultimately six Frontier Coverage Package stations in the Yukon; satellite delivery of colour television began on February 5,...

 in Whitehorse, while some others used the standard CB_T callsign.

It would be many years before television programs originated in the north without the help of the south, starting with one half-hour per week in the 1980s with Focus North and graduating to a daily half-hour newscast, Northbeat, in the late 1990s.

CBC Television slogans

  • 1966: "Television is CBC"
  • 1970 (ca.): "When you watch, watch the best"
  • 1977: "Bringing Canadians Together"
  • 1980: "We Are the CBC"
  • 1984: "Look to us for good things" (general) / "Good to Know" (news and public affairs)
  • 1986–1989: "The Best on the Box"
  • 1989–1992: "CBC and You"
  • 1992–1994: "Go Public" / "CBC: Public Broadcasting" (to emphasize the fact that CBC is a public broadcaster)
  • 1995–2001: "Television to Call Our Own" and "Radio to Call Our Own"
  • 2001–2007: "Canada’s Own"
  • 2007 to present: "Canada Lives Here"
  • 2009 to present: "Mon monde est à Radio-Canada, SRC" (English translation: My world is on Radio-Canada)
  • 2011: "Yours to Celebrate" (French: "Un Monde à Célébrer") (for the CBC's 75th anniversary)

Logos


The original logo of the CBC, designed by École des Beaux Arts student Hortense Binette and used between 1940 and 1958, featured a map of Canada and a thunderbolt design used to symbolize broadcasting.

In 1958, the CBC adopted a new logo for use at the end of network programs. Designed by scale model artist Jean-Paul Boileau, it consisted of the legends "CBC" and "Radio-Canada" overlaid on a map of Canada. For French programming, the "Radio-Canada" was placed on top.

The "Butterfly" logo was designed for the CBC by Hubert Tison in 1966 to mark the network’s progressing transition from black-and-white to colour television, much in the manner of the NBC peacock logo
NBC logos
The National Broadcasting Company has used several corporate logos over its history, yet the peacock is its most well known.-Microphone logo :...

. It was used at the beginning of programs broadcast in colour, and was used until all CBC television programs had successfully switched to colour. A sketch on the CBC Television program Wayne & Shuster once referred to this as the logo of the "Cosmic Butterfly Corporation."

The logo officially known internally as "the gem", was designed for the CBC by graphic artist Burton Kramer in 1974, and it is the most widely recognized symbol of the corporation. The main on-air identification featured the logo kaleidoscopically morphing into its form while radiating outward from the centre of the screen on a blue background. Some refer to this animated version as "The Exploding Pizza." The appearance of this logo marked the arrival of full-colour network television service. The large shape in the middle is the letter C, which stands for Canada, and the radiating parts of the C symbolize broadcasting. The original theme music for the 1974 CBC ident was a three-note woodwind orchestral fanfare accompanied by the voiceover "This is CBC" or "Ici Radio-Canada". This was later replaced by the more familiar 11-note synthesized jingle, which was used until December 31, 1985.

The updated one-colour version of the gem logo was introduced on January 1, 1986, and with it was introduced a new series of computer graphic-generated television idents for CBC and Radio-Canada. These idents consisted of different background colours corresponding to the time of day behind a translucent CBC gem logo, accompanied by different arrangements of the CBC’s new, orchestrated five-note jingle. The logo was officially changed to one colour, generally dark blue on white, or white on dark blue in 1986. Print ads and most television promos, however, have always used a single-colour version of this logo since 1974.

In 1992, CBC updated its logo design to make it simpler and more red (or white on a red background). The new logo design reduces the number of geometric sections in the logo to 13 instead of the previous logo's 25, and the "C" in the center of the logo became a simple red circle. Also, new television idents were introduced in November that year, also using CGI. Since the early 2000s, it has also appeared in white (sometimes red) on a textured or coloured background. It is now CBC/Radio-Canada's longest-used logo, surpassing the original incarnation of the Gem logo and the CBC's 1940 logo.

Nicknames


As the oldest currently operating Canadian broadcaster, and still the largest in terms of national availability of its various networks, the nickname "Mother Corp" and variants thereof are sometimes used in reference to the CBC.

A popular satirical nickname for the CBC, commonly used in the pages of Frank
Frank (magazine)
Frank is a bi-weekly Canadian scandal or satirical magazine published since 1987 in Halifax, Nova Scotia.A separate publication in Ottawa, Ontario, of the same name was published from 1989 to 2004 and then revived from 2005 to 2008...

, is "the Corpse."

There is an urban legend
Urban legend
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend, is a form of modern folklore consisting of stories that may or may not have been believed by their tellers to be true...

 that a CBC announcer once referred to the network on the air as the "Canadian Broadcorping Castration," which also sometimes remains in use as a satirical nickname. Quotations of the supposed spoonerism
Spoonerism
A spoonerism is an error in speech or deliberate play on words in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched . It is named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner , Warden of New College, Oxford, who was notoriously prone to this tendency...

 are wildly variable in detail on what was said, when it was said or even who the announcer was, but there is no evidence to confirm the truth of the story. The only known recording of this phrase being spoken was created by American radio producer Kermit Schaefer
Kermit Schaefer
Kermit Schafer was an American writer and producer for radio and television in the 1950s and 1960s. He is best known for his collections of "bloopers" — the word Schafer coined for mistakes and gaffes of radio and TV announcers and personalities.-Early bloopers:Bloopers came into prominence in...

 for one of his best-selling Pardon My Blooper
Blooper
A blooper, also known as an outtake or boner is a short sequence of a film or video production, usually a deleted scene, containing a mistake made by a member of the cast or crew. It also refers to an error made during a live radio or TV broadcast or news report, usually in terms of misspoken words...

record albums in the 1950s, and is not in fact a real recording of a CBC broadcast.

Some have referred to the CBC as the "Corporate Broadcasting Corporation" for an alleged free market
Free market
A free market is a competitive market where prices are determined by supply and demand. However, the term is also commonly used for markets in which economic intervention and regulation by the state is limited to tax collection, and enforcement of private ownership and contracts...

 bias, though the CBC is largely publicly funded.

The CBC has also been mistakenly referred to as the Canadian Broadcasting Company.

Mandate


The 1991 Broadcasting Act states that...

...the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, as the national public broadcaster, should provide radio and television services incorporating a wide range of programming that informs, enlightens and entertains;

...the programming provided by the Corporation should:
  • be predominantly and distinctively Canadian,
  • reflect Canada and its regions to national and regional audiences, while serving the special needs of those regions,
  • actively contribute to the flow and exchange of cultural expression,
  • be in English and in French, reflecting the different needs and circumstances of each official language community, including the particular needs and circumstances of English and French linguistic minorities,
  • strive to be of equivalent quality in English and French,
  • contribute to shared national consciousness and identity,
  • be made available throughout Canada by the most appropriate and efficient means and as resources become available for the purpose, and
  • reflect the multicultural and multiracial nature of Canada.


Management


As a crown corporation, the CBC operates at arm’s length (autonomously) from the government in its day-to-day business. The corporation is governed by the Broadcasting Act of 1991, under a Board of Directors and is directly responsible to Parliament through the Department of Canadian Heritage
Department of Canadian Heritage
The Department of Canadian Heritage, or simply Canadian Heritage |department]] of the Government of Canada with responsibility for policies and programs regarding the arts, culture, media, communications networks, official languages , status of women, sports , and multiculturalism...

. General management of the organization is in the hands of a president, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canada
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

 in Council
Queen-in-Council
The Queen-in-Council is, in each of the Commonwealth realms, the technical term of constitutional law that refers to the exercise of executive authority, denoting the monarch acting by and with the advice and consent of his or her privy council or executive council The Queen-in-Council (during...

, on the advice
Advice (constitutional)
Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another. Especially in parliamentary systems of government, Heads of state often act on the basis of advice issued by prime ministers or other government ministers...

 of the prime minister.

Board of Directors


In accordance with the Broadcasting Act, the Board of Directors is responsible for the management of the Corporation. The Board is made up of 12 members, including the Chair and the President and CEO. As of November 2009, the board consists of the following members:
  • Timothy Casgrain – Chair, Board of Directors; Toronto, Ontario.
  • Hubert Lacroix
    Hubert Lacroix
    Hubert T. Lacroix is a Canadian lawyer and the President and CEO of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , the national public radio and television broadcaster....

     – President and CEO; Montreal, Quebec.
  • Linda Black – member, Law Enforcement Review Board of Alberta; Calgary, Alberta.
  • George Cooper – senior partner, McInnes Cooper; Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Joseph Handley – former premier of the Northwest Territories; Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.
  • Peter Herrndorf
    Peter Herrndorf
    Peter A. Herrndorf, OC, O.Ont is a Canadian lawyer and media businessman. He is the president and chief executive officer of the National Arts Centre....

     – President and CEO, National Arts Centre
    National Arts Centre
    The National Arts Centre is a centre for the performing arts located in Ottawa, Ontario, between Elgin Street and the Rideau Canal...

    ; Ottawa, Ontario.
  • Patricia McIver – chartered accountant with Richardson Partners; Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Trina McQueen – professor of Broadcast Management, Schulich School of Business
    Schulich School of Business
    The Schulich School of Business is York University's business school located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and is an internationally-ranked business school. Schulich offers undergraduate and graduate programs in business administration, finance, public administration and international business as...

    , York University
    York University
    York University is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is Canada's third-largest university, Ontario's second-largest graduate school, and Canada's leading interdisciplinary university....

    ; Toronto, Ontario.
  • Brian Mitchell – managing partner, Mitchell Gattuso; Montreal, Quebec
  • Rémi Racine – chairman and CEO, Artificial Mind & Movement; Montreal, Quebec.
  • Edna Turpin – educator; St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • John Fitzgerald Young – Dean of the College of Arts, Social and Health Sciences at the University of Northern British Columbia, Senior Fellow at the International Center for Law and Religion Studies at Brigham Young University.

Presidents

  • 1936–1939: Leonard Brockington
    Leonard Brockington
    Leonard Walter Brockington, CMG, QC, LLD was a Canadian lawyer, civil servant, public figure, and the first head of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ....

  • 1940–1944: René Morin
    René Morin
    Louis-Simon-René Morin was head of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation during World War II from 1940 to 1944, and was the first francophone to head of the CBC....

  • 1944–1945: Howard B. Chase
    Howard B. Chase
    Howard B. Chase was chairman of the Board of Governors of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1944 to 1945.-References:...

  • 1945–1958: A. Davidson Dunton
    Arnold Davidson Dunton
    Arnold Davidson Dunton, was a Canadian educator and public administrator.He was educated at Lower Canada College, Montréal, and at universities in Canada, France, Britain, and Germany. He worked as a reporter on the Montreal Star 1935-37, as associate editor 1937-38, and was editor of the...

  • 1958–1967: J. Alphonse Ouimet
  • 1968–1972: George F. Davidson
    George Forrester Davidson
    George Forrester Davidson, was a Canadian civil servant and president of the CBC.Born in Bass River, Nova Scotia, he graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1928 and earned a Ph.D. in classical studies from Harvard University in 1932...

  • 1972–1975: Laurent A. Picard
    Laurent Picard
    Laurent A. Picard, CC is a French-Canadian businessman and former President of the CBC, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.Born in Quebec City, Quebec, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree as well as a Bachelor of Philosophy degree in 1947 from Université Laval...

  • 1975–1982: A.W. Johnson
  • 1982–1989: Pierre Juneau
    Pierre Juneau
    Pierre Juneau, PC, OC, born , is a retired film and broadcast executive and one-time member of the Canadian Cabinet.He was born in Verdun, now part of Montreal, to a working class family...

  • 1989: William T. Armstrong
    William T. Armstrong
    William T. Armstrong was president of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from August to October 1989 following the retirement of Pierre Juneau. He served within CBC for 33 years and retired in 1992...

  • 1989–1994: Gérard Veilleux
    Gérard Veilleux
    Gérard Veilleux, OC was president of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1989 to 1993. He became president of Power Communications in 1994....

  • 1994–1995: Anthony S. Manera
    Anthony S. Manera
    Anthony Manera was President of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1993 to 1995. He joined the CBC as vice-president of human resources in 1985 and was appointed Senior Vice President in 1986....

  • 1995–1999: Perrin Beatty
    Perrin Beatty
    Henry Perrin Beatty, PC is a corporate executive and former Canadian politician.Perrin Beatty first won election to the Canadian House of Commons as a Progressive Conservative at the age of 22 in the 1972 election....

  • 1999–2007: Robert Rabinovitch
    Robert Rabinovitch
    Robert Rabinovitch is a Canadian public servant and businessman, and he served as the President and CEO of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1999 to 2007....

  • 2008 to Present: Hubert T. Lacroix

Ombudsmen


English
  • Kirk LaPointe (October 2011 to present)
  • Vince Carlin
    Vince Carlin
    Vincent A. Carlin is a retired Canadian civil servant. He was the ombudsman of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from January 2006 to December 2010, serving a five year term with the Corporation. Carlin has since been succeeded by Mr. Kirk Lapointe....

     (January 2006 to present)
  • David Bazay
    David Bazay
    David J. Bazay was a Canadian journalist for the CBC and later the English language ombudsman. He was scheduled to retire in November 2005 and was succeeded upon his death by Vincent A. Carlin....

     (1995 to January 2006)
  • William Morgan


French
  • Julie Miville-Dechêne
    Julie Miville-Dechêne
    Julie Miville-Dechêne is a Canadian civil servant. She is the current ombudsman of Radio-Canada, from April 1, 2007, to July 31th, 2011.-External links:*...

     (April 1, 2007 to present)
  • Renaud Gilbert (2000–2007)
  • Marcel Pépin (1997–1999)
  • Mario Cardinal (1993–1997)
  • Bruno Gauron (1992)

Finance


For the fiscal year 2006, the CBC received a total of $1.53 billion from all revenue sources, including government funding via taxpayers, subscription fees, advertising revenue, and other revenue (e.g. real estate). Expenditures for the year included $616 million for English television, $402 million for French television, $126 million for specialty channels, a total of $348 million for radio services in both languages, $88 million for management and technical costs, and $124 million for "amortization
Amortization (business)
In business, amortization refers to spreading payments over multiple periods. The term is used for two separate processes: amortization of loans and amortization of intangible assets.-Amortization of loans:...

 of property and equipment." Some of this spending was derived from amortization of funding from previous years.

Among its revenue sources for the year ending March 31, 2006, the CBC received $946 million in its annual funding from the federal government, as well as $60 million in "one-time" supplementary funding for programming. However, this supplementary funding has been repeated annually for a number of years. This combined total is just over a billion dollars annually and is a source of heated debate. To supplement this funding, the CBC’s television networks and websites sell advertising, while cable/satellite-only services such as CBC News Network additionally collect subscriber fees, in line with their privately owned counterparts. CBC’s radio services do not sell advertising except when required by law (for example, to political parties during federal elections).

CBC’s funding differs from that of the public broadcasters of many European nations, which collect a licence fee
Television licence
A television licence is an official licence required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts...

, or those in the United States, such as PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 and NPR
NPR
NPR, formerly National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States. NPR was created in 1970, following congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting...

, which receive some public funding but rely to a large extent on voluntary contributions from individual viewers and listeners. An Abacus poll from August 2011 showed that approximately one out of two Canadians would like to see the CBC's funding switched to the PBS/NPR model, while one out of three Canadians want Parliament to sell off or privatize the CBC. On the other hand, one out of four Canadians want the CBC's annual subsidy to be increased.

The network’s defenders note that the CBC’s mandate differs from private media’s, particularly in its focus on Canadian content; that much of the public funding actually goes to the radio networks; and that the CBC is responsible for the full cost of most of its prime-time programming, while private networks can fill up most of their prime-time schedules with American series acquired for a fraction of their production cost. CBC supporters also claim that additional, long-term funding is required to provide better Canadian dramas and improved local programming.

News



CBC News is the largest broadcast newsgathering operation in Canada, providing services to CBC radio as well as CBC News Network, local supper-hour newscasts, CBC News Online, and Air Canada
Air Canada
Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a...

’s in-flight entertainment. New CBC News services are also proving popular such as news alerts to mobile phones and PDAs. Desktop news alerts, e-mail alerts, and digital television alerts are also available.

Radio



CBC Radio has four separate services, two in English, known as CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It is commercial free and offers both local and national programming...

 and CBC Radio 2, and two in French, known as Première Chaîne and Espace musique
Espace musique
Espace musique is the French-language music radio service of Canada's national public broadcaster, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation...

. CBC Radio One and Première Chaîne focus on news
News
News is the communication of selected information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience.- Etymology :...

 and information programming, but they air some music programs, variety shows, comedy, and sports programming. Historically, CBC Radio One has broadcast primarily on the AM band, but many stations have moved over to FM. Over the years, a number of CBC radio transmitters with a majority of them on the AM band have either moved to FM or had shutdown completely. CBC Radio 2 and Espace musique, found exclusively on FM, air arts and cultural programming, with a focus on music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

.

CBC Radio also operates two shortwave
Shortwave
Shortwave radio refers to the upper MF and all of the HF portion of the radio spectrum, between 1,800–30,000 kHz. Shortwave radio received its name because the wavelengths in this band are shorter than 200 m which marked the original upper limit of the medium frequency band first used...

 services. One, Radio Nord Québec, broadcasts domestically to Northern Quebec on a static frequency of 9625 kHz, and the other, Radio Canada International
Radio Canada International
Radio Canada International is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation . Until 1970, it was known as the CBC International Service and was sometimes referred to as the "Voice of Canada" in its early years.- The early years :The idea for creating an...

, provides broadcasts to the United States and around the world in eight languages. Additionally, the Radio One stations in St. John’s and Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

 operate shortwave relay transmitters, broadcasting at 6160 kHz. Some have suggested that CBC/Radio-Canada create a new high-power shortwave digital
Digital Radio Mondiale
Digital Radio Mondiale is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcasting, particularly shortwave...

 radio service for more effective coverage of isolated areas.

In November 2004, the CBC, in partnership with Standard Broadcasting
Standard Broadcasting
Slaight Communications is a Canadian radio broadcasting company. The company was first formed as Slaight Broadcasting in 1971, when owner J. Allan Slaight acquired CFGM in Richmond Hill...

 and Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio is a satellite radio service operating in North America, owned by Sirius XM Radio.Headquartered in New York City, with smaller studios in Los Angeles and Memphis, Sirius was officially launched on July 1, 2002 and currently provides 69 streams of music and 65 streams of...

, applied to the CRTC for a license to introduce satellite radio
Satellite radio
Satellite radio is an analogue or digital radio signal that is relayed through one or more satellites and thus can be received in a much wider geographical area than terrestrial FM radio stations...

 service to Canada. The CRTC approved the subscription radio application, as well as two others for satellite radio service, on June 16, 2005. Sirius Canada
Sirius Canada
Sirius Canada is a Canadian company, a partnership between Slaight Communications, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Sirius Satellite Radio, which was one of three services licensed by the CRTC on June 16, 2005 to introduce satellite radio service to Canada.On November 24, 2010, following...

 launched on December 1, 2005, with a number of CBC Radio channels, including the new services CBC Radio 3
CBC Radio 3
CBC Radio 3 is a radio station that consists of two parts devoted to Canadian arts and music: a radio service which is available on Sirius Satellite Radio and streaming audio, and several daily and weekly podcasts from the CBC Radio 3 website...

 and Bande à part
Bande à part (radio)
Bande à part is the name of a website and a Sirius Satellite Radio station in Canada that are devoted primarily to French Canadian arts and music....

.

In some areas, especially national or provincial parks, the CBC also operates an AM or FM transmitter rebroadcasting weather alerts from the Meteorological Service of Canada
Meteorological Service of Canada
The Meteorological Service of Canada , also known as "The Canadian Weather Service", is a division of Environment Canada, which primarily provides public meteorological information and weather forecasts and warnings of severe weather and other environmental hazards...

’s Weatheradio Canada
Weatheradio Canada
Weatheradio Canada, in French Radiométéo Canada, is a Canadian radio network that broadcasts weather information. Owned and operated by Environment Canada's Meteorological Service of Canada division, the network transmits in both official languages from 199 sites across Canada.In most locations,...

 service.

Television



The CBC operates two national broadcast television networks; CBC Television
CBC Television
CBC Television is a Canadian television network owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the national public broadcaster.Although the CBC is supported by public funding, the television network supplements this funding with commercial advertising revenue, in contrast to CBC Radio which are...

 in English, and la Télévision de Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada is a Canadian French language television network. It is owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, known in French as Société Radio-Canada. Headquarters are at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal, which is also home to the network's flagship station, CBFT-DT...

in French. Like private broadcasters, both those networks sell advertising, but offer more Canadian-produced programming. Most CBC television stations, including those in the major cities, are owned and operated by the CBC itself and carry a common schedule, aside from local programming.

Some stations that broadcast from smaller cities are private affiliate
Affiliate
An affiliate is a commercial entity with a relationship with a peer or a larger entity.- Corporate structure :A corporation may be referred to as an affiliate of another when it is related to it but not strictly controlled by it, as with a subsidiary relationship, or when it is desired to avoid...

s of the CBC, that is, stations which are owned by commercial broadcasters and air a predominantly CBC schedule. However, most affiliates of the English network opt out of some network programs to air local programming or more popular foreign programs acquired from other broadcasters. Private affiliates of the French network, all of which are located in Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, rarely have the means to provide alternate programming. Such private affiliates are becoming increasingly rare, and there have been indications that the CBC plans to discontinue all affiliation agreements with non-CBC owned television stations in the 2010s.

CBC television stations in Nunavut
Nunavut
Nunavut is the largest and newest federal territory of Canada; it was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the actual boundaries had been established in 1993...

, the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada.Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, and three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, and Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south...

 and Yukon
Yukon
Yukon is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three federal territories. It was named after the Yukon River. The word Yukon means "Great River" in Gwich’in....

 tailor their programming mostly to the local native population, and broadcast in many native languages, such as Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Inuktitut or Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian Inuit language is the name of some of the Inuit languages spoken in Canada...

, Gwichʼin, and Dene
Dene
The Dene are an aboriginal group of First Nations who live in the northern boreal and Arctic regions of Canada. The Dené speak Northern Athabaskan languages. Dene is the common Athabaskan word for "people" . The term "Dene" has two usages...

.

One of the most popular shows is the weekly Saturday night broadcast of NHL
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 games. In English, the program is known as Hockey Night in Canada
Hockey Night in Canada
Hockey Night in Canada is the branding used for CBC Sports' presentations of the National Hockey League...

, and in French, it was called La Soirée du hockey
La Soirée du hockey
La Soirée du hockey was a popular ice hockey show in Quebec. It was the French language SRC equivalent of the English Canadian CBC show Hockey Night in Canada...

. Both shows began in 1952. The French edition was discontinued in 2004, though Radio-Canada stations outside of Quebec simulcast some Saturday night games produced by RDS
Réseau des sports
Réseau des sports , is a Canadian French language Category C specialty channel showing sports and sport-related shows. It is available in 2.5 million homes, and is owned by CTV Specialty Television Inc....

 until 2006. The network suffered considerable public embarrassment when it lost the rights to the show's theme music following a protracted lawsuit launched by the song's composer and publishers.

Ratings for CBC Television have declined in recent years. In Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, where the majority speaks French, la Télévision de Radio-Canada is popular and garners some of the highest ratings in the province.

Both terrestrial networks have also begun to roll out high-definition television
High-definition television
High-definition television is video that has resolution substantially higher than that of traditional television systems . HDTV has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD...

 feeds, with selected NHL and CFL
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

 games produced in HD for the English network.

The CBC also operates three specialty television channels – CBC News Network, an English-language news channel; RDI
Réseau de l'information
Réseau de l'information is a Canadian French language Category C news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. RDI began broadcasting on January 1, 1995, and is considered the French-language equivalent of the CBC News Network, also owned by the CBC....

, a French-language news channel; and Bold, a Category 1 digital service. It owns a managing interest in the Francophone arts service ARTV
ARTV
ARTV is a Canadian French language Category A specialty channel specializing in the arts and culture; including music, dance, theatre, visual arts as well as films and scripted television series.-History:...

, and (82%) of the digital channel, Documentary

Online



The CBC has two main websites. One is in English, at CBC.ca
CBC.ca
CBC.ca is the English-language online service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It was introduced in 1996. Under its previous names, the CBC's online service first went live in 1993....

, which was established in 1996; the other is in French. The website allows the CBC to produce sections which complement the various programs on television and radio.

Merchandising


Established in 2002, the CBC/Radio Canada merchandising business operates retail locations and cbcshop.ca, its educational sales department CBC Learning sells CBC content and media to educational institutions, CBC Merchandising also licenses brands such as Hockey Night in Canada
Hockey Night in Canada
Hockey Night in Canada is the branding used for CBC Sports' presentations of the National Hockey League...

and Coronation Street
Coronation Street
Coronation Street is a British soap opera set in Weatherfield, a fictional town in Greater Manchester based on Salford. Created by Tony Warren, Coronation Street was first broadcast on 9 December 1960...

.

Interactive television


CBC provides viewers with interactive on demand television programs every year through digital-cable
Digital cable
Digital cable is a generic term for any type of cable television distribution using digital video compression or distribution. The technology was originally developed by Motorola.-Background:...

 services like Rogers Cable
Rogers Cable
Rogers Cable Inc., a subsidiary of Rogers Communications Inc., is Canada's largest cable television service provider with about 2.25 million television customers, and over 930,000 Internet subscribers, in Manitoba, Southern & Eastern Ontario, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador.The...

.

Commercial services


CBC Records
CBC Records
CBC Records is a Canadian record label, owned and operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, which distributes CBC programming, including live concert performances in album and digital format....

 is a Canadian record label which distributes CBC programming, including live concert performances and album transcripts of news and information programming such as the Massey Lectures
Massey Lectures
The Massey Lectures are an annual week-long series of lectures on a political, cultural or philosophical topic given in Canada by a noted scholar. They were created in 1961 to honour Vincent Massey, Governor General of Canada...

, in album format. Music albums on the label, predominantly in the classical and jazz genres, are distributed across Canada in commercial record stores, while albums containing spoken word programming are predominantly distributed by the CBC's own retail merchandising operations.

Miscellaneous


CBC provides news, business, weather and sports information on Air Canada
Air Canada
Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a...

’s inflight entertainment as Enroute Journal.

Unions


Unions representing employees at CBC/Radio-Canada include:
  • Canadian Media Guild
    Canadian Media Guild
    The Canadian Media Guild is a trade union representing employees at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , the Canadian Press, Thomson Reuters, Agence France-Presse, S-Vox, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, CW Television, CJRC Radio in Gatineau, Que., and TVOntario.It is a local of The...

     (CMG) represents on-air, production, technical, administrative and support staff outside of Quebec and Moncton.
  • Association of Professionals and Supervisors (APS).
  • American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada
    American Federation of Musicians
    The American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada is a labor union of professional musicians in the United States and Canada...

     (AFM).
  • Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and Radio Artists (performers; ACTRA).
  • International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes
    International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes
    The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, or I.A.T.S.E., is a labor union representing technicians, artisans and craftspersons in the entertainment industry, including live theatre, motion...

     (stagehands; IATSE).
  • Writers Guild of Canada
    Writers Guild of Canada
    The Writers Guild of Canada represents more than 1,800 professional writers working in film, television, radio, and multimedia production in Canada...

     (WGC).
  • Association des réalisateurs (AR).
  • Syndicat des communications de Radio-Canada (SCRC).
  • Société des auteurs de la radio, de la télévision et du cinéma (SARTeC).
  • Syndicat Canadien de la fonction publique, Conseil des sections locales, Groupe des employé(e)s de bureau et professionnel(le)s (SCFP).
  • Société professionnelle des auteurs-compositeurs du Québec (SPACQ).
  • Syndicat des technicien(ne)s et des artisan(e)s du réseau français (STARF).
  • Union des artistes (UDA).

Labour issues


During the summer of 1981 there was a major disruption of CBC programming as the technicians union, N.A.B.E.T. (National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians) went on strike. Local newscasts were cut back to the bare minimum. This had the effect of delaying the debut of The Journal, which had to wait until January 1982.

On August 15, 2005, 5,500 employees of the CBC (about 90%) were locked out by CBC CEO Robert Rabinovitch
Robert Rabinovitch
Robert Rabinovitch is a Canadian public servant and businessman, and he served as the President and CEO of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1999 to 2007....

 in a dispute over future hiring practices. At issue were the rules governing the hiring of contract workers in preference to full time hires. The locked-out employees were members of the Canadian Media Guild
Canadian Media Guild
The Canadian Media Guild is a trade union representing employees at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , the Canadian Press, Thomson Reuters, Agence France-Presse, S-Vox, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, CW Television, CJRC Radio in Gatineau, Que., and TVOntario.It is a local of The...

, representing all production, journalistic and on-air personnel outside Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 and Moncton, including several foreign correspondents. While CBC services continued during the lockout, they were primarily made up of repeats, with news programming from the BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 and newswires. Major CBC programs such as The National and Royal Canadian Air Farce were not produced during the lockout; some non-CBC-owned programs seen on the network, such as The Red Green Show
The Red Green Show
The Red Green Show is a Canadian television comedy that aired on various channels in Canada, with its ultimate home at CBC Television, and on Public Broadcasting Service stations in the United States, from 1991 until the series finale April 7, 2006 on CBC...

, shifted to other studios. Meanwhile, the locked-out employees produced podcasts and websites such as CBCunplugged.com, which many credited with swaying public opinion to the union’s side.

After a hiatus, talks re-opened. In addition, the Canadian public was becoming irritated with the loss of quality of their publicly funded service. On September 23, the federal minister of labour
Joe Fontana
Joseph Frank "Joe" Fontana, PC is the current mayor of London, Ontario. He was previously a Liberal member of the Parliament of Canada for the riding of London North Centre....

 called Robert Rabinovitch and Arnold Amber (the president of the CBC branch of the Canadian Media Guild
Canadian Media Guild
The Canadian Media Guild is a trade union representing employees at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , the Canadian Press, Thomson Reuters, Agence France-Presse, S-Vox, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, CW Television, CJRC Radio in Gatineau, Que., and TVOntario.It is a local of The...

) to his office for talks aimed at ending the dispute.

Late in the evening of October 2, 2005, it was announced that the CBC management and staff had reached a tentative deal which resulted in the CBC returning to normal operations on October 11. Some speculated that the looming October 8 start date for the network’s most important television property, Hockey Night in Canada
Hockey Night in Canada
Hockey Night in Canada is the branding used for CBC Sports' presentations of the National Hockey League...

, had acted as an additional incentive to resolve the dispute.

The CBC has been affected by a number of other labour disputes since the late 1990s:
  • In early 1999, CBC English- and French-network technicians in all locations outside Quebec
    Quebec
    Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

     and Moncton, members of the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada
    Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada
    See also Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol SCEPCommunications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada, abbreviated CEP in English and SCEP in French, is a largely private sector labour union with 150,000 members...

    , went on strike. The Canadian Media Guild
    Canadian Media Guild
    The Canadian Media Guild is a trade union representing employees at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation , the Canadian Press, Thomson Reuters, Agence France-Presse, S-Vox, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, CW Television, CJRC Radio in Gatineau, Que., and TVOntario.It is a local of The...

     was set to strike as well, but the CBC settled with both unions.
  • A similar dispute, again involving all technicians outside Quebec and Moncton, occurred in late 2001 and concluded by the end of the year.
  • In spring 2002, on-air staff in Quebec and Moncton (again, on both English and French networks) were locked out by local management, leaving, among other things, NHL playoff games without commentary on French television.


While all labour disputes resulted in cut-back programming and numerous repeat airings, the 2005 lockout may have been the most damaging to CBC. All local programming in the affected regions was cancelled and replaced by abbreviated national newscasts and national radio morning shows. BBC World
BBC World
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel. It has the largest audience of any BBC channel in the world...

 (television) and World Service
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service is the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasting in 27 languages to many parts of the world via analogue and digital shortwave, internet streaming and podcasting, satellite, FM and MW relays...

 (radio) and Broadcast News feeds were used to provide the remainder of original news content, and the CBC website consisted mainly of rewritten wire copy. Some BBC staff protested against their material being used during the CBC lockout. "The NUJ
National Union of Journalists
The National Union of Journalists is a trade union for journalists in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. It was founded in 1907 and has 38,000 members. It is a member of the International Federation of Journalists .-Structure:...

 and BECTU will not tolerate their members’ work being used against colleagues in Canada," said a joint statement by BBC unions. The CMG questioned whether, with its limited Canadian news content, the CBC was meeting its legal requirements under the Broadcasting Act and its CRTC licences.

Galaxie (which CBC owned at the time) supplied some music content for the radio networks. Tapes of previously-aired or produced documentaries, interviews and entertainment programs were also aired widely. Selected television sports coverage, including that of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

, continued, but without commentary.

As before, French-language staff outside of Quebec were also affected by the 2005 lockout, although with Quebec producing the bulk of the French networks’ programming, those networks were not as visibly affected by the dispute apart from local programs.

Cultural significance


Since the 1970s, the CBC has not maintained the dominance in broadcasting it formerly had, but it still plays an important role. The CBC’s cultural influence, like that of many public broadcasters, has waned in recent decades. This is partly due to severe budget cuts by the Canadian federal government, which began in the late 1980s and levelled off in the late 1990s. It is also due to industry-wide fragmentation of television audiences (the decline of network television generally, due to the rise in specialty channel viewership, as well as the increase of non-television entertainment options such as video games, the Internet, etc.). Private networks in Canada face the same competition, but their viewership is declining more slowly than CBC Television’s.

In English-speaking Canada, the decline in CBC viewership can be partly attributed to the fact that private television networks primarily rebroadcast popular American programming with substituted Canadian advertising. American programs appear to attract higher audiences than do much of the made-in-Canada programming that is a CBC specialty.

Viewership on the CBC’s French television network has also declined, mostly because of stiff competition from private French-language networks. Audience fragmentation is another issue; French Canadian
French Canadian
French Canadian or Francophone Canadian, , generally refers to the descendents of French colonists who arrived in New France in the 17th and 18th centuries...

s prefer home-grown television programming, a vibrant Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 star system is in place, and little American or foreign content airs on French-language networks, public or private. On the other hand, the CBC’s French-language radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 channel is sometimes the top-rated
Audience measurement
Audience measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites...

 network.

In the case of breaking news, including federal elections, the CBC may still hold a slight edge. For instance, after election night 2006
Canadian federal election, 2006
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, and 36.3% of votes:...

, CBC Television took out full-page newspaper ads claiming that 2.2 million Canadians watched their coverage, more than any other broadcaster. However, in similar ads, CTV also claimed to be number one, stating there was a CBC audience of only 1.2 million. In both cases, the methodologies were not clear from the ads, such as whether simulcasts on one or both of the networks’ news channels (Newsworld for CBC, Newsnet for CTV) were counted.

The CBC was the only television network broadcasting in Canada until the creation of ITO, a short-lived predecessor of today’s CTV
CTV television network
CTV Television Network is a Canadian English language television network and is owned by Bell Media. It is Canada's largest privately-owned network, and has consistently placed as Canada's top-rated network in total viewers and in key demographics since 2002, after several years trailing the rival...

, in 1960; even then, large parts of Canada did not receive CTV service until the late 1960s or early 1970s. The CBC also had the only national radio network. Its cultural impact was therefore significant since many Canadians had little or no choice for their information and entertainment other than from these two powerful media.

Even after the advent of commercial television and radio, the CBC has remained one of the main elements in Canadian popular culture through its obligation to produce Canadian television and radio programming. The CBC has made programs for mass audiences and for smaller audiences interested in drama, performance arts, documentaries, current affairs, entertainment and sport.

The 1950s saw the CBC providing hands-on training and employment for actors, writers, and directors in the developing field of its television dramatic services, and later saw much of the talent heading south to seek fame and fortune in New York and Hollywood.

Competition from private broadcasters like CTV
CTV television network
CTV Television Network is a Canadian English language television network and is owned by Bell Media. It is Canada's largest privately-owned network, and has consistently placed as Canada's top-rated network in total viewers and in key demographics since 2002, after several years trailing the rival...

, Global
Global Television Network
Global Television Network is an English language privately owned television network in Canada, owned by Calgary-based Shaw Communications, as part of its Shaw Media division...

, and other broadcast television stations and specialty channels has lessened the CBC’s reach, but nevertheless it remains a major influence on Canadian popular culture. According to the corporation’s research, 92% of Canadians consider the CBC an essential service.

Newsworld International


From 1994 to 2000, the CBC, in a venture with Power Broadcasting
Power Corporation of Canada
Power Corporation of Canada is a Canadian company with assets in North America and Europe in a number of industries. These industries include media, pulp and paper, and financial services....

 (former owner of CKWS
CKWS-TV
CKWS is an affiliate of the CBC Television Network in Kingston, Ontario, providing coverage to Eastern Ontario from Campbellford to Morrisburg and from Perth to Oswego, New York in the United States....

 in Kingston
Kingston, Ontario
Kingston, Ontario is a Canadian city located in Eastern Ontario where the St. Lawrence River flows out of Lake Ontario. Originally a First Nations settlement called "Katarowki," , growing European exploration in the 17th Century made it an important trading post...

), jointly owned two networks:
  1. Newsworld International
    Newsworld International
    Newsworld International was a cable TV news channel broadcasting in the United States, whose content contained a mix of Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and other international newscasts. The channel reached about 20 million homes and provided its audience with the news from a variety of global...

     (NWI), an American cable channel that rebroadcast much of the programming of CBC Newsworld (now known as CBC News Network).
  2. Trio, an arts and entertainment channel.


In 2000, CBC and Power Broadcasting sold these channels to Barry Diller
Barry Diller
Barry Charles Diller is the Chairman and Senior Executive of IAC/InterActiveCorp and the media executive responsible for the creation of Fox Broadcasting Company and USA Broadcasting.-Early life:...

’s USA Networks. Diller’s company was later acquired by Vivendi Universal, which in turn was partially acquired by NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 to form NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBCUniversal Media, LLC is a media and entertainment company engaged in the production and marketing of entertainment, news, and information products and services to a global customer base...

. NBC Universal still owns the Trio brand, which no longer has any association with the CBC (and, as of the end of 2005, became an Internet-only broadband channel).

However, the CBC continued to program NWI, with much of its programming simulcast on the domestic Newsworld service. In late 2004, as a result of a further change in NWI’s ownership to the INdTV consortium (including Joel Hyatt
Joel Hyatt
Joel Z. Hyatt is a prominent businessman and former attorney and American politician of the Democratic party. He is the founder of Hyatt Legal Services, and was featured in the law firm's television commercials speaking the slogan, "I'm Joel Hyatt and you have my word on it."Hyatt graduated from...

 and former Vice-President of the United States Al Gore
Al Gore
Albert Arnold "Al" Gore, Jr. served as the 45th Vice President of the United States , under President Bill Clinton. He was the Democratic Party's nominee for President in the 2000 U.S. presidential election....

), NWI ceased airing CBC programming on August 1, 2005, when it was renamed Current TV
Current TV
Current TV, or Current, is a media company led by former U.S. Vice President Al Gore and businessman Joel Hyatt. Comcast owns a ten percent stake of Current's parent company, Current Media LLC....

.

U.S. border audiences


In U.S. border communities such as Bellingham
Bellingham, Washington
Bellingham is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Whatcom County in the U.S. state of Washington. It is the twelfth-largest city in the state. Situated on Bellingham Bay, Bellingham is protected by Lummi Island, Portage Island, and the Lummi Peninsula, and opens onto the Strait of Georgia...

, Seattle, Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

, Detroit and Burlington
Burlington, Vermont
Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the shire town of Chittenden County. Burlington lies south of the U.S.-Canadian border and some south of Montreal....

, CBC radio and television stations can be received over-the-air
Terrestrial television
Terrestrial television is a mode of television broadcasting which does not involve satellite transmission or cables — typically using radio waves through transmitting and receiving antennas or television antenna aerials...

 and have a significant audience. Some CBC programming is also rebroadcast on local radio, such as New Hampshire Public Radio
New Hampshire Public Radio
New Hampshire Public Radio is a public radio network serving the state of New Hampshire. NHPR is based in Concord and operates seven transmitters and six translators covering nearly the whole state. All signals carry the same programming, which comprises news and talk shows on weekdays and a mix...

. CBC television channels are available on cable systems located near the Canadian border. For example, CBET
CBET
CBET, channel 9, is the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's owned-and-operated television station in Windsor, Ontario. The station's signal also covers the Detroit, Michigan area across the international border in the United States, and is counted as a Detroit station for the purposes of...

 Windsor
Windsor, Ontario
Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and is located in Southwestern Ontario at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. It is within Essex County, Ontario, although administratively separated from the county government. Separated by the Detroit River, Windsor...

 is available on cable systems in the Detroit, Michigan, and Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

, areas. CBUT
CBUT
CBUT-DT is the CBC's television station in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and the flagship CBC Television station for the Pacific Time Zone. The station transmits its main terrestrial signal from a tower atop Mount Seymour....

 is broadcast on Comcast in the Seattle, Washington, area. At night, the AM radio transmissions of both CBC and SRC services can be received over much of the northern portion of the United States, from stations such as CBW
CBW (AM)
CBW is the callsign of the CBC Radio One station in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The station broadcasts at AM 990, and this frequency functions as a Class A clear channel under former North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement allocations.-History:...

 in Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers .The name...

 and CBK
CBK (AM)
CBK is a Canadian clear-channel station, broadcasting the CBC Radio One network at 540 AM to most of southern Saskatchewan. The AM transmitter is located in Watrous, the city of licence, but the studios are in the CBC Regina Broadcast Centre, 2440 Broad Street in Regina. This facility also houses...

 in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

.

Carriage of CBC News


On September 11, 2001, several American broadcasters without their own news operations, including C-SPAN
C-SPAN
C-SPAN , an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable television network that offers coverage of federal government proceedings and other public affairs programming via its three television channels , one radio station and a group of websites that provide streaming...

, carried the CBC’s coverage of the September 11, 2001, attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 In the days after September 11, C-SPAN carried CBC’s nightly newscast, The National, anchored by Peter Mansbridge
Peter Mansbridge
Peter Mansbridge, OC , a Canadian broadcaster and news anchor, is the CBC News Chief Correspondent and anchor of The National, CBC Television's flagship nightly newscast. Mansbridge has received many awards and accolades for his journalistic work including an honorary doctorate from Mount Allison...

. The quality of this coverage was recognized specifically by the Canadian Journalism Foundation
Canadian Journalism Foundation
Founded in 1990, the Canadian Journalism Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in Canadian journalism by recognizing outstanding journalistic achievement and by promoting dialogue between media, business, government and academe.The Foundation's awards...

; editor-in-chief Tony Burman
Tony Burman
Tony Burman is the Velma Rogers Graham Research Chair at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada.Previously, he served as Al Jazeera's chief strategic advisor for the Americas, 2010-2011, based in Washington DC. He also served as managing director of the Al Jazeera English network, based in Doha,...

 later accepted the Excellence in Journalism Award (2004), for "rigorous professional practice, accuracy, originality and public accountability", on behalf of the service.

C-SPAN has also carried CBC’s coverage of major events affecting Canadians, including: Canadian federal elections, key proceedings in Canadian Parliament, Six days in September 2000 that marked the death and state funeral of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the power outage crisis in summer 2003, U.S. presidential elections (e.g. in 2004, C-SPAN picked up The National the day after the election for the view from Canadians), state visits and official visits of American presidents to Canada, and Barack Obama inauguration in 2009.

Several PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 stations also air some CBC programming However, these programs are syndicated by independent distributors and are not governed by the PBS "common carriage" policy.

Other American broadcast networks sometimes air CBC reports, especially for Canadian events of international significance. For example, in the early hours after the Swissair Flight 111
Swissair Flight 111
Swissair Flight 111 was a Swissair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 on a scheduled airline flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, United States to Cointrin International Airport in Geneva, Switzerland...

 disaster, CNN
CNN
Cable News Network is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage, and the first all-news television channel in the United States...

 aired CBC’s live coverage of the event. Also in the late 1990s, CNN Headline News
CNN Headline News
HLN, formerly known as CNN Headline News and CNN2, is a cable television news channel based in the United States and a spinoff of the cable news television channel, CNN. Initially airing tightly-formatted 30-minute newscasts around the clock, since 2005, the channel has increasingly aired long-form...

 aired a few CBC reports of events that were not significant outside Canada.

CBC Radio


Some CBC Radio One programs, such as Definitely Not the Opera
Definitely Not the Opera
Definitely Not the Opera is a magazine-style radio program focusing on aspects of pop culture. The program is broadcast on CBC Radio One on Saturday afternoons, 1 p.m. – 3 p.m. . An abridged version of each weekly program is available for download as a weekly podcast...

and As It Happens
As It Happens
As It Happens is a long-running interview show on CBC Radio One in Canada. Its 40th anniversary was celebrated on-air on 18 November 2008. It has been one of the most popular and acclaimed shows on CBC Radio; it is also distributed in the United States by Public Radio International.The bulk of the...

, also air on some stations associated with American Public Media
American Public Media
American Public Media is the second largest producer of public radio programs in the United States of America after NPR. Its non-profit parent, American Public Media Group, also owns and operates radio stations in Minnesota, California, and Florida. Its station brands are Minnesota Public Radio,...

 or Public Radio International
Public Radio International
Public Radio International is a Minneapolis-based American public radio organization, with locations in Boston, New York, London and Beijing. PRI's tagline is "Hear a different voice." PRI is a major public media content creator and also distributes programs from many sources...

. With the launch of Sirius Canada
Sirius Canada
Sirius Canada is a Canadian company, a partnership between Slaight Communications, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Sirius Satellite Radio, which was one of three services licensed by the CRTC on June 16, 2005 to introduce satellite radio service to Canada.On November 24, 2010, following...

 in December 2005, some of the CBC’s radio networks (including Radio Canada International and Sirius-exclusive Radio Three and Bande à part channels) are available to Sirius
Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio is a satellite radio service operating in North America, owned by Sirius XM Radio.Headquartered in New York City, with smaller studios in Los Angeles and Memphis, Sirius was officially launched on July 1, 2002 and currently provides 69 streams of music and 65 streams of...

 subscribers in the United States.

Caribbean and Bermuda


Several Caribbean nations carry feeds of CBC TV:
  • Bahamas, on the CoralWave (Cable Bahamas) television system in the Northern Bahamas (Channel 8).
  • Barbados
    Barbados
    Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is in length and as much as in width, amounting to . It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, it is about east of the islands of Saint...

    , on the Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation
    Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation
    The Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation is the government-owned media corporation located in Barbados.The television service broadcasts on channel 8 and is the only legally-licensed, over-the-air television channel broadcasting in the country of Barbados...

     Multi-Choice TV
    Multi-Choice TV (Barbados)
    The television service provider known as Multi-Choice TV or MCTV is a MMDS or DVB-C wireless microwave based broadcast subscription television provider in the country of Barbados. They offer a variety of packages which can be considered as comparatively priced to similar providers throughout the...

     Cable system (Channel 703).
  • Bermuda
    Bermuda
    Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

    , on the CableVision digital cable service.
  • Grenada
    Grenada
    Grenada is an island country and Commonwealth Realm consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea...

    , carried on Columbus Communications
    Columbus Communications
    Columbus Communications is a cable television and telecommunications company based in Freeport, Bahamas, serving markets in the Caribbean and Latin America....

     owned cable system Flow Grenada.
  • Jamaica
    Jamaica
    Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

    , distributed in areas served by Flow Jamaica.
  • Trinidad and Tobago
    Trinidad and Tobago
    Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

    , on the Columbus Communications
    Columbus Communications
    Columbus Communications is a cable television and telecommunications company based in Freeport, Bahamas, serving markets in the Caribbean and Latin America....

     Trinidad Ltd. (CCTL) television system.

Allegations of liberal bias


In 2009, CBC President Hubert Lacroix commissioned a study to determine whether its news was biased, and if so, to what extent. He said: "Our job — and we take it seriously — is to ensure that the information that we put out is fair and unbiased in everything that we do". The study, the methodology of which was not specified, is due to report results in the fall of 2010. Krista Erickson
Krista Erickson
Krista Erickson is a Canadian journalist and the principal daytime anchor on the Sun News Network, hosting Canada Live.Prior to joining Sun News, Erickson worked for CBC Television for 11 years, most recently as a member of the network's parliamentary bureau...

, a reporter for CBC, was transferred following an investigation by CBC officials at the behest of a formal complaint made by the Conservative Party. The move was intended to end debate after a leak to the media over CBC feeding questions to a Parliamentary committee in an effort to embarrass the Conservative government.

In April 2010, the Conservatives
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada , is a political party in Canada which was formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in 2003. It is positioned on the right of the Canadian political spectrum...

 accused pollster Frank Graves
Frank Graves (pollster)
Francis L. "Frank" Graves is a Canadian applied social researcher. He is the founder and current president of EKOS Research Associates Inc.Graves received a Bachelor of Arts in social anthropology from Carleton University in 1976, a Master of Arts in sociology from Carleton University in 1977, and...

 of giving partisan advice to the Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

, noting his donations to the party since 2003. Graves directed a number of public opinion research projects on behalf of the CBC as well as other media organizations, and also appeared on a number of CBC television programs relating to politics. An investigation conducted by the CBC ombudsman found no evidence to support these allegations, stating that personal donor history is not relevant to one's objectivity as a pollster.

Closed captioning


CBC Television was an early leader in broadcasting programming with closed captioning
Closed captioning
Closed captioning is the process of displaying text on a television, video screen or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information to individuals who wish to access it...

 for the hearing impaired, airing its first captioned programming in 1981. Captioned programming in Canada began with the airing of Clown White in English and French language versions on CBC Television and Radio-Canada, respectively. Most sources list that event as occurring in 1981, while others list the year as 1982.

In 1997, Henry Vlug, a deaf lawyer in Vancouver, filed a complaint with the Canadian Human Rights Commission
Canadian Human Rights Commission
The Canadian Human Rights Commission is a quasi-judicial body that was established in 1977 by the government of Canada. It is empowered under the Canadian Human Rights Act to investigate and try to settle complaints of discrimination in employment and in the provision of services within federal...

 alleging that an absence of captioning on some programming on CBC Television and Newsworld infringed on his rights as a person with a disability. A ruling in 2000 by the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, which later heard the case, sided with Vlug and found that an absence of captioning constituted discrimination on the basis of disability. The Tribunal ordered CBC Television and Newsworld to caption the entirety of their broadcast days, "including television shows, commercials, promos and unscheduled news flashes, from sign-on until sign-off."

The ruling recognized that "there will inevitably be glitches with respect to the delivery of captioning" but that "the rule should be full captioning." In a negotiated settlement to avoid appealing the ruling to the Federal Court of Canada
Federal Court of Canada
The Federal Court of Canada was a national court of Canada that heard some types of disputes arising under the central government's legislative jurisdiction...

, CBC agreed to commence 100% captioning on CBC Television and Newsworld beginning November 1, 2002. CBC Television and Newsworld are apparently the only broadcasters in the world required to caption the entire broadcast day. However, published evidence asserts that CBC is not providing the 100% captioning ordered by the Tribunal.

In 2004, retired Canadian Senator Jean-Robert Gauthier
Jean-Robert Gauthier
Jean-Robert Gauthier, CM, O.Ont was a Canadian politician.A chiropractor by training, he entered politics as trustee on a local school board. He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons to represent the riding of Ottawa East in the 1972 election as a Liberal Party Member of Parliament...

, a hard-of-hearing person, filed a complaint with the Canadian Human Rights Commission against Radio-Canada concerning captioning, particularly the absence of real-time captioning on newscasts and other live programming. As part of the settlement process, Radio-Canada agreed to submit a report on the state of captioning, especially real-time captioning, on Radio-Canada and RDI
Réseau de l'information
Réseau de l'information is a Canadian French language Category C news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. RDI began broadcasting on January 1, 1995, and is considered the French-language equivalent of the CBC News Network, also owned by the CBC....

. The report, which was the subject of some criticism, proposed an arrangement with Cité Collégiale
La Cité collégiale
La Cité collégiale is the largest French-language applied arts and technology college in Ontario, Canada’s most populated province. Created in 1989, it is situated in Ottawa and now offers more than 90 programs to some 4 700 full-time students from Ontario, other parts of Canada and many foreign...

, a community college in Ottawa, to train more French-language real-time captioners.

English-language specialty networks owned or co-owned by CBC, including Bold and Documentary, have the lower captioning requirements typical of larger Canadian broadcasters (90% of the broadcast day by the end of both networks’ licence terms). ARTV
ARTV
ARTV is a Canadian French language Category A specialty channel specializing in the arts and culture; including music, dance, theatre, visual arts as well as films and scripted television series.-History:...

, the French-language specialty network co-owned by CBC, has a maximum captioning requirement of 53%.

Beyond the Red Wall


In November 2007, the CBC replaced their documentary Beyond the Red Wall: Persecution of Falun Gong, about persecution of Falun Gong
Persecution of Falun Gong
The persecution of Falun Gong refers to the campaign initiated by the Chinese Communist Party against practitioners of Falun Gong since July 1999, aimed at eliminating the practice in the People's Republic of China...

 members in China, at the last minute with a rerun episode regarding President Pervez Musharaf in Pakistan. Originally, the broadcaster had said to the press that "the crisis in Pakistan was considered more urgent and much more newsworthy," but sources from within the network itself had stated that the Chinese government had called the Canadian Embassy and demanded repeatedly that the program be taken off the air. The documentary in question was to air on Tuesday, November 6, 2007 on CBC Newsworld
CBC Newsworld
CBC News Network is a Canadian English language Category C specialty news channel owned and operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation . It broadcasts into over 10 million homes in Canada. It is the world's third-oldest television service of this nature, after CNN in the United States and...

, but was replaced. The documentary aired two weeks later on November 20, 2007, after editing.

Over-the-air digital television transition



The CRTC has ordered that in 28 "mandatory markets," full power over-the-air analog television transmitters must cease transmitting by August 31, 2011. Broadcasters can either continue serving those markets by transitioning analog transmitters to digital or cease broadcasting over-the-air. Cable, IPTV, and satellite services are not involved or affected by this digital transition deadline.

While its fellow Canadian broadcasters plan to convert most of their transmitters to digital by the Canadian digital television transition
Digital television in Canada
Digital television in Canada is transmitted using the ATSC standards developed for and in use in the United States. Because Canada and the U.S...

 deadline of August 31, 2011, CBC plans to serve only about half of the mandatory markets with each of its digital over-the-air television (15 of 28 markets with CBC TV, and 14 of 28 markets with SRC). Due to financial difficulties reported by the corporation, the corporation has published digital transition plans that will result in none of its analog re-transmitters in mandatory markets being converted to digital by the deadline. Under this plan, communities that receive analog signals by re-broadcast transmitters in mandatory markets will lose their over-the-air (OTA) signals as of the deadline. Rebroadcast transmitters account for 23 of the 48 CBC and SRC transmitters in mandatory markets. Mandatory markets losing both CBC and SRC over-the-air signals include London, Ontario
London, Ontario
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, situated along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. The city has a population of 352,395, and the metropolitan area has a population of 457,720, according to the 2006 Canadian census; the metro population in 2009 was estimated at 489,274. The city...

 (metropolitan area population 457,000) and Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

 (metro area 257,000). In both of those markets, the corporation's television transmitters are the only ones that are not planned to be converted to digital by the deadline.

In addition, many of the cities where a digital transmitter is planned have CBC and Radio-Canada over-the-air in analogue, but in only 7 markets across the country will both CBC and Radio-Canada be available digital. The 13 other markets having digital transmitters installed will only have one CBC service over-the-air once the analogue signals are required to be shut off. For instance, Moncton, New Brunswick
Moncton, New Brunswick
Moncton is a Canadian city, located in Westmorland County, New Brunswick. The city is situated in southeastern New Brunswick, within the Petitcodiac River Valley, and lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces...

 will have Radio-Canada in digital, but not CBC.

In markets where a digital transmitter is being installed, existing coverage areas are not necessarily being maintained. For instance, the CBC plans to implement a digital transmitter covering Fredericton, New Brunswick in the place of the existing transmitter covering Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John, New Brunswick
City of Saint John , or commonly Saint John, is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the first incorporated city in Canada. The city is situated along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River. In 2006 the city proper had a population of 74,043...

 and Fredericton, and will continue analog service to Saint John. According to CBC's application for this transmitter to the CRTC, the population served by the digital transmitter would be 113,930 people versus 303,465 served by the existing analog transmitter. In Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of British Columbia, Canada and is located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of about 78,000 within the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria, which has a population of 360,063, the 15th most populous Canadian...

, the replacement of the Vancouver analogue transmitters with digital ones will allow only some northeastern parts of the metropolitan area (total population 330,000) to receive either CBC or SRC.

The CBC has also stated that the "useful life of CBC/Radio-Canada’s satellite distribution backbone for analogue transmission ends in 2013" and that it "will not reinvest in that infrastructure given the inevitability of analogue obsolescence."

CBC and affiliate transmitters in mandatory markets


CBC Television (English language) Télévision de Radio-Canada ("SRC" – French language)
Province Market Analog digital by Aug. 31, 2011 future digital planned Analog digital by Aug. 31, 2011 future digital planned
AB Calgary Yes Yes Yes Yes
AB Edmonton Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
AB Lethbridge Yes Yes
AB Lloydminster Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate)
BC Vancouver Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BC Victoria Yes (Vancouver transmitter) Yes (Vancouver transmitter)
MB Winnipeg Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
NB Fredericton Yes (Saint John transmitter) Yes Yes Yes
NB Moncton Yes Yes Yes Yes
NB Saint John Yes Yes
NL St John's Yes Yes Yes Yes
NS Halifax Yes Yes Yes Yes
ON Kitchener Yes Yes
ON London Yes Yes
ON Ottawa/Gatineau, QC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ON Thunder Bay Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate) Yes
ON Toronto Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ON Windsor Yes Yes Yes Yes
PE Charlottetown Yes Yes Yes Yes
QC Montreal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
QC Québec Yes Yes Yes Yes
QC Rivière-du-Loup Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate)
QC Rouyn-Noranda/Val-d’Or Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate) Yes (affiliate)
QC Saguenay Yes Yes Yes Yes
QC Sherbrooke Yes Yes Yes Yes
QC Trois-Rivières Yes Yes Yes Yes
SK Regina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SK Saskatoon Yes Yes
Total 28 markets 26 yes, 2 no 15 yes, 12 no,
1 partially
15 yes, 12 no,
1 partially
27 yes, 1 no 14 yes, 13 no,
1 partially
14 yes, 13 no,
1 partially


History


In 2006, the CBC submitted a plan to the CRTC for transitioning over-the-air television
Digital television in Canada
Digital television in Canada is transmitted using the ATSC standards developed for and in use in the United States. Because Canada and the U.S...

 signals from analog to digital. In this submission, the CBC stated that its 654 analog transmitters reached 98% of the population, and that it planned on installing 44 digital transmitters, reaching 80% of Canadians.

The CRTC decided to impose a mandatory transition date switching over-the-air television signals from analog to digital, following consultation with CBC and the public. CBC had requested during this consultation that broadcasters be given 4 years to transition. Following the consultation, on May 17, 2007, the CRTC imposed a transition timeline of 4 years, resulting in a transition deadline of August 31, 2011 and requiring that over-the-air analog transmitters be shut off by that date.

On July 6, 2009, the CRTC limited the August 31, 2011 transition deadline
Digital television in Canada
Digital television in Canada is transmitted using the ATSC standards developed for and in use in the United States. Because Canada and the U.S...

 to certain mandatory markets, greatly reducing the number of transmitters needing to be transitioned.

In CBC's 2009–2010 Corporate Plan, the corporation stated that it planned on having 30 transmitters broadcasting in digital by the deadline, costing $30 million.

On August 6, 2010, the CBC issued a press release stating that due to financial reasons, the CBC and Radio Canada would only transition 27 transmitters total, one in each market where there was an originating station (i.e. a CBC or Radio Canada television station located in that market). Further, the CBC stated in the release, that only 15 of the transmitters would be in place by August 31, 2011 due to lack of available funds, and that the remainder would not be on the air until as late as August 31, 2012. Additionally, the CBC stated in the release that it was asking the CRTC for permission to continue broadcasting in analog until the identified transmitters for transition were up and running. At the time of the press release, only 8 of the corporation's transmitters (4 CBC and 4 Radio Canada) were broadcasting in digital.

On November 30, 2010, CBC's Senior Director, Regulatory Affairs, issued a letter to the CRTC regarding CBC's plans for transitioning to digital. The letter states, "CBC/Radio-Canada will not be converting its analog re-transmitters in mandatory markets to digital after August 31, 2011."

On December 16, 2010, some months after the CRTC issued a bulletin reminding broadcasters that analog transmitters had to be shut off by the deadline in mandatory markets, the CBC revised the documents accompanying its August 6, 2010 press release to state that it had the money for and is striving to transition all 27 transmitters by August 31, 2011.

On March 23, 2011, the CRTC rejected an application by the CBC to install a digital transmitter serving Fredricton, New Brunswick in place of the analog transmitter serving Fredericton and Saint John, NB, which would have served only 62.5% of the population served by the existing analog transmitter. The CBC issued a press release stating "CBC/Radio-Canada intends to re-file its application with the CRTC to provide more detailed cost estimates that will allow the Commission to better understand the unfeasibility of replicating the Corporation’s current analogue coverage." The press release further adds that the CBC suggests coverage could be maintained if the CRTC were to "allow CBC Television to continue providing the analogue service it offers today – much in the same way the Commission permitted recently in the case of Yellowknife, Whitehorse
Whitehorse, Yukon
Whitehorse is Yukon's capital and largest city . It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1476 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in...

 and Iqaluit."

On March 29, 2011, the CRTC added the following condition of license to over-the-air stations owned by CBC:
"Unless otherwise authorized by the Commission, the licensee shall not transmit analog television signals after 31 August 2011 in mandatory markets designated as such by the Commission in Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2011-184 or transmit television signals on channels 52 to 69.".

On August 18, 2011, the CRTC issued a decision that allows CBC's mandatory market rebroadcasting transmitters in analog to remain on-air until August 31, 2012. Before that deadline, CBC's license renewal process will take place and CBC's digital transition plans will be examined as part of that process. The requirement remains for all of CBC's full power transmitters occupying channels 52 to 69 to either relocate to channels 2 to 51 or become low power transmitters. In some cases, CBC has opted to reduce the power of existing transmitters to low power transmitters, which will result in signal loss for some viewers.

Notable CBC alumni

  • Dan Aykroyd
    Dan Aykroyd
    Daniel Edward "Dan" Aykroyd, CM is a Canadian comedian, actor, screenwriter, musician, winemaker and ufologist. He was an original cast member of Saturday Night Live, an originator of The Blues Brothers and Ghostbusters and has had a long career as a film actor and screenwriter.-Early...

     in Coming Up Rosie
    Coming Up Rosie
    Coming Up Rosie was a Canadian children's sitcom TV series on CBC Television, aired for three seasons from 1975–1978.-Premise:The show focused on a group of tenants in an office building located at 99 Sumach Street, Toronto. The title character, Rosie Tucker, was played by Rosemary Radcliffe...

    as Purvis Bickle.
  • Jim Bittermann
    Jim Bittermann
    - Career :Bittermann graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from Southern Illinois University in 1970 and began in print journalism from 1969 to 1970 as a reporter for the Waukegan News-Sun in Waukegan, Illinois. His television career began at WTMJ-TV in Milwaukee from 1970 to 1972...

    , Toronto based reporter; now CNN
    CNN
    Cable News Network is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage, and the first all-news television channel in the United States...

     senior correspondent.
  • Denise Bombardier
    Denise Bombardier
    Denise Bombardier, CQ is an esteemed yet controversial journalist, novelist, essayist, producer, and media personality who worked for the French-language television station Radio Canada for over 30 years....

    , host of the shows Présent international, Le point, Noir sur blanc (1979–1983,) and Trait-d’union (1987–1988).
  • Stephan Bureau
    Stéphan Bureau
    Stéphan Bureau is a journalist, TV interviewer and producer of TV shows and documentary series.- Life and career :...

     participated in Telejeans as a teenager and later hosted Le Téléjournal
    Le Téléjournal
    Le Téléjournal is the umbrella title used for the television newscasts aired on the Radio-Canada broadcast network. Le Téléjournal has been used since 1970 as the title of the network's flagship newscast, originating from Montreal, Quebec, and considered the French language equivalent of the...

    /Le point
    (1998–2003).
  • Bill Cameron
    Bill Cameron
    William "Bill" Cameron was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. A Gemini Award winner, he was a news anchor, television producer, columnist and author...

    , correspondent and anchor.
  • John Candy
    John Candy
    John Franklin Candy was a Canadian actor and comedian. He rose to fame as a member of the Toronto branch of The Second City and its related Second City Television series, and through his appearances in comedy films such as Stripes, Splash, Cool Runnings, The Great Outdoors, Spaceballs, and Uncle...

     in Coming Up Rosie
    Coming Up Rosie
    Coming Up Rosie was a Canadian children's sitcom TV series on CBC Television, aired for three seasons from 1975–1978.-Premise:The show focused on a group of tenants in an office building located at 99 Sumach Street, Toronto. The title character, Rosie Tucker, was played by Rosemary Radcliffe...

    as Wally Wypyzypywchuk.
  • Adrienne Clarkson
    Adrienne Clarkson
    Adrienne Louise Clarkson is a Canadian journalist and stateswoman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 26th since Canadian Confederation....

    , a former Governor General of Canada
    Governor General of Canada
    The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

    , hosted shows such as Take 30
    Take 30
    Take 30 was a Canadian television newsmagazine series, which aired on CBC Television from 1962 to 1983...

    and the fifth estate
    The fifth estate
    the fifth estate is a Canadian television newsmagazine, which airs on the English language CBC Television network. The name is a play on the fact that the media are sometimes referred to as the Fourth Estate, and was chosen to highlight the program's determination to go beyond everyday news into...

    .
  • Joan Donaldson
    Joan Donaldson
    Joan Marsha Donaldson was a Canadian journalist, and was the founding head of CBC Newsworld. She came to Newsworld from CBC's main network....

    , former journalist and producer of CBC Newsworld
    CBC Newsworld
    CBC News Network is a Canadian English language Category C specialty news channel owned and operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation . It broadcasts into over 10 million homes in Canada. It is the world's third-oldest television service of this nature, after CNN in the United States and...

    .
  • James Doohan
    James Doohan
    James Montgomery "Jimmy" Doohan was a Canadian character and voice actor best known for his role as Montgomery "Scotty" Scott in the television and film series Star Trek...

    , Star Trek
    Star Trek
    Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment franchise created by Gene Roddenberry. The core of Star Trek is its six television series: The Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, and Enterprise...

    's
    "Scotty", worked in both CBC radio and television in the 1940s and 50s
  • Max Ferguson
    Max Ferguson
    Max Ferguson, OC is a Canadian radio personality and satirist, best known for his long-running programs Rawhide and The Max Ferguson Show on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ....

    , radio and television announcer.
  • Dave Foley
    Dave Foley
    David Scott "Dave" Foley is a Canadian comedian, writer, director, and producer best known for his work in The Kids in the Hall, NewsRadio, A Bug's Life, and Celebrity Poker Showdown...

    , writer and actor on The Kids in the Hall
    The Kids in the Hall
    The Kids in the Hall is a Canadian sketch comedy group formed in 1984, consisting of comedians Dave Foley, Kevin McDonald, Bruce McCulloch, Mark McKinney, and Scott Thompson. Their eponymous television show ran from 1988 to 1994 on CBC in Canada, and 1989 to 1995 on CBS and HBO in the United States...

    from 1989–1994, starred in the NBC
    NBC
    The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

     sitcom Newsradio
    NewsRadio
    NewsRadio is an American television situation comedy that aired on NBC from 1995 to 1999. The series was created by executive producer Paul Simms, and was filmed in front of a studio audience at CBS Studio Center and Sunset Gower Studios...

    .
  • Michael J. Fox
    Michael J. Fox
    Michael J. Fox, OC is a Canadian American actor, author, producer, activist and voice-over artist. With a film and television career spanning from the late 1970s, Fox's roles have included Marty McFly from the Back to the Future trilogy ; Alex P...

     as The Master in The Magic Lie
    The Magic Lie
    The Magic Lie is a CBC television anthology from 1977 to 1979. Host W. O. Mitchell gave a strange introduction promoting automatic writing....

    series, 1978.
  • Barbara Frum
    Barbara Frum
    Barbara Frum, OC was a Canadian radio and television journalist, acclaimed for her interviews for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.-Personal life:...

    , host of As It Happens
    As It Happens
    As It Happens is a long-running interview show on CBC Radio One in Canada. Its 40th anniversary was celebrated on-air on 18 November 2008. It has been one of the most popular and acclaimed shows on CBC Radio; it is also distributed in the United States by Public Radio International.The bulk of the...

    (1971–1981) and The Journal (1982–1992).
  • Sue Gardner
    Sue Gardner
    Sue Gardner is the current Executive Director of the Wikimedia Foundation in San Francisco, and previous director of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's website and online news outlets.- Life and journalism career :...

    , executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation
    Wikimedia Foundation
    Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California, United States, and organized under the laws of the state of Florida, where it was initially based...

    , was a producer for CBC Radio and the director of the CBC's online news operations.
  • Lorne Greene
    Lorne Greene
    Lorne Greene , was the stage name of Lyon Himan Green, OC, a Canadian actor.His television roles include Ben Cartwright on the western Bonanza, and Commander Adama in the science fiction movie and subsequent TV Series Battlestar Galactica...

    , CBC’s chief radio announcer and newsreader (1939–1942).
  • Peter Gzowski
    Peter Gzowski
    Peter Gzowski, was a Canadian broadcaster, writer and reporter, most famous for his work on the CBC radio show Morningside. His first biographer argued that Gzowski's contribution to Canadian media must be considered in the context of efforts by a generation of Canadian nationalists to understand...

    , prominent journalist and author, host of Morningside
    Morningside (radio program)
    Morningside was a nationally broadcast Canadian radio program, which aired on CBC Radio from September 20, 1976 to May 30, 1997. It was broadcast from 9AM to 12 Noon, Monday to Friday...

    .
  • Jay Ingram hosted Quirks and Quarks
    Quirks and Quarks
    Quirks & Quarks is a Canadian weekly science news program heard over CBC Radio One of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ....

     from 1979 to 1992.
  • Judith Jasmin
    Judith Jasmin
    Judith Jasmin was a journalist from Quebec. Born in Terrebonne, Quebec, Canada, she was the first woman from Quebec to become a grand reporter ....

     started working for Radio-Canada in the late 1940s, co-hosted Carrefour with René Lévesque
    René Lévesque
    René Lévesque was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, , the founder of the Parti Québécois political party and the 23rd Premier of Quebec...

     on Radio-Canada (radio);, hosted Reportage and Conférence de presse; became the first woman named foreign correspondent for Radio-Canada at the UN (1966), and then in Washington, DC.
  • Michaëlle Jean
    Michaëlle Jean
    Michaëlle Jean is a Canadian journalist and stateswoman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 27th since Canadian Confederation, from 2005 to 2010....

    , a former Governor General of Canada
    Governor General of Canada
    The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

    , hosted the documentary series The Passionate Eye
    The Passionate Eye
    The Passionate Eye is a Canadian documentary television series, which airs on CBC News Network.The series presents documentary programming from around the world....

    and Grands Reportages and produced and hosted individual documentary films.
  • Peter Jennings
    Peter Jennings
    Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM was a Canadian American journalist and news anchor. He was the sole anchor of ABC's World News Tonight from 1983 until his death in 2005 of complications from lung cancer...

    , at age nine, hosted a kids’ program called Peter’s People on CBC Radio in Ottawa.
  • Kristin Kreuk
    Kristin Kreuk
    Kristin Laura Kreuk is a Canadian actress and producer, known for her portrayal of Lana Lang in the American television series Smallville. She was also a regular cast member on the Canadian teen drama Edgemont, and has starred in movies such as Eurotrip and Street Fighter: The Legend of...

     and Laurel Yeung, in the teen soap Edgemont
    Edgemont (TV series)
    Edgemont is a Canadian television series that aired from 2001 to 2005. It revolved around the everyday dealings of teenagers in Edgemont, a fictitious suburb of Vancouver, British Columbia....

    , 2001.
  • René Lecavalier
    René Lecavalier
    René Lecavalier, OC, CQ was a Canadian French language radio show host and sportscaster on SRC in Quebec. During his career in radio Lecavalier won several Radiomonde Trophies. He was also the first commentator for La Soirée du hockey, the French language version of Hockey Night in Canada...

    , war correspondent (World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    ), later hosted La Soirée du hockey
    La Soirée du hockey
    La Soirée du hockey was a popular ice hockey show in Quebec. It was the French language SRC equivalent of the English Canadian CBC show Hockey Night in Canada...

    from its beginning on Radio-Canada television on October 11, 1952 (Montreal Canadiens
    Montreal Canadiens
    The Montreal Canadiens are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. They are members of the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League . The club is officially known as ...

     vs. Detroit Red Wings
    Detroit Red Wings
    The Detroit Red Wings are a professional ice hockey team based in Detroit, Michigan. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League , and are one of the Original Six teams of the NHL, along with the Toronto Maple Leafs, Montreal Canadiens, New York...

    ) until the 1970s.
  • René Lévesque
    René Lévesque
    René Lévesque was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, , the founder of the Parti Québécois political party and the 23rd Premier of Quebec...

    , journalist for Radio-Canada from after World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     (during which he served as war correspondent for the US Army) to 1960. Lévesque covered such events as the Korean War
    Korean War
    The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

     (1951–1953) and hosted Point de mire
    Point de mire
    Point de mire was a popular Quebec information show on Radio-Canada that aired from 1956 to 1959. The television show is famous for being hosted by a future cabinet minister and Premier of Quebec, René Lévesque....

    . He moved on, becoming a prominent cabinet minister in Quebec
    Quebec
    Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

    ’s Liberal Government under Jean Lesage
    Jean Lesage
    Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. He served as the 19th Premier of Quebec from 22 June 1960, to 16 August 1966...

     (1960), and later Premier of Quebec
    Premier of Quebec
    The Premier of Quebec is the first minister of the Canadian province of Quebec. The Premier is the province's head of government and his title is Premier and President of the Executive Council....

     (Parti Québécois
    Parti Québécois
    The Parti Québécois is a centre-left political party that advocates national sovereignty for the province of Quebec and secession from Canada. The Party traditionally has support from the labour movement. Unlike many other social-democratic parties, its ties with the labour movement are informal...

    , 1976).
  • Mark McKinney
    Mark McKinney
    Mark Douglas Brown McKinney is a Canadian comedian and actor, best known for his work in the sketch comedy troupe The Kids in the Hall. Following the run of their television series and feature film , he went on to star in Saturday Night Live from 1995 to 1997...

    , writer and actor in The Kids in the Hall
    The Kids in the Hall
    The Kids in the Hall is a Canadian sketch comedy group formed in 1984, consisting of comedians Dave Foley, Kevin McDonald, Bruce McCulloch, Mark McKinney, and Scott Thompson. Their eponymous television show ran from 1988 to 1994 on CBC in Canada, and 1989 to 1995 on CBS and HBO in the United States...

    from 1989–1994.
  • Lorne Michaels
    Lorne Michaels
    Lorne Michaels, CM is a Canadian-American television producer, writer, and comedian best known for creating and producing Saturday Night Live and producing the various film and TV projects that spun off from it.-Early life:...

     in The Hart and Lorne Terrific Hour
    The Hart and Lorne Terrific Hour
    The Hart and Lorne Terrific Hour was a Canadian television variety show, which aired on CBC Television in 1970 and 1971.The show starred Lorne Michaels and Hart Pomerantz. The cast also included Dan Aykroyd, Paul Bradley and Victor Garber...

    , 1970–1971.
  • Anne Murray
    Anne Murray
    Morna Anne Murray CC, ONS is a Canadian singer in pop, country and adult contemporary styles whose albums have sold over 54 million copies....

     appeared on Singalong Jubilee, in the 1960s.
  • Mike Myers
    Mike Myers (actor)
    Michael John "Mike" Myers is a Canadian actor, comedian, screenwriter, and film producer of British parentage...

     in Range Ryder and the Calgary Kid
    Range Ryder and the Calgary Kid
    Range Ryder and the Calgary Kid is a Canadian children's television series. It debuted on CBC Television in 1977. It is notable for being the first television appearance of then future star Mike Myers.- External links :*...

    , 1977; he had a guest role on King of Kensington
    King of Kensington
    King of Kensington was a Canadian television sitcom which aired on CBC Television from 1975 to 1980.The show starred Al Waxman as Larry King, a convenience store owner in Toronto's Kensington Market who was known for helping friends and neighbours solve problems. His multicultural group of friends...

    on CBC.
  • Knowlton Nash
    Knowlton Nash
    Cyril Knowlton Nash, OC, O.Ont , commonly known as Knowlton Nash, is a journalist, author, and former long-serving senior anchorman of CBC Television's flagship news program, The National...

    , prominent newsreader and host.
  • Catherine O’Hara in Coming Up Rosie
    Coming Up Rosie
    Coming Up Rosie was a Canadian children's sitcom TV series on CBC Television, aired for three seasons from 1975–1978.-Premise:The show focused on a group of tenants in an office building located at 99 Sumach Street, Toronto. The title character, Rosie Tucker, was played by Rosemary Radcliffe...

    as Myrna Wallbacker.
  • Christopher Plummer
    Christopher Plummer
    Arthur Christopher Orne Plummer, CC is a Canadian theatre, film and television actor. He made his film debut in 1957's Stage Struck, and notable early film performances include Night of the Generals, The Return of the Pink Panther and The Man Who Would Be King.In a career that spans over five...

     starred in a CBC TV production of Othello
    Othello
    The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in approximately 1603, and based on the Italian short story "Un Capitano Moro" by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in 1565...

    .
  • Lloyd Robertson
    Lloyd Robertson
    Lloyd Robertson, OC is the currently the co-host of CTV's weekly magazine series, W5. Robertson previously served as the chief anchor and senior editor of CTV's national evening newscast, CTV News with Lloyd Robertson, until September, 2011, when he retired from the CTV National News...

     hosted CBC Weekend in 1969 and anchored CBC’s The National from 1970 to 1976.
  • Fred Rogers’ Mister Rogers show (CBC, 1962) show became Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood on NET
    National Educational Television
    National Educational Television was an American non-commercial educational public television network in the United States from May 16, 1954 to October 4, 1970...

     (later PBS
    Public Broadcasting Service
    The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

    ) in 1968.
  • Percy Saltzman
    Percy Saltzman
    Percy Saltzman, was a meteorologist and television personality best remembered for being the first weatherman in Canadian television history....

    , weatherman, was the first person to have appeared on CBC Television in 1952.
  • Jeanne Sauvé
    Jeanne Sauvé
    Jeanne Mathilde Sauvé was a Canadian journalist, politician, and stateswoman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 23rd since Canadian Confederation....

    , a Governor General of Canada
    Governor General of Canada
    The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

    , was a freelance journalist for CBC Radio starting in 1952.
  • Lorne Saxberg
    Lorne Saxberg
    Lorne Saxberg was a Canadian television journalist and one of many on-air anchors on CBC Newsworld.Saxberg was born in Thunder Bay, Ontario and joined the CBC's radio arm. As host of Ontario Morning in the late 1980s, he was known for his keen mind, calm demeanour, and melodious voice...

    , original CBC Newsworld anchor.
  • Martin Short
    Martin Short
    Martin Hayter Short, CM is a Canadian actor, comedian, writer, singer and producer. He is best-known for his comedy work, particularly on the TV programs SCTV and Saturday Night Live...

     in Peep Show, he appeared in the episode "Goldberg is Waiting".
  • Lister Sinclair, long time host of CBC radio program Ideas (radio show)
    Ideas (radio show)
    Ideas is a long running scholarly radio documentary show on CBC Radio One. Co-created by Phyllis Webb and William A. Young, the show premiered in 1965 under the title The Best Ideas You'll Hear Tonight...

    .
  • Cy Strange
    Cy Strange
    Cyril "Cy" Strange was a Canadian radio broadcaster who was born in Maguire, Ontario.He joined CFRB in 1943 as a journalist, and moved to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1946...

    , host of As It Happens
    As It Happens
    As It Happens is a long-running interview show on CBC Radio One in Canada. Its 40th anniversary was celebrated on-air on 18 November 2008. It has been one of the most popular and acclaimed shows on CBC Radio; it is also distributed in the United States by Public Radio International.The bulk of the...

     and Fresh Air
    Fresh Air
    Fresh Air is an American radio talk show broadcast on National Public Radio stations across the United States. The show is produced by WHYY-FM in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Its longtime host is Terry Gross. , the show was syndicated to 450 stations and claimed 4.5 million listeners. The show...

     for many decades.
  • Larry Stout former CBC News reporter and producer. Contributed to CBC Newsmagazine
  • Donald Sutherland
    Donald Sutherland
    Donald McNichol Sutherland, OC is a Canadian actor with a film career spanning nearly 50 years. Some of Sutherland's more notable movie roles included offbeat warriors in such war movies as The Dirty Dozen, , MASH , and Kelly's Heroes , as well as in such popular films as Klute, Invasion of the...

     started at age 14 with CBC Radio in Halifax
    Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia
    Halifax Regional Municipality is the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The Regional Municipality had a 2006 census population of 372,679, while the metropolitan area had a 2010 estimated population of 403,188, and the urban area of Halifax had a population of 282,924...

    , Nova Scotia
    Nova Scotia
    Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada. The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the...

    .
  • Jan Tennant
    Jan Tennant
    Jan Tennant is a Canadian television journalist. She joined the CBC in 1966 as a unit secretary. She soon became a script assistant for The Way It Is and The Nature of Things and then moved into announcing for both radio and television...

    , the first woman to host The National when she appeared as a substitute and weekend newsreader.
  • Scott Thompson
    Scott Thompson
    Scott Thompson is a Canadian television actor and comedian, best known for his time as a member of the comedy troupe The Kids in the Hall.-Personal life:...

     writer and actor in The Kids in the Hall
    The Kids in the Hall
    The Kids in the Hall is a Canadian sketch comedy group formed in 1984, consisting of comedians Dave Foley, Kevin McDonald, Bruce McCulloch, Mark McKinney, and Scott Thompson. Their eponymous television show ran from 1988 to 1994 on CBC in Canada, and 1989 to 1995 on CBS and HBO in the United States...

    from 1989–1994.
  • Alex Trebek
    Alex Trebek
    George Alexander "Alex" Trebek is a Canadian American game show host who has been the host of the game show Jeopardy! since 1984, and prior to that, he hosted game shows such as Pitfall and High Rollers. He has appeared in numerous television series, usually as himself...

    , Reach for the Top
    Reach for the Top
    Reach for the Top is a Canadian game show in which teams of high school students participate in local, provincial and eventually national trivia tournaments...

    co-host, Strategy
    Strategy (game show)
    Strategy was a Canadian game show which debuted on the CBC on April 1, 1969. It was hosted by Alex Trebek and produced by Sidney M. Cohen. The show aired its final episode October 7, 1969....

    host, 1969.
  • Pamela Wallin
    Pamela Wallin
    Pamela Wallin, OC, SOM is a former Canadian television journalist and diplomat. On January 2, 2009, she was seated in the Canadian Senate, where she sits as a Conservative.-Early life and career:...

    , producer of CBC Radio. Her first television work was on CTV’s Canada AM
    Canada AM
    Canada AM is a Canadian breakfast television news show, which has aired on the CTV Television Network since 1972. It is currently hosted by Beverly Thomson and Seamus O'Regan, with Marci Ien reporting from the headline news desk and Jeff Hutcheson presenting the weather forecast and sports...

    . She later appeared on CBC Television as cohost of Prime Time News
    Prime Time News
    thumb|Title screen used from 1992 to 1994. A different opening used for the 1994-95 season was essentially identical to the open used by The National from 1995-97...

    and later as host of Pamela Wallin Live
    Pamela Wallin Live
    Pamela Wallin Live was a Canadian interview series which aired on CBC Newsworld from 1995 to 1999. It was hosted by Pamela Wallin.Following her highly publicized firing from the CBC's Prime Time News in 1995, Wallin formed her own production company and launched the series...

    .
  • Al Waxman
    Al Waxman
    Albert Samuel Waxman, CM, O.Ont was a Canadian actor and director of over 1000 productions on radio, television, film, and stage...

    , star of the 1970s sitcom King of Kensington
    King of Kensington
    King of Kensington was a Canadian television sitcom which aired on CBC Television from 1975 to 1980.The show starred Al Waxman as Larry King, a convenience store owner in Toronto's Kensington Market who was known for helping friends and neighbours solve problems. His multicultural group of friends...

    , starred on CBS
    CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

     drama Cagney & Lacey
    Cagney & Lacey
    Cagney & Lacey is an American television series that originally aired on the CBS television network for seven seasons from October 8, 1981 to May 16, 1988...

    .

See also


  • Concentration of media ownership
    Concentration of media ownership
    Concentration of media ownership refers to a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media...

  • Media in Canada
    Media in Canada
    Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output — particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines — is often overshadowed by imports from the United States. Television, magazines, and newspapers are primarily for-profit corporations based on advertising,...

  • Réseau de l'information
    Réseau de l'information
    Réseau de l'information is a Canadian French language Category C news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. RDI began broadcasting on January 1, 1995, and is considered the French-language equivalent of the CBC News Network, also owned by the CBC....

  • TOU.TV
    TOU.TV
    TOU.TV is a Quebecois video-on-demand website launched on January 26, 2010 by the Société Radio-Canada.At launch, the site offered 2000 hours of French-language television content, near high definition in quality, provided by several TV channels, such as Télévision de Radio-Canada, RDI, ARTV,...


External links