Jean Joseph Camille Huysmans
(26 May 1871 in Bilzen
Bilzen is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt. On January 1, 2006, Bilzen had a total population of 30,057...
- 23 February 1968 in Antwerp
, born as Camiel Hansen) was a Belgian politician.
Huymans studied German philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.Classical philology is the philology of Greek and Classical Latin...
at the University of Liège
The University of Liège , in Liège, Wallonia, Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium. Its official language is French.-History:...
. He was a teacher from 1893 until 1897. In between these years he studied for his doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...
in German philology.
Huysmans joined the Belgische Werkliedenpartij (BWP), the predecessor of the Belgische Socialistische Partij (BSP) at a young age. He became a journalist for many socialist periodicals until 1904 and was thereafter active in the labor unions.
Between 1905 and 1922 Huysmans was secretary of the Second International. In that function he had many contacts with Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...
, the leader of the first Chinese
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...
A revolution is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time.Aristotle described two types of political revolution:...
, in 1911. His main task was creating an active peace function. At the Socialist Conference in Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...
in 1917 he pleaded against continuing the war.
He was a fighter for the Flemish movement
The Flemish Movement is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language, and for the over-all protection of Flemish culture and history....
and fought for using Dutch
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...
at the University of Ghent. As Minister of Arts and Education
he could pave the way for the Dutch language. In 1911 he proposed a bill, drafted by Lodewijk De Raet
Lodewijk De Raet was a Flemish economist and politician. He played an important role in the Flemish movement. He was co-founder of the Vlaamsche volkspartij , and was a proponent of the use of Flemish instead of French at the University of Ghent in Flanders...
, together with the Roman Catholic Frans Van Cauwelaert
Frans van Cauwelaert , was a Belgian Roman Catholic politician and lawyer.Van Cauwelaert was born at Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Lombeek...
and the liberal
Liberalism is the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally, liberals support ideas such as constitutionalism, liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights,...
This article is about Louis Franck the lawyer and not about Louis Franck the frontman of Esthetic Education.Louis Marie François Franck was a Belgian lawyer, liberal politician and statesman.-Education:...
for the usage of Flemish at the University of Ghent. However, due to World War I, the University of Ghent would become a Flemish university in 1930.
In World War II he fled to London. He regained the function as secretary between 1939 and 1944, also as acting chairman. After World War II (at age 75) he became the 34th Prime Minister
and led a government of socialists, liberals and communists. With an insufficient majority, this government lasted not long. In the next government, he was Minister of Education.
He remained very popular until old age. The national tribute for his 80th birthday attracted 100,000 visitors. At the age of 83 he became chairman of the Chamber of Representatives
There are at several political assemblies known as the Chamber of Representatives. Each one forms the lower house of a bicameral legislature.*French Chamber of Representatives, the lower body of the French Parliament during the Hundred Days...
(lower house). He was a freemason, and a member of the lodge Les Amis Philanthropes
of the Grand Orient of Belgium
The Grand Orient of Belgium The Grand Orient of Belgium The Grand Orient of Belgium (French: Grand Orient de Belgique, Dutch: Grootoosten van Belgie (G.O.B.) is a Belgian cupola of masonic lodges which is only accessible for men, and works in the basic three symbolic degrees of freemasonry.-History:...
Huysmans is considered a friend of the Jewish people and the Zionist movement. Some streets and neighbourhoods in Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...
bear his name.
- councillor in Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...
- education Schepen
A schepen is a Dutch word referring to a municipal civic office in Dutch-speaking countries. The term is still in use in Belgium, but it has been replaced by wethouder in the Netherlands. The closest English terms are alderman, member of the municipal executive, councillor and magistrate,...
of Antwerp (1921–1933)
- mayor of Antwerp (1933–1940 and 1944–1946)
- councillor in Antwerp (1946–1968)
- member of the lower house (1910–1965)
- chairman of the lower house (1936–1939 and 1954–1958)
- Minister of Arts and Education (1925–1927)
- Prime Minister (1946–1947)
- Minister of Education (1947–1949)
Correspondence with Lenin
In his first term as secretary of the Second International he corresponded with Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years , as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a...
between 1905 and 1914. The letters were published in 1963.