California Battalion

California Battalion

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The first California Volunteer Militia (also called: U.S. Mounted Rifles) was commonly called the California Battalion was organized by John C. Fremont
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont , was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder...

 during the Mexican-American War in Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

, present day California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

Formation


A compact was drawn in early July 1846 for all volunteers to sign, which in part read: "Not to violate the chastity of Women; conduct their revolution honorably; and pledge obedience to their officers." With the signatures or marks of the men, the California Battalion was formed. Fremont appointed a Marine Corps Officer, Captain Archibald H. Gillespie, his Adjutant. Captain Gillespie had joined Fremont when the latter was at the Oregon Border. Gillespie had left in early May 1846 shortly after hostilities had broken out with the opening of the Mexican-American War. Gillespie had crossed the Mexico in disguise with messages from the war department, President Polk
James K. Polk
James Knox Polk was the 11th President of the United States . Polk was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. He later lived in and represented Tennessee. A Democrat, Polk served as the 17th Speaker of the House of Representatives and the 12th Governor of Tennessee...

 and Fremont's father-in-law Senator Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton (senator)
Thomas Hart Benton , nicknamed "Old Bullion", was a U.S. Senator from Missouri and a staunch advocate of westward expansion of the United States. He served in the Senate from 1821 to 1851, becoming the first member of that body to serve five terms...

. The multiple messages were verbal, to avoid interception, for Commodore John D. Sloat
John D. Sloat
John Drake Sloat was a commodore in the United States Navy who, in 1846, claimed California for the United States.-Life:...

 commander of the Pacific Squadron
Pacific Squadron
The Pacific Squadron was part of the United States Navy squadron stationed in the Pacific Ocean in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Initially with no United States ports in the Pacific, they operated out of storeships which provided naval supplies and purchased food and obtained water from local...

, U.S. Consul Thomas Larkin
Thomas O. Larkin
Thomas Oliver Larkin was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic.-Early years:...

, and Fremont. He also carried some letters from Fremont's wife, Jessie Benton Fremont
Jessie Benton Frémont
Jessie Ann Benton Frémont was an American writer and political activist.Notably remembered for being the daughter of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton and the wife of military officer, explorer and politician, John C. Frémont, she wrote many stories that were printed in popular magazines of the...

. Gillespie had traveled across Mexico in disguise and caught a ship from Mexico to California, delivered his verbal messages to Larkin and Sloat and followed Fremont almost to the Oregon border near present day Klamath Lake, Oregon.

On formation of the battalion, Fremont requested the Battalion's volunteers to elect their officers from the ranks. Most were emigrants over the California Trail
California Trail
The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California...

 of 1845 and members of Fremont's own exploration party. The California Battalion was officially authorized a few days later under Commodore Robert F. Stockton
Robert F. Stockton
Robert Field Stockton was a United States naval commodore, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War. He was a naval innovator and an early advocate for a propeller-driven, steam-powered navy. Stockton was from a notable political family and also served as a U.S...

 (U.S. Navy), the senior military officer in California who replaced Sloat in July 1846. Frémont was given the (brevet
Brevet (military)
In many of the world's military establishments, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank except when actually serving in that role. An officer so promoted may be referred to as being...

) rank of Lieutenant Colonel with Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie second in command promoted to major. Commodore Stockton was in charge of the Pacific Squadron
Pacific Squadron
The Pacific Squadron was part of the United States Navy squadron stationed in the Pacific Ocean in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Initially with no United States ports in the Pacific, they operated out of storeships which provided naval supplies and purchased food and obtained water from local...

 of the U.S. Navy that occupied Monterey, California
Monterey, California
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on Monterey Bay along the Pacific coast in Central California. Monterey lies at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 27,810. Monterey is of historical importance because it was the capital of...

 on 7 July 1846 and Yerba Buena (to be renamed San Francisco) on 9 July 1846. Since there was no U.S. Army present in Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

 (and wouldn't be till December 1846), Stockton needed men to garrison and help keep the peace in the various towns rapidly coming into U.S. control. He did not have enough marines and blue-coats to do this; although he had three frigate
Frigate
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.In the 17th century, the term was used for any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description often used being "frigate-built"...

s with a crew of 480 each, three to four sloop
Sloop
A sloop is a sail boat with a fore-and-aft rig and a single mast farther forward than the mast of a cutter....

s with a crew of 200 men each plus three store ships at his disposal. He looked at his marines and blue-jackets as shock troops to only be employed where needed.

Fremont's men were officially mustered into the armed forces on 23 July 1846 and authorized $25.00/month pay. The approximate 34 Mission Indians
Mission Indians
Mission Indians is a term for many Native California tribes, primarily living in coastal plains, adjacent inland valleys and mountains, and on the Channel Islands in central and southern California, United States. The tribes had established comparatively peaceful cultures varying from 250 to 8,000...

 eventually part of the battalion's roster were paid with trade goods as was customary then. The men in the battalion were all volunteers formed from the 60 men of Captain Fremont's Corps of Topographical Engineers (roughly half were soldiers the rest Indians and mountain men) and initially from the Bear Flag Republic members from Sutter's Fort
Sutter's Fort
Sutter's Fort State Historic Park is a state-protected park in Sacramento, California which includes Sutter's Fort and the California State Indian Museum. Begun in 1839 and originally called "New Helvetia" by its builder, John Sutter, the fort was a 19th century agricultural and trade colony in...

 who had started the rebellion in California. There were volunteers from all nationalities including several Californios and a company of Indians from Sutter's Fort who were more than happy to get rid of the dysfunctional Mexican and Californios government(s).

Mexican-American War


The first job given to the California Battalion and was to assist in the capture of San Diego and Pueblo de Los Angeles
Pueblo de Los Angeles
El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles was the Spanish civilian pueblo founded in 1781, which by the 20th century became the American metropolis of Los Angeles....

. On 26 July 1846 Lt. Col. J. C. Fremont's California Battalion of about 160 boarded the sloop USS Cyane (1837)
USS Cyane (1837)
The second USS Cyane was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War.Cyane was launched 2 December 1837 by Boston Navy Yard. She was commissioned in May 1838, Commander John Percival in command....

, under the command of Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont
Samuel Francis du Pont
Samuel Francis Du Pont was an American naval officer who achieved the rank of Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, and a member of the prominent Du Pont family; he was the only member of his generation to use a capital D...

, and sailed for San Diego. They landed 29 July 1846 and a detachment of Marines and blue-jackets, followed shortly by the Fremont's California Battalion from Cyane, landed and took possession of the town without firing a shot. Leaving about 40 men to garrison San Diego, Fremont continued on to Los Angeles where on 13 August, with the Navy band playing and colors flying, the combined forces of Stockton and Frémont entered Pueblo de Los Angeles, without a man killed nor shot fired. Marine Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie, Fremont's second in command, was appointed military commander of Los Angeles with from 30 to 50 troops stationed there to keep the peace.

In Pueblo de Los Angeles, the largest city in California with about 3,000 residents, things might have remained peaceful, except that Major Gillespie placed the town under martial law, greatly angering some of the Californios. On 23 September 1846, about 200-300 Californios under Gen. José María Flores
José Mariá Flores
General José María Flores was an officer in the Mexican Army and was a member of la otra banda. He was appointed Governor and Comandante General pro tem of Alta California from 1846 to 1847.-Mexican-America War:...

 staged a revolt, the Siege of Los Angeles
Siege of Los Angeles
The Siege of Los Angeles was a military occupation by the United States Marines of the Pueblo de Los Angeles during the Mexican-American war.-Occupation:...

, and exchanged shots with the Americans in their quarters at the Government House. Gillespie and his men withdrew from their headquarters in town to Fort Hill which, unfortunately, had no water. Gillespie was caught in a trap, badly outnumbered by the besiegers. John Brown, an American, called by the Californios Juan Flaco, meaning "Lean John," succeeded in breaking through the Californio lines and riding to San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean...

 (a distance of almost 400 miles) in an amazing 52 hours where he delivered to Stockton a dispatch from Gillespie notifying him of the situation. Gillespie, on 30 September, finally accepted the terms of capitulation and departed for San Pedro with his forces, weapons and flags plus two cannon (the others were spiked and left behind), accompanied by the exchanged American prisoners and several American residents. It would take about four months of intermittent sparing before Gillespie could raise the same American flag again in Los Angeles.

After news of the Los Angeles revolt reached northern California, Fremont was asked to enlarge his battalion and head for Los Angeles to join with Stockton's men to retake the city. Volunteers rapidly enlarged his force to about 450 men plus more stationed in various northern California towns to keep the peace. The California Trail
California Trail
The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California...

 by this time was starting to dieliver a new collection of American colonists and potential recruits—an estimated 1,500 would arrive in 1846.

San Juan Bautista
San Juan Bautista
San Juan Bautista is:* The Spanish-language name of Saint John the Baptist. See also the disambiguation page at San Juan. The name also may appear as a Spanish translation of the French Jean-Baptiste.As a toponym, San Juan Bautista may refer to:...

 was the marshaling area for Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont , was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder...

’s forces of about 450 men of the California Battalion enroute to joining up with Commodore Robert Stockton's and General Stephen W. Kearny
Stephen W. Kearny
Stephen Watts Kearny surname also appears as Kearney in some historic sources; August 30, 1794 October 31, 1848), was one of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army. He is remembered for his significant contributions in the Mexican-American War, especially the conquest...

's forces (about 500 men) converging on Los Angeles to put down a sputtering revolt there. An American scouting party was attacked by a force of mounted Californio
Californio
Californio is a term used to identify a Spanish-speaking Catholic people, regardless of race, born in California before 1848...

s on the Rancho La Natividad
Rancho La Natividad
Rancho La Natividad was a Mexican land grant in present day Monterey County, California given in 1837 by Governor Juan B. Alvarado to Manuel Butrón and his son-in-law, Nicolás Alviso. Rancho La Natividad and Rancho Los Vergeles were adjoining ranchos along Gabilan Creek north of present day...

 in the Salinas Valley
Salinas Valley
The Salinas Valley lies south of San Francisco, California.The word "salina" is spanish for salt marsh, salt lake or salt pan.-Geography:The Salinas Valley runs approximately south-east from Salinas towards King City. The valley lends its name to the geologic province in which it's located, the...

. The Californios were attempting to capture some horses being herded by the Americans. A battle ensued in which the Californio force killed four Americans and wounded more. The American volunteers were buried on the Rancho Los Vergeles
Rancho Los Vergeles
Rancho Los Vergeles was a Mexican land grant in present day Monterey County and San Benito County, California given in 1835 by Governor José Castro to José Joaquín Gómez. The name means "flower garden". Rancho La Natividad and Rancho Los Vergeles were adjoining ranchos, north of present day...

. The Californios reported no dead and 5 wounded. The Americans reported several Californios killed and wounded. As the Californios retreated the Americans did not give chase. The Walla Walla and Delaware Indian
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 detachment fighting with the Americans fought aggressively and bravely displaying two scalps they had taken during the conflict.

Commodore Stockton and (brevet) Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny
Stephen W. Kearny
Stephen Watts Kearny surname also appears as Kearney in some historic sources; August 30, 1794 October 31, 1848), was one of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army. He is remembered for his significant contributions in the Mexican-American War, especially the conquest...

 met at San Diego in December 1846 after being rescued by Stockton's men. Kearny, wounded and with only about 90 men after the fiasco of the Battle of San Pasqual
Battle of San Pasqual
The Battle of San Pasqual, also spelled San Pascual, was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican-American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California. On December 6 and December 7, 1846, General Stephen W...

 was ambiguous as to his status. The rank of Commodore (roughly equivalent now to Rear Admiral) and Brigadier General was roughly equivalent (both one star titles) so it was not clear who had superior rank.

In late 1846 Frémont, acting under orders from Commodore Robert F. Stockton
Robert F. Stockton
Robert Field Stockton was a United States naval commodore, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War. He was a naval innovator and an early advocate for a propeller-driven, steam-powered navy. Stockton was from a notable political family and also served as a U.S...

 to retake the California cities as he marched overland to Los Angeles, led a military expedition of about 400 men to capture Santa Barbara, California
History of Santa Barbara, California
The history of Santa Barbara, California, begins approximately 13,000 years ago with the arrival of the first Native Americans. The Spanish came in the 18th century to occupy and Christianize the area, which became part of Mexico following the Mexican War of Independence...

. Frémont led his unit over the Santa Ynez Mountains
Santa Ynez Mountains
The Santa Ynez Mountains are a portion of the Transverse Ranges, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges of the west coast of North America, and are one of the northernmost mountain ranges in Southern California.-Geography:...

 at San Marcos Pass
San Marcos Pass
San Marcos Pass is a mountain pass in the Santa Ynez Mountains in California.It is traversed by State Route 154. The pass connects Los Olivos and the Santa Ynez Valley with Santa Barbara, California...

, in a rainstorm on the night of 24 December 1846. In spite of losing many of his horses, mules, and cannon, which slid down the muddy slopes during the rainy night, his men regrouped in the foothills the next morning, and recaptured the Presidio without bloodshed. Stockton and Kearny by ship went to San Diego and from there marched on Los Angeles with about 500 men. A few days later Fremont led his men southeast towards Los Angeles, accepting the surrender of Andres Pico
Andrés Pico
Andrés Pico was a Californio who became a successful rancher, served as a military commander during the Mexican-American War; and was elected to the state assembly and senate after California became a state, when he was also commissioned as a brigadier general in the state militia.-Early...

 on the Cahuenga Plain on 13 January 1847.

Fremont specifically quoted his title as California Battalion commander in the Treaty of Cahuenga
Treaty of Cahuenga
The Treaty of Cahuenga, also called the "Capitulation of Cahuenga," ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in Alta California in 1847. It was not a formal treaty between nations but an informal agreement between rival military forces in which the Californios gave up fighting...

:

To All Who These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: Know Ye, that in consequence of propositions of peace, or cessation of hostilities, being submitted to me, as Commandant of the California Battalion of the United States forces, which have so far been acceded to by me as to cause me to appoint a board of commissioners to confer with a similar board appointed by the Californians, and it requiring a little time to close the negotiations; it is agreed upon and ordered by me that an entire cessation of hostilities shall take place until to-morrow afternoon (13 January), and that the said Californians be permitted to bring in their wounded to the mission of San Fernando, where, also, if they choose, they can move their camp to facilitate said negotiations.


Both Kearny and Stockton, wanting to avoid further hostilities, accepted the treaty negotiated by Fremont. On 16 January 1847, Commodore Stockton appointed Frémont military governor of California following the Treaty of Cahuenga
Treaty of Cahuenga
The Treaty of Cahuenga, also called the "Capitulation of Cahuenga," ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in Alta California in 1847. It was not a formal treaty between nations but an informal agreement between rival military forces in which the Californios gave up fighting...

 signed by Fremont and Andres Pico
Andrés Pico
Andrés Pico was a Californio who became a successful rancher, served as a military commander during the Mexican-American War; and was elected to the state assembly and senate after California became a state, when he was also commissioned as a brigadier general in the state militia.-Early...

 which ended the Mexican-American War in California. However, U.S. Army Brigadier General Stephen Watts Kearny, who outranked Frémont (and was nominally of the same rank as Commodore Stockton) said he had orders from the President and Secretary of War to serve as governor and demanded that Frémont give up the position of California governor. Fremont, with conflicting orders, stubbornly refused to do this. On 31 May 1847 Col. Richard B. Mason was appointed military governor of California by Kearny as he prepared to go back east. Kearny ordered Frémont to order his men to either sign up in the regular army or disburse. Fremont said they would happily disburse as soon as they were paid—which was difficult since almost nobody had any money. Nearly all California Battalion members mustered out.

Kearny ordered Fremont to accompany him back east. They were accompanied by about 19 of Fremont's original scouting party who wanted to return home and a group of Mormon Battalion
Mormon Battalion
The Mormon Battalion was the only religiously based unit in United States military history, and it served from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican-American War. The battalion was a volunteer unit of between 534 and 559 Latter-day Saints men led by Mormon company officers, commanded by regular...

 men who had re-enlisted to get back to their homes in Salt Lake City, Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. The name of the city is often shortened to Salt Lake or SLC. With a population of 186,440 as of the 2010 Census, the city lies in the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a total population of 1,124,197...

, Iowa
Iowa
Iowa is a state located in the Midwestern United States, an area often referred to as the "American Heartland". It derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many American Indian tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa was a part of the French colony of New...

 and Nebraska
Nebraska
Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

. They went back East over the California Trail
California Trail
The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California...

 in reverse burying some of the Donner party
Donner Party
The Donner Party was a group of American pioneers who set out for California in a wagon train. Delayed by a series of mishaps, they spent the winter of 1846–47 snowbound in the Sierra Nevada...

 who had died in 1846 along the way. When Kearny and Fremont arrived at Fort Leavenworth Kansas in August 1847, Kearny told Frémont to consider himself under arrest and to report to Washington, D.C. for court martial. There after an almost three month trial he was convicted of mutiny but recommended for remediation to Polk. President James K. Polk quickly commuted Fremont's sentence of dishonorable discharge in light of his service in the war and offered to let him keep his army commission. Frémont however, considered his conviction an injustice and resigned his commission and moved back to California with his family settling on Rancho Las Mariposas
Rancho Las Mariposas
Rancho Las Mariposas was a Mexican land grant in present day Mariposa County, California given in 1844 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena to Juan Bautista Alvarado. The grant takes its name from Mariposa Creek, which was named for the butterflies in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains...

 that Thomas O. Larkin
Thomas O. Larkin
Thomas Oliver Larkin was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic.-Early years:...

 had bought for him at his request. Reportedly there was $10,000,000 worth of gold found on this Mariposa ranch in later years although Fremont had to fight with many squatters who mined much of the gold.

Battalion Organization

  • Commanding officer: Lt.-Colonel John C. Fremont
    John C. Frémont
    John Charles Frémont , was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder...

     US Army
  • Second in command: Major Archibald Gillespie USMC


The battalion was organized into eight companies:
  • Co. A. Capt. Richard "Dick" Owens (Owens Valley; Owens River) Wm. N. Loker, 1st lieutenant, appointed adjutant, 10 Feb. 1847; B.M. Hudspeth, 2d lieutenant, appointed captain, Feb. 1847, Wm. Findlay, 2nd lieutenant, appointed captain, Feb. 1847.
  • Co. B. Capt. Henry L. Ford (nephew of Mary Todd Lincoln); Andrew Copeland, 1st lieutenant.
  • Co. C. Capt. Granville P. Swift; Wm. Baldridge, 1st lieutenant; Wm. Hartgrove, 2nd lieutenant.
  • Co. D. Capt. John Sears; Wm. Bradshaw, 1st lieutenant.
  • Co. E. Capt. John Grigsby; Archibald Jesse, 1st lieutenant.
  • Co. F. Capt. Lansford W. Hastings
    Lansford Hastings
    Lansford Warren Hastings is best remembered as the developer of Hastings Cutoff, a shortcut across what is now the state of Utah, a factor in the Donner Party disaster of 1846.-Early life:...

     (Hastings Cut-Off fame); Wornbough, 1st lieutenant; J.M. Hudspeth, 2nd lieutenant.
  • Co. G. Capt. Bluford K. "Hell Roaring" Thompson; Davis 1st lieutenant; Rock, 2nd lieutenant.
  • Co. H. Capt. Richard T. Jacob; Edwin Bryant, 1st lieutenant (afterwards alcalde at San Francisco); Geo. M. Lippincott, 2nd lieutenant (of New York). About 34 Indians were in this company. The Indians typically were employed as scouts and guards in front and in back of the column while transiting.
  • Co. Artillery. Capt. Louis McLane U.S. Navy, (in charge of their two small cannons) (promoted to major); John. K. Wilson, 1st lieutenant, (appointed captain in January, 1847); Wm. Blackburn, 2nd lieutenant. (later alcalde of Santa Cruz).

And outriders, hunters, couriers, and scouts, including Delaware, Cosumnes River, Walla Walla and Chinook Indians, scouts Kit Carson
Kit Carson
Christopher Houston "Kit" Carson was an American frontiersman and Indian fighter. Carson left home in rural present-day Missouri at age 16 and became a Mountain man and trapper in the West. Carson explored the west to California, and north through the Rocky Mountains. He lived among and married...

 (enrolled as a Lieutenant) and Alexander Godey, captain (appointed by Stockton);.
  • Officers on detached Service and doing Duty at the South.–Samuel J. Hensley, captain; S. Gibson, captain (lanced through the body at Battle of San Pasqual
    Battle of San Pasqual
    The Battle of San Pasqual, also spelled San Pascual, was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican-American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California. On December 6 and December 7, 1846, General Stephen W...

    ); Miguel Pedrorena
    Miguel Pedrorena
    Miguel Telesford Pedrorena or Miguel de Pedrorena was an early settler of San Diego, California-Life:Miguel Pedroena moved to San Diego in 1845. He married María Antonia Estudillo, daughter of José Antonio Estudillo and María Victoria...

    , captain, Spaniard (appointed by Stockton); Santiago Argüello
    Santiago Argüello
    -Life:Santiago Argüello was born in Monterey, California, the son of José Darío Argüello, a soldier, and María Ignacia Moraga, a niece of the acting governor of Alta California. Argüello was tall and stout. His fair complexion and black hair, along with his reserved manner gave him a regal...

    , captain, Californian (appointed by Stockton); Bell, captain (appointed by Stockton), old resident of California (Los Angeles); H. Rhenshaw, 1st lieutenant, (appointed by Stockton); Jas. Barton, captain (appointed by Stockton); L. Arguello, captain, Californian (appointed by Stockton).


The complete roster of the California Battalion is given by the following two references.