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Camellia sinensis

Camellia sinensis

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Encyclopedia
Camellia sinensis is the species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of plant
Plant
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Precise definitions of the kingdom vary, but as the term is used here, plants include familiar organisms such as trees, flowers, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. The group is also called green plants or...

 whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce Chinese tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

. It is of the genus Camellia
Camellia
Camellia, the camellias, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae. They are found in eastern and southern Asia, from the Himalaya east to Korea and Indonesia. There are 100–250 described species, with some controversy over the exact number...

 , a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae
Theaceae
The Theaceae is a family of flowering plants, composed of shrubs and trees. Some botanists include the family Ternstroemiaceae within the Theaceae while others do not...

. White tea
White tea
White tea is a lightly oxidized tea grown and harvested almost exclusively in China, primarily in the Fujian province.White tea comes from the delicate buds and younger leaves of the Chinese Camellia sinensis plant. These buds and leaves are allowed to wither in natural sunlight before they are...

, green tea
Green tea
Green tea is made solely from the leaves of Camellia sinensis that have undergone minimal oxidation during processing. Green tea originates from China and has become associated with many cultures throughout Asia. It has recently become more widespread in the West, where black tea is traditionally...

, oolong
Oolong
Oolong is a traditional Chinese tea produced through a unique process including withering under the strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. Most oolong teas, especially those of fine quality, involve unique tea plant cultivars that are exclusively used for particular varieties...

, pu-erh tea
Pu-erh tea
Pu'er, Pu-erh, Puer, also Po Lei or Bolay is a variety of post-fermented tea produced in Yunnan province, China. Post-fermentation is a tea production style in which the tea leaves undergo a microbial fermentation process after they are dried and rolled. This is a Chinese specialty and is sometimes...

 and black tea
Black tea
Black tea is a variety of tea that is more oxidized than the oolong, green, and white varieties.All four varieties are made from leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis. Black tea is generally stronger in flavor and contains more caffeine than the less oxidized teas. Two principal varieties of the...

 are all harvested from this species, but are processed differently
Tea processing
Tea processing is the method in which the leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis are transformed into the dried leaves for brewing tea. The categories of tea are distinguished by the processing they undergo. In its most general form, tea processing involves different manners and degree of...

 to attain different levels of oxidation. Kukicha
Kukicha
Kukicha , or twig tea, also known as bōcha , is a Japanese blend made of stems, stalks, and twigs. It is available as a green tea or in more oxidized processing. Kukicha has a unique flavor and aroma among teas, due to its being composed of parts of the tea plant that are excluded from most other...

 (twig tea) is also harvested from Camellia sinensis, but uses twigs and stems rather than leaves. Common names include tea plant, tea tree, and tea shrub.

There are two major varieties used for tea, Chinese tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, and Assam tea, Camellia sinensis var. assamica.

Nomenclature and taxonomy


The name Camellia is taken from the Latinized name of Rev. Georg Kamel
Georg Joseph Kamel
Georg Joseph Kamel , also known as Camellus, was a Jesuit missionary and botanist to the Philippines. The genus Camellia was named in his honour by Carolus Linnaeus....

, S.J. (1661–1706), a Czech-born Jesuit lay brother, pharmacist, and missionary to the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. Carl Linnaeus chose his name for the genus to honor Kamel's contributions to botany (alhough Kamel did not discover or name this plant, or any Camellia, and Linnaeus did not consider this plant a Camellia but a Thea). The name sinensis means from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

.

Four varieties of Camellia sinensis are recognized. Of these C. sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica (J. W. Masters) Kitamura are most commonly used for tea, and C. sinensis var. pubilimba Hung T. Chang and C. sinensis var. dehungensis (Hung T. Chang & B. H. Chen) T. L. Ming are sometimes used locally.

List of the cultivars

  • Benifuuki
  • Fushun
  • Kanayamidori
  • Meiryoku
  • Saemidori
  • Okumidori
  • Yabukita
  • Uji Hikari - a premium tea cultivar developed in Kyoto for producing matcha tea.
  • Gokou - developed especially for the climate of the Kyoto region and for producing matcha tea.
  • Zairai - term in Japan used to refer to a field that does not consist of a specific cultivar.

Description


Chinese
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 Camellia sinensis is native to mainland China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, South
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

, but it is today cultivated across the world in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an evergreen shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

 or small tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

 that is usually trimmed to below two metres (six feet) when cultivated for its leaves. It has a strong taproot
Taproot
A taproot is an enlarged, somewhat straight to tapering plant root that grows vertically downward. It forms a center from which other roots sprout laterally.Plants with taproots are difficult to transplant...

. The flowers are yellow-white, 2.5–4 cm in diameter, with 7 to 8 petals.

The seeds of Camellia sinensis and Camellia oleifera
Camellia oleifera
Camellia oleifera, which originated in China, is notable as an important source of edible oil obtained from its seeds...

 can be pressed to yield tea oil
Tea oil
Tea seed oil is an edible, pale amber-green fixed oil with a sweet, herbal aroma. It is cold-pressed mainly from the seeds of Camellia oleifera but also from Camellia sinensis or Camellia japonica....

, a sweetish seasoning and cooking oil that should not be confused with tea tree oil
Tea tree oil
Tea tree oil, or melaleuca oil, is a pale yellow colour to nearly clear essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor. It is taken from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia, which is native to the northeast coast of New South Wales, Australia...

, an essential oil
Essential oil
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove...

 that is used for medical and cosmetic purposes, and originates from the leaves of a different plant.


The leaves are 4–15 cm long and 2–5 cm broad. Fresh leaves contain about 4% caffeine
Caffeine
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants...

. The young, light green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production; they have short white hairs on the underside. Older leaves are deeper green. Different leaf ages produce differing tea qualities, since their chemical compositions are different. Usually, the tip (bud) and the first two to three leaves are harvested for processing. This hand picking is repeated every one to two weeks.

Cultivation


Camellia sinensis is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, in areas with at least 127 cm. (50 inches) of rainfall a year.
However, the clonal one is commercially cultivated from the equator to as far north as Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of , and covers an area of...

 on the UK mainland. Many high quality teas are grown at high elevations, up to 1500 meters (5,000 ft), as the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour.

Tea plants will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved Chinese variety plant (C. sinensis sinensis) and the large-leaved Assamese plant (C. sinensis assamica), used mainly for black tea.

Indian teas


There are three main kinds of tea produced in India:

Assam
Assam tea
Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production, Assam, in India. Assam tea is manufactured specifically from the plant Camellia sinensis var. assamica . This tea, most of which is grown at or near sea level, is known for its body, briskness, malty flavor, and strong, bright color...

 - Assam tea comes from the northeastern section of the country. This heavily forested region is home to much wildlife, including the rhinoceros
Rhinoceros
Rhinoceros , also known as rhino, is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia....

. Tea from here is rich and full-bodied. It was in Assam that the first tea estate was established, in 1837.

Darjeeling
Darjeeling tea
Darjeeling tea is a black tea from the Darjeeling region in West Bengal, India. When properly brewed, it yields a thin-bodied, light-colored infusion with a floral aroma...

 - The Darjeeling region is cool and wet, and tucked in the foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

. The tea is delicately flavored, and considered to be one of the finest teas in the world. The Darjeeling plantations have 3 distinct harvests, termed 'flushes', and the tea produced from each flush has a unique flavor. First (spring) flush teas are light and aromatic, while the second (summer) flush produces tea with a bit more bite. The third, or autumn flush gives a tea that is lesser in quality.

Nilgiri
Nilgiri tea
Nilgiri tea is generally described as being a dark, intensely aromatic, fragrant and flavoured tea grown in the southern portion of the Western Ghats mountains of Southern India...

 - This tea comes from an even higher part of India than Darjeeling. This southern Indian region has elevations between 1,000 and 2,500 metres. The flavors of Nilgiri teas are subtle and rather gentle. They are frequently blended with other, more robust teas.


Chinese teas


The Chinese plant (sometimes called C. sinensis var. sinensis) is a small-leaved bush with multiple stems that reaches a height of some 3 meters. It is native to southeast China. The first tea plant to be discovered, recorded and used to produce tea three thousand years ago, it yields some of the most popular teas.

C. sinensis var. waldenae was considered a different species, Camellia waldenae by S.Y.Hu, but it was later identified as a variety of C. sinensis. This variety is commonly called Waldenae Camellia. It is seen on Sunset Peak
Sunset Peak
Sunset Peak or Tai Tung Shan is the third highest peak in Hong Kong. It is situated on Lantau Island within Lantau South Country Park and Lantau North Country Park and stands at a height of 869 m above the sea level. The second highest Lantau Peak is on the western part of the island....

 and Tai Mo Shan
Tai Mo Shan
Tai Mo Shan has the highest peak in Hong Kong, with an altitude of 957 m. It is located approximately at the geographical centre of the New Territories....

 in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

. It is also distributed in Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

 Province, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

.

Pests and diseases


Tea leaves are eaten by some herbivore
Herbivore
Herbivores are organisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant-based foods. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. More generally, organisms that feed on autotrophs in...

s, like the caterpillar
Caterpillar
Caterpillars are the larval form of members of the order Lepidoptera . They are mostly herbivorous in food habit, although some species are insectivorous. Caterpillars are voracious feeders and many of them are considered to be pests in agriculture...

s of the willow beauty
Willow Beauty
| image = Peribatodes.rhomboidaria.7197.jpg| image_width = 240px| image_caption = Adult male from Dresden | regnum = Animalia| phylum = Arthropoda| classis = Insecta| ordo = Lepidoptera| zoodivisio = Ditrysia| familia = Geometridae...

 (Peribatodes rhomboidaria), a geometer moth
Geometer moth
The geometer moths or Geometridae are a family of the order Lepidoptera...

.

Medical uses



  • The leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine
    Traditional Chinese medicine
    Traditional Chinese Medicine refers to a broad range of medicine practices sharing common theoretical concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than 2,000 years, including various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage , exercise , and dietary therapy...

     and other medical systems to treat asthma
    Asthma
    Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...

     (functioning as a bronchodilator
    Bronchodilator
    A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous , or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties...

    ), angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease.
  • Tea extracts have become a field of interest, due to their notional antibacterial activity. The preservation of processed organic food and the treatment of persistent bacterial infections are particularly being investigated.
  • Green tea leaves and extracts have shown to be effective against bacteria responsible for bad breath.
  • The tea component epicatechin gallate
    Epicatechin gallate
    Epicatechin gallate is a flavan-3-ol, a type of flavonoid, present in green tea. It is also reported in buckwheat and in grape....

     is being researched because in vitro experiments showed it can reverse methicillin
    Methicillin
    Meticillin or methicillin is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It should not be confused with the antibiotic metacycline.-History:Methicillin was developed by Beecham in 1959...

     resistance in bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus
    Staphylococcus aureus
    Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. It is frequently found as part of the normal skin flora on the skin and nasal passages. It is estimated that 20% of the human population are long-term carriers of S. aureus. S. aureus is the most common species of...

    . If confirmed, this means the combined intake of a tea extract containing this component might also enhance the effectiveness of methicillin treatment against some resistant bacteria in vivo.

See also



  • Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford
    Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford
    Anna Maria Russell, Duchess of Bedford was a lifelong friend of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, whom she served as a Lady of the Bedchamber between 1837 and 1841. She was also the originator of the British meal "afternoon tea."Anna was the daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington...

  • Assam tea
    Assam tea
    Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production, Assam, in India. Assam tea is manufactured specifically from the plant Camellia sinensis var. assamica . This tea, most of which is grown at or near sea level, is known for its body, briskness, malty flavor, and strong, bright color...

  • Bubble tea
    Bubble tea
    Bubble tea is the name for pearl milk tea and other similar tea and juice beverages that originated in tea shops in Taichung, Taiwan during the 1980s. Drink recipes may vary, but most bubble teas contain a tea base mixed with fruit and/or milk...

  • Chinese tea culture
    Chinese tea culture
    Chinese tea culture refers to the methods of preparation of tea, the equipment used to make tea and the occasions in which tea is consumed in China. The terms chayi "Art of Tea 茶藝" and "Tea Ceremony" have been used, but the term "Tea Culture茶文化" includes more than just the ceremony...

  • Chinese herbology
  • Darjeeling tea
    Darjeeling tea
    Darjeeling tea is a black tea from the Darjeeling region in West Bengal, India. When properly brewed, it yields a thin-bodied, light-colored infusion with a floral aroma...

  • Earl Grey
    Earl Grey tea
    Earl Grey tea is a tea blend with a distinctive flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange, a fragrant citrus fruit....

    , a blend of tea made with bergamot orange
    Bergamot orange
    Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange, is a fragrant fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow colour similar to a lemon. Genetic research into the ancestral origins of extant citrus cultivars recently matched the bergamot as a likely hybrid of Citrus limetta and Citrus aurantium...

  • English Breakfast tea
    English Breakfast tea
    English Breakfast tea is a traditional blend of select teas originating from Assam, Ceylon and Kenya. It is one of the most popular blended teas...

  • Flowering tea
    Flowering tea
    Flowering tea or blooming tea consist each of a bundle of dried tea leaves wrapped around one or more dried flowers. These are made by binding tea leaves and flowers together into a bulb and are then set to dry. When steeped, the bundle expands and unfurls in a process that emulates a blooming...

    , a type of tea that opens up when steeped
  • Frederick John Horniman
    Frederick John Horniman
    Frederick John Horniman was an English tea trader, collector and public benefactor.He was the son of John Horniman, who established a tea business using mechanical packaging. In 1891, it was said to be the biggest tea company in the world.He founded the Horniman Museum in Forest Hill, south London...

  • Genetic reliability
  • Genetic traceability
  • Gunpowder tea
    Gunpowder tea
    Gunpowder tea is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. It is believed to take its English name from the fact that the tea resembles blackpowder grains...

  • Green tea extract
    Green tea extract
    A green tea extract is a herbal derivative from green tea leaves . Containing antioxidant ingredients – mainly green tea catechins – green tea and its derivatives are sought-after amongst people who pursue health....

  • The health benefits of tea
    Health benefits of tea
    The health effects of tea have been examined ever since the first infusions of Camellia sinensis about 4700 years ago in China. The legendary emperor Shennong claimed in The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic that Camellia sinensis infusions were useful for treating conditions including tumors,...

  • Iced tea
    Iced tea
    Iced tea is a form of cold tea, often served in a glass with ice. It may or may not be sweetened. Iced tea is also a popular packaged drink. It can be mixed with flavored syrup, with common flavors including lemon, peach, raspberry, lime, passion fruit, and cherry...

  • International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants
    International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants
    The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants regulates the names of cultigens...

  • Irish Breakfast tea
    Irish Breakfast tea
    Irish breakfast tea is a blend of several black teas, most often Assam teas and, less often, other types of black tea. Many tea producers make Irish breakfast tea blends specifically for the US market. In Ireland, it is not referred to as "Irish breakfast tea", but simply as "tea", being the...

  • ISO 3103
    ISO 3103
    ISO 3103 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization , specifying a standardized method for brewing tea, possibly sampled by the standardized methods described in ISO 1839. It was originally laid down in 1980 as BS 6008:1980 by the British Standards Institute...

    , a method of brewing tea according to the ISO
    International Organization for Standardization
    The International Organization for Standardization , widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial...

  • Japanese tea ceremony
    Japanese tea ceremony
    The Japanese tea ceremony, also called the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea. In Japanese, it is called . The manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called...


  • Kahwah
    Kahwah
    Kahwah is a traditional green tea recipe in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Kashmir Valley. It is made in the Kashmir Valley of India and Pakistan, the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, in the North-West Frontier Province and other provinces in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and other regions of...

     Traditional Green Tea recipe from Kashmir
  • Kaempferol
    Kaempferol
    Kaempferol is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, that has been isolated from tea, broccoli, Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit,cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, grapes, brussels sprouts, apples and other plant sources. Kaempferol is a yellow crystalline solid with a...

     a flavanoid found in green and black teas and associated with reduced risk of heart disease
  • Korean tea ceremony
    Korean tea ceremony
    The Korean tea ceremony or darye is a traditional form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea. Darye literally refers to "etiquette for tea" or "day tea rite" and has been kept among Korean people for a few thousand years...

  • Lapsang souchong
    Lapsang souchong
    Lapsang souchong is a black tea originally from the Wuyi region of the Chinese province of Fujian. It is sometimes referred to as smoked tea...

  • List of tea companies
  • Masala chai
    Masala chai
    Masala chai is a beverage from the Indian subcontinent made by brewing tea with a mixture of aromatic Indian spices and herbs.-Terminology:-Plain chai:...

  • Mate
    Mate (beverage)
    Mate , also known as chimarrão or cimarrón, is a traditional South American infused drink, particularly in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern states of Brazil, south of Chile, the Bolivian Chaco, and to some extent, Syria and Lebanon...

  • Orange Pekoe
    Orange Pekoe
    Orange pekoe , also spelled "pecco" is a term used in the Western tea trade to describe a particular genre of black teas . Despite a purported Chinese origin, these grading terms are typically used for teas from Sri Lanka, India and countries other than China; they are not generally known within...

  • Peppermint tea
    Peppermint tea
    Peppermint tea is a tisane of peppermint, Mentha piperita. It is sometimes called mint tea. It is naturally caffeine-free. A tea made from blending peppermint and spearmint leaves is referred to as doublemint tea.-Health benefits and concerns:...

  • Prince of Wales tea blend
    Prince of Wales tea blend
    Prince of Wales tea blend is a blend of China black teas typically served in the afternoon with scones in Britain. The blend was originally devised for Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward VIII...

  • Rooibos
    Rooibos
    Rooibos is a broom-like member of the legume family of plants growing in South Africa's fynbos.The generic name comes from the plant Calicotome villosa, aspalathos in Greek. This plant has very similar growth and flowers to the redbush...

  • Samovar
    Samovar
    A samovar is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in and around Russia, as well as in other Central, South-Eastern, Eastern European countries,Kashmir and in the Middle-East...

  • Tasseography
    Tasseography
    Tasseography is a divination or fortune-telling method that interprets patterns in tea leaves, coffee grounds, or wine sediments....

    , a method of divination
    Divination
    Divination is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic standardized process or ritual...

     by reading tea leaves.
  • Tea
    Tea
    Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

  • Tea Classics
    Tea Classics
    Tea as a beverage was first consumed in China no later than the fifth century BCE. The earliest extant mention of tea in literature is in the Shih Ching or Book of Songs, written circa 550 BCE, although the ideogram used in these texts can also designate a variety of plants, such as sowthistle...

  • Tea production in Sri Lanka
    Tea production in Sri Lanka
    Tea production in Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon, is of high importance to the Sri Lankan economy and the world market. The country is the world's fourth largest producer of tea and the industry is one of the country's main sources of foreign exchange and a significant source of income for laborers,...

  • Thai tea
    Thai tea
    Thai tea or "cha-yen" in Thailand, is a drink made from strongly-brewed black tea. Other ingredients may include added orange blossom water, star anise, crushed tamarind seed or red and yellow food coloring, and sometimes other spices as well. This tea is sweetened with sugar and condensed milk...

  • Turkish tea
    Turkish tea
    Turkish tea is a type of tea that is popular mainly in the Turkish-speaking countries. In Turkey, Turkish tea tends to be more popular than Turkish coffee among the younger generation.-Introduction:...


External links



  • Camellia sinensis from Purdue University
    Purdue University
    Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S., is the flagship university of the six-campus Purdue University system. Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and...

  • Plant Cultures: botany and history of the tea plant
  • Antibacterial Activity of Green Tea Extracts against Streptococcus anginosus group CI.NII.AC.jp
  • Jac.OxfordJournals.org, The effect of a component of tea (Camellia sinensis) on methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus.
  • Suns.Ars-Grin.gov, List of Chemicals in Camellia sinensis (Dr. Duke's Databases)