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Caile Ferate Române

Caile Ferate Române

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Căile Ferate Române (translated "Romanian Railways", abbreviated as CFR) is the official designation of the state railway carrier of Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

. Romania has a railway network of 11380 km (7,071.2 mi) of which 3971 km (2,467.5 mi) are electrified
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electrical energy to railway locomotives and multiple units as well as trams so that they can operate without having an on-board prime mover. There are several different electrification systems in use throughout the world...

 and the total track length is 22247 km (13,823.7 mi) (8585 km (5,334.5 mi) electrified). The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger and freight services. CFR as an entity has been operating since 1880, even though the first railway on current Romanian territory was opened in 1854.

CFR is divided into four autonomous companies:
  • CFR Călători, responsible for passenger services;
  • CFR Marfă, responsible for freight transport;
  • CFR Infrastructură, manages the infrastructure on the Romanian railway network; and
  • Societatea Feroviară de Turism, or SFT, which manages scenic and tourist railways
    Heritage railway
    thumb|right|the Historical [[Khyber train safari|Khyber Railway]] goes through the [[Khyber Pass]], [[Pakistan]]A heritage railway , preserved railway , tourist railway , or tourist railroad is a railway that is run as a tourist attraction, in some cases by volunteers, and...

    .


CFR is headquartered in Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

 and has regional divisions in Bucharest, Brașov
Brasov
Brașov is a city in Romania and the capital of Brașov County.According to the last Romanian census, from 2002, there were 284,596 people living within the city of Brașov, making it the 8th most populated city in Romania....

, Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca , commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest , Budapest and Belgrade...

, Constanța
Constanta
Constanța is the oldest extant city in Romania, founded around 600 BC. The city is located in the Dobruja region of Romania, on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of Constanța County and the largest city in the region....

, Craiova
Craiova
Craiova , Romania's 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern Carpathians and the River Danube . Craiova is the chief...

, Galați
Galati
Galați is a city and municipality in Romania, the capital of Galați County. Located in the historical region of Moldavia, in the close vicinity of Brăila, Galați is the largest port and sea port on the Danube River and the second largest Romanian port....

, Iași
Iasi
Iași is the second most populous city and a municipality in Romania. Located in the historical Moldavia region, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural, academic and artistic life...

 and Timișoara
Timisoara
Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, in western Romania. One of the largest Romanian cities, with an estimated population of 311,586 inhabitants , and considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat, Timișoara is the main social, economic and cultural center in the...

. Its International Union of Railways
International Union of Railways
The UIC , or International Union of Railways, is an international rail transport industry body.- Brief history :The railways of Europe originated as separate concerns. There were many border changes after World War I and the Treaty of Versailles. Colonial railways were the responsibility of the...

 code is 53-CFR.

Railways in the 19th century


The first railway line on Romania's present-day territory was opened on 20 August 1854 and ran between Oravița
Oravita
Oravița is a town in southwestern Romania, in Caraș-Severin County, with a population of 15,524 in 2000. Its theatre is a fully functional scaled down version of the Burgtheater in Vienna...

 in Banat
Banat
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania , the western part in northeastern Serbia , and a small...

 and Baziaș, a port on the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

. The line, which had a length of 62.5 km, was used solely for the transportation of coal. From 12 January 1855, the line was operated by Imperial Royal Privileged Austrian State Railway Company
Imperial Royal Privileged Austrian State Railway Company
The Imperial Royal Privileged Austrian State Railway Company , later the Privileged Austro-Hungarian State Railway Company was a private railway company in the Austro-Hungarian Empire...

, the Banat province being at that time part of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

. After several improvements in the following months, the line was opened to passenger traffic from 1 November 1856.

Between 1864 and 1880, several railways were constructed in the area of the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was the Romanian state based on a form of parliamentary monarchy between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania...

. On 1 September 1865, the English company John Trevor-Barkley began construction on the Bucharest–Giurgiu
Giurgiu
Giurgiu is the capital city of Giurgiu County, Romania, in the Greater Wallachia. It is situated amid mud-flats and marshes on the left bank of the Danube facing the Bulgarian city of Rousse on the opposite bank. Three small islands face the city, and a larger one shelters its port, Smarda...

 line. Commissioned by the King of Romania, the line was opened to traffic on 26 August 1869. The Bucharest-Giurgiu line was the first railway built on Romanian territory at that time (considering that the Oraviţa-Baziaş line was part of Austria-Hungary, even though it presently lies on Romanian territory).

In September 1866, the Romanian Parliament voted for the construction of a 915 km railway, from Vârciorova in the south to Roman
Roman, Romania
Roman is a mid-sized city, having the title of municipality, located in the central part of Moldavia, a traditional region of Romania. It is located 46 km east of Piatra Neamţ, in the Neamţ County at the confluence of Siret and Moldova rivers....

 in the north, via Pitești
Pitesti
Pitești is a city in Romania, located on the Argeș River. The capital and largest city of Argeș County, it is an important commercial and industrial center, as well as the home of two universities. Pitești is situated on the A1 freeway connecting it directly to the national capital Bucharest,...

, Bucharest, Buzău
Buzau
The city of Buzău is the county seat of Buzău County, Romania, in the historical region of Wallachia. It lies near the right bank of the Buzău River, between the south-eastern curvature of the Carpathian Mountains and the lowlands of Bărăgan Plain.The city's name dates back to 376 AD when the name...

, Brăila
Braila
Brăila is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and the capital of Brăila County, in the close vicinity of Galaţi.According to the 2002 Romanian census there were 216,292 people living within the city of Brăila, making it the 10th most populous city in Romania.-History:A...

, Galați and Tecuci
Tecuci
Tecuci is a city in the Galaţi county of Romania , situated among wooded hills, on the right bank of the Bârlad River, and at the junction of railways from Galaţi, Bârlad and Mărăşeşti.-History:...

, all important population centres. The price for the construction was at that time 270,000 gold francs per kilometre and was contracted to the German Strousberg consortium. The line was opened in various stages, the first stage (Pitești–Bucharest–Galați–Roman) being opened to traffic on 13 September 1872, while the Vârciorova–Pitești
Pitesti
Pitești is a city in Romania, located on the Argeș River. The capital and largest city of Argeș County, it is an important commercial and industrial center, as well as the home of two universities. Pitești is situated on the A1 freeway connecting it directly to the national capital Bucharest,...

 segment was opened some time later, on 9 May 1878. The Vârciorova-Roman line was an important part of Romania's rail infrastructure because it spanned the entire Kingdom and provided an important connection for passengers and freight between several significant Wallachia
Wallachia
Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians...

n and Moldavia
Moldavia
Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

n cities.

On 10 September 1868, Bucharest's Gara de Nord
Gara de Nord
București Gara de Nord is the main railway station in Bucharest and the largest railway station in Romania...

 (North Station) was finalised. On January 1880, the Romanian Parliament voted to transfer the ownership of the Vârciorova-Roman line from the private administration of the Strousberg consortium to state ownership, under the administration of CFR. 1880 therefore marks the start of the Căile Ferate Române institution which survives to this date. The first administration of CFR was made up of Lords Kalinderu, Stătescu and Falcoianu.

On May 1868, the Romanian state concluded an agreement with another German consortium, known as the "Offenheim Consortium", for the construction of several shorter railways in the region of Moldavia. The lines, which had a total length of 224 km, would run from Roman to Ițcani
Suceava North railway station
The Suceava North , also known as Iţcani, is a railway station located in Suceava, Suceava County, completed in 1871. Originally part of Iţcani village , it is located at No. 4, Strada Gării...

, from Pașcani
Pascani
Paşcani is a city in Iaşi County in the Moldavia region of Romania on the Siret river. , it has a population of 42,172. Five villages are administered by the city: Blăgeşti, Boşteni, Gâsteşti, Lunca and Sodomeni....

 to Iași and from Verești
Veresti
Vereşti is a commune located in Suceava County, Romania. It is composed of four villages: Bursuceni, Corocăieşti, Hancea and Vereşti. The pollution there blocks out the Sun.-References:...

 to Botoșani
Botosani
Botoșani is the capital city of Botoșani County, in northern Moldavia, Romania. Today, it is best known as the birthplace of many celebrated Romanians, including Mihai Eminescu and Nicolae Iorga.- Origin of the name :...

. In 1870, the Iași railway station
Iasi railway station
Iaşi railway station is the main railway station in Iaşi and one of the oldest in Romania. It is part of the Pan-European Corridor IX.-History:...

 was inaugurated and the lines were progressively opened from December 1869 to November 1871. Due to the poor management of the lines by the Offenheim Consortium, they were placed under the management of CFR in January 1889.

Meanwhile, during the Romanian War of Independence
Romanian War of Independence
The Romanian War of Independence is the name used in Romanian historiography to refer to the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish war, following which Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire...

 in 1877, Romania annexed the region of Dobrogea
Dobruja
Dobruja is a historical region shared by Bulgaria and Romania, located between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, including the Danube Delta, Romanian coast and the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast...

, which had previously belonged to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

. The Romanian state placed under the management of CFR the Constanța–Cernavodă
Cernavoda
Cernavodă is a town in Constanţa County, Dobrogea, Romania with a population of 20,514.The town's name is derived from the Slavic černa voda , meaning "black water". This name is regarded by some scholars as a calque of the earlier Thracian name Axíopa, from IE *n.ksei "dark" and upā "water"...

 line, which had been opened during the Ottoman times in 1860. The Bucharest-Giurgiu line, the first line constructed in the Kingdom of Romania, was also placed under the administration of CFR during this time.

Hence, by 1889, the Romanian state became the owner of all of the lines in the Kingdom of Romania, the railway system having a total length of 1,377 km.

Railways in the early 20th century


In 1918, the historical regions of Transylvania
Transylvania
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

, Banat
Banat
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania , the western part in northeastern Serbia , and a small...

, Bassarabia and Bucovina united with the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was the Romanian state based on a form of parliamentary monarchy between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania...

 to form Greater Romania
Greater Romania
The Greater Romania generally refers to the territory of Romania in the years between the First World War and the Second World War, the largest geographical extent of Romania up to that time and its largest peacetime extent ever ; more precisely, it refers to the territory of the Kingdom of...

. As a result, all railway lines in these regions, previously under the ownership of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 or the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, were placed under the administration of CFR. This event was significant for Romanian railways because it meant that the large Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

 rolling stock and steel factory, previously located on Austro-Hungarian territory, was now part of Romania, and was consequently used to produce a wide range of rolling stock and locomotives for CFR.

During this time, various railways were "doubled"— that is, double tracks were introduced on routes to permit a greater flow of traffic. The first line to be doubled was the Bucharest–Ploiești
Ploiesti
Ploiești is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania. The city is located north of Bucharest....

Câmpina
Câmpina
Câmpina is a city in Prahova county, Romania, north of the county seat Ploieşti, located on the main route between Wallachia and Transylvania. In 2003, the city celebrated 500 years since its founding.-History:...

 line, where doubling was completed in 1912. In the period between the wars, various other lines were doubled, including:
  • Constanța–Cernavodă
    Cernavoda
    Cernavodă is a town in Constanţa County, Dobrogea, Romania with a population of 20,514.The town's name is derived from the Slavic černa voda , meaning "black water". This name is regarded by some scholars as a calque of the earlier Thracian name Axíopa, from IE *n.ksei "dark" and upā "water"...

     (1931)
  • Adjud
    Adjud
    Adjud is a city in Vrancea County, Moldavia, Romania. It has a population of 17,585 inhabitants . It lies at a railway junction which has a classification yard and a passenger station...

    Tecuci
    Tecuci
    Tecuci is a city in the Galaţi county of Romania , situated among wooded hills, on the right bank of the Bârlad River, and at the junction of railways from Galaţi, Bârlad and Mărăşeşti.-History:...

     (1933)
  • Teiuş
    Teius
    Teius is a genus of lizards that belong to the family Teiidae.-Classification:Genus Teius*Teius oculatus*Teius suquiensis*Teius teyou...

    Apahida
    Apahida
    Apahida is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of eight villages: Apahida, Bodrog, Câmpeneşti, Corpadea, Dezmir, Pata, Sânnicoară and Sub Coastă....

     (1940)
  • Câmpina–Brașov (1941)
  • Buzău
    Buzau
    The city of Buzău is the county seat of Buzău County, Romania, in the historical region of Wallachia. It lies near the right bank of the Buzău River, between the south-eastern curvature of the Carpathian Mountains and the lowlands of Bărăgan Plain.The city's name dates back to 376 AD when the name...

    Mărășești
    Marasesti
    Mărăşeşti is a small town in Romania in Vrancea County. It is north of Focşani. It administers six villages: Călimăneşti, Haret, Modruzeni, Pădureni, Siretu and Tişiţa.King Milan I of Serbia was born in Mărăşeşti on 22 August 1854....

     (1942)


During the 1920s and 1930s CFR also bought several new locomotives and cars, embarking on a plan of widespread modernisation. Diesel traction was introduced, and the Malaxa high-speed DMUs
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered by one or more on-board diesel engines. They may also be referred to as a railcar or railmotor, depending on country.-Design:...

 (a modernised version of which are still in use as commuter trains in Banat
Banat
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania , the western part in northeastern Serbia , and a small...

) were built.

A significant event in the history of the railways was the Grivița Strike of 1933
Grivita Strike of 1933
The Grivița Strike of 1933 was a railway strike which was started at the Grivița Workshops, Bucharest, Romania, on 16 February 1933 by workers of Căile Ferate Române . The strike was brought about by the increasingly poor working conditions of railway employees in the context of the worldwide Great...

, which occurred during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 and resulted in violent clashes between railway workers and police.

Railways in Communist Romania



After Romania became a Communist
Communist Romania
Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

 republic in 1947, there was quite a significant amount of investment in railway infrastructure, often to the detriment of other forms of infrastructure. During this period, railways were seen as the symbol of Romania's rapid industrialisation under Communist leaders Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej was the Communist leader of Romania from 1948 until his death in 1965.-Early life:Gheorghe was the son of a poor worker, Tănase Gheorghiu, and his wife Ana. Gheorghiu-Dej joined the Communist Party of Romania in 1930...

 and later by Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceausescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian Communist politician. He was General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and as such was the country's second and last Communist leader...

. Aside from an increase in train traffic and the construction of various new lines, especially in rural areas, the bulk of electrification and line doubling occurred during the Communist period. Also, railways in Southern Dobruja
Southern Dobruja
Southern Dobruja is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra...

 was left to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 in 1940 and ones in Northern Bucovina and Bassarabia were to the Soviet Union in 1947.

The first line to be electrified on the Romanian railway network was the Bucharest–Brașov line, which was used by a significant amount of passenger and freight traffic. Works on electrification started in 1959, and the first electrified segment, from Brașov to Predeal
Predeal
Predeal is a town in Braşov County, Romania. It is the highest town and one of the most important mountain resorts in Romania, being located on the Prahova Valley at over...

, opened on 9 December 1965. By 20 April 1966, a further segment was electrified, from Predeal to Câmpina
Câmpina
Câmpina is a city in Prahova county, Romania, north of the county seat Ploieşti, located on the main route between Wallachia and Transylvania. In 2003, the city celebrated 500 years since its founding.-History:...

. The entire line was electrified by 16 February 1969, at a frequency of 50 Hz and voltage of 25 kV.

Various lines were also supplemented with double tracks to permit a wider flow of traffic, including:
  • Făurei
    Faurei
    Făurei is a town located in Brăila County, Romania.-References:...

    Galaţi
    Galati
    Galați is a city and municipality in Romania, the capital of Galați County. Located in the historical region of Moldavia, in the close vicinity of Brăila, Galați is the largest port and sea port on the Danube River and the second largest Romanian port....

     (1971)
  • Pantelimon
    Pantelimon
    Pantelimon is derived from the name of Saint Pantaleon and may refer to several places in Romania:*Pantelimon, Ilfov*Pantelimon, Bucharest*Pantelimon, Constanţa...

    Cernavodă
    Cernavoda
    Cernavodă is a town in Constanţa County, Dobrogea, Romania with a population of 20,514.The town's name is derived from the Slavic černa voda , meaning "black water". This name is regarded by some scholars as a calque of the earlier Thracian name Axíopa, from IE *n.ksei "dark" and upā "water"...

     (1971)
  • Bucharest–Roșiori–Craiova (1972)
  • Chitila
    Chitila
    Chitila is a town in the west of Ilfov county, Romania, situated 9 km to the north west of Bucharest. It is often seen as a satellite town of Bucharest. One village, Rudeni, is administered by the town.-Transport:...

    Golești
    Golesti
    Goleşti may refer to several places in Romania:* Goleşti, a commune in Vâlcea County* Goleşti, a commune in Vrancea County* Goleşti, a village in Bălileşti Commune, Argeş County* Goleşti, a village in Ştefăneşti town, Argeş County...

     (1972)
  • Brașov–Câmpul Libertății (1974)
  • Adjud
    Adjud
    Adjud is a city in Vrancea County, Moldavia, Romania. It has a population of 17,585 inhabitants . It lies at a railway junction which has a classification yard and a passenger station...

    Suceava
    Suceava
    Suceava is the Suceava County seat in Bukovina, Moldavia region, in north-eastern Romania. The city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1388 to 1565.-History:...

     (1975)
  • Dragalina
    Dragalina
    Dragalina may refer to:*Dragalina, Călăraşi, a commune in Romania*Dragalina, a village in Cristineşti Commune, Botoşani County, Romania*Dragalina, a village in Hlipiceni Commune, Botoşani County, Romania*Tutova, Vaslui, a commune in Vaslui County, Romania...

    Călăraşi
    Calarasi
    Călăraşi , the capital of Călăraşi County and Sud-Muntenia Region in the Wallachia region, is situated in south-east Romania, on the bank of Danube's Borcea branch, at about 12 kilometers from the Bulgarian border and 125 kilometers from Bucharest....

    (70's)


By the mid 1970s, steam traction disappeared completely out of mainstream use, being replaced by standardised diesel and electric locomotives and cars, most of which were built in Romania, at the Astra factory in Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

.

CFR after 1989


After the Romanian Revolution of 1989
Romanian Revolution of 1989
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a series of riots and clashes in December 1989. These were part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several Warsaw Pact countries...

, which resulted in the fall of Communism, Romania was left with one of the largest, most dense and most frequently-used railway networks in Europe; but at the same time having relatively outdated infrastructure. This, combined with the economic decline that Romania faced in the 1990s due to its transition to a market economy, resulted in CFR entering a period of relative decline. Several little-used routes, especially in rural areas, were cut back, and rolling stock, most of which was acquired in the 1970s, entered a period of disrepair. CFR's image, both domestically and abroad, suffered greatly, due to reports of dilapidated trains, poor service and general disarray of management.

This situation continued until the year 1998, when Societatea Naţională a Căilor Ferate Române (The National Society of Romanian Railways) was split into five independently-administered companies : Compania Națională de Căi Ferate "CFR" SA (National Railway Company "CFR" - dealing with infrastructure), CFR Călători (CFR Passenger Services - the operator of passenger trains), CFR Marfă (Freight transport company), CFR Gevaro (Services linked with restaurant cars) and SAAF (dealing with excess rolling stock to be sold, leased or scrapped). After this, the situation of Romanian railways improved significantly, mainly spurred on by Romania's economic boom after the year 2000, which permitted a considerable amount of government investment in railways and has led CFR to once again become one of the most successful railway operators in the region.

Since 1989, a number of small branch lines have been closed— especially those designated for industrial purposes or having a narrow gauge. This has been generally done due to greater competition from private bus services as well as generally low passenger numbers on those lines. The narrow gauge line from Turda to Abrud, for example, could not hope to compete with the private car or bus, the journey time being just short of six and a half hours for the 93 kilometre trip (CFR Timetable 1988, table 309). Some other line closures were thought imminent especially on the branch lines in Timiș
Timis County
Timiș , , Banat Bulgarian: ) is a county of western Romania, in the historical region Banat, with the county seat at Timișoara. It is the largest county in Romania in terms of land area....

 county, which were generally very old, little-used and heavily damaged by the 2005 floods in that area; but most seem to be have been reprieved and now are operated by private operators. 1000–1500 km of railway lines have been divested of CFR control and a few have closed completely since 1990, most of which were in rural areas. Overall however, actual railway closures in Romania have been much less drastic than in other former Communist block countries (such as Hungary and Eastern Germany); indeed the "closure" figures given include lines which have been taken over by private operators and continue to operate (2010). Some standard gauge lines have in fact reopened since closure in the 1990s and some narrow-gauge tracks have recently been reopened by SFT (CFR's Railway Tourism Society) for tourism, but are only run occasionally, about twice a month (lines include Abrud-Câmpeni, Târgu Mureș-Band or Moldovița-Vama). All forestry railroads (căi ferate forestiere in Romanian) still in operation after 1989 have been privatized and sold to the forestry companies. Some, such as the Vasser Valley Scenic Railroad, have since become significant tourist attractions.

In the year 2000 some 47,560 people were employed by CFR. By July 2010 this had reduced to 25,382(see report below)in part due to the divesting of certain operations to other (private) companies. Other economies continue and are envisaged and are set out in the report Strategia de restructurare a domeniului feroviar August 2010 published by the Romanian ministry of transport (August 2010).

Modernisation


In the early 2000s, CFR embarked on a comprehensive modernization programme in order to improve its image, which was, both internationally and domestically, plagued by reports of poor service and outdated rolling stock. The first phases of the modernization included a refurbishment of a large number of Rapid and InterCity rolling stock, as well as a general expansion of IC services to form a Romania-wide express network.

To strengthen the growth of the Romanian InterCity network, CFR acquired in early 2003 several new Siemens
Siemens AG
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich, Germany. It is the largest Europe-based electronics and electrical engineering company....

 Desiro
Desiro
The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the future Desiro City and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them...

 trainsets, some of which were assembled in Arad, Romania
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

. Nicknamed "Săgeata Albastră" (Blue Arrow), they are used on Accelerat, Rapid and InterCity services for short and medium distances. The Desiro trainsets were used as the icons of CFR's modernisation, despite criticism that CFR shouldn't have used the Desiro trainsets, which are diesel multiple units, on mainline express services, as they are designed mainly for short-distance commuter rail, as seen by their fairly hard seating, low speed, and poor noise insulation. CFR responded to this by introducing, in late 2004, a number of new Desiro trainsets that had better sound insulation and 70 seats, instead of 110 seats, thereby increasing the width and pitch of the seats. To this date, CFR continues to use Desiro trains on medium-distance routes, even though it has replaced them on several long-distance routes by other refurbished rolling stock.

Aside from the Desiro, CFR has also bought in the past few years 80 new sleeping car
Sleeping car
The sleeping car or sleeper is a railway/railroad passenger car that can accommodate all its passengers in beds of one kind or another, primarily for the purpose of making nighttime travel more restful. The first such cars saw sporadic use on American railroads in the 1830s and could be configured...

s (WLABmee type), couchettes, InterCity cars, as well as double-decker cars to use on Accelerat and Rapid trains of a high volume of passengers. The new CFR sleepers are currently some of the most modern in Europe, having air-conditioning, LCD screens and modern showers in each compartment.

Apart from improvements in rolling stock, CFR has also bought or modernised several locomotive classes, including the widespread Class 40 and Class 41 electric locomotives.

Part of the CFR modernisation programme is the XSELL system, which seeks to establish a Romania-wide electronic ticketing system. The XSELL system was launched at Bucharest North station
Gara de Nord
București Gara de Nord is the main railway station in Bucharest and the largest railway station in Romania...

  in November 2004, and is now in use in almost all major railway stations in Romania.

In 2003, Romanian mobile phone operator Connex GSM Romania, now Vodafone
Vodafone Romania
Vodafone is a Romanian mobile phone network operator. It launched in April 1997 as the first GSM network in Romania...

, struck a deal with CFR to provide quick mobile services to the CFR timetable and booking system. Currently, a 24-hour hotline operates where customers of Connex can call a certain three-digit number (652) and get real-time information on train routes, timetables, station platform departures, delays, prices and ticketing information and booking of trains from Bucharest North station. Orange Romania
Orange România
Orange România is Romania's largest GSM network operator, the subsidiary of Orange SA. It is now fully owned by the France Télécom Group , the biggest initial investor, who gradually increased its ownership....

 has signed a similar agreement in early 2004.

Smoking
Tobacco smoking
Tobacco smoking is the practice where tobacco is burned and the resulting smoke is inhaled. The practice may have begun as early as 5000–3000 BCE. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 16th century where it followed common trade routes...

 is banned on all CFR trains as of 1 September 2006.

CFR services continue to improve, with the company currently reaching a turning point in its business strategy and services being some of the best in the region. However, some people have raised concerns that CFR, which has not reached profitability yet, does not have the means to finance ongoing infrastructural modernization, especially in the context of a government that is, at present, keener to develop road infrastructure at the expense of railways.

CFR initiated a major infrastructure project in April 2006 - the modernization of the Bucharest - Constanța railway line, in order to improve the maximum speed attainable on the line (from 140 km/h now to 200 km/h in 2008) and increase the capacity of the line. Completion date is estimated to be mid-2008.

Partial privatisation


Although passenger railway services are not a state monopoly in Romania, CFR remains the only passenger carrier operating at a national level. However, after the reorganization of CFR in 1998, around 10% of Romanian railway tracks have been leased to private companies. These are known as non-interoperable tracks (linii neinteroperabile in Romanian). The main operators are: S.C. Regional S.R.L., S.C. Transferoviar Grup S.A., S.C. Regiotrans
Regiotrans
Regiotrans is a private rail company headquartered in Brașov, Romania. It was founded in 2005 and is exclusively active in the passenger transport sector.-Routes:Regiotrans primarily runs local trains...

 S.R.L., and S.C. Servtransinvest S.A. which now operate a significant number (especially Regiotrans
Regiotrans
Regiotrans is a private rail company headquartered in Brașov, Romania. It was founded in 2005 and is exclusively active in the passenger transport sector.-Routes:Regiotrans primarily runs local trains...

) of routes . Early transfers to these companies included Zărnești
Zarnesti
Zărnești is a town in Braşov County, Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 26,520. It administers one village, Tohanu Nou.It is located near the Piatra Craiului Mountains, which are part of the Southern Carpathians mountains range...

–Brașov, Brașov–Întorsura Buzăului
Întorsura Buzaului
Întorsura Buzăului Buzău 's Turn) is a town in Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania. It administers three villages: Brădet, Floroaia and Scrădoasa.- Population :...

, Sfântu Gheorghe
Sfântu Gheorghe
Sfântu Gheorghe is the capital city of Covasna County, Romania. Located in the central part of the country and in the historical region of Transylvania, it lies on the Olt River in a valley between the Baraolt Mountains and Bodoc Mountains...

Brețcu
Bretcu
Breţcu is a commune in Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania composed of three villages:*Breţcu*Mărtănuş / Kézdimartonos*Oituz / OjtoztelepThe Roman settlement of Augustia and the Roman castrum is located on the east side of the settlement....

, Sighișoara
Sighisoara
Sighişoara is a city and municipality on the Târnava Mare River in Mureş County, Romania. Located in the historic region Transylvania, Sighişoara has a population of 27,706 ....

Odorheiu Secuiesc
Odorheiu Secuiesc
Odorheiu Secuiesc is the second-largest city in Harghita County, Transylvania, Romania. In its short form, it is also known as Odorhei in Romanian and Udvarhely in Hungarian...

, Șibot
Sibot
Şibot is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. It is composed of four villages: Băcăinţi , Balomiru de Câmp , Sărăcsău and Şibot.-References:...

Cugir
Cugir
Cugir is a town in Alba county, the central settlement of the Breadfield, in Romania. About 45 kilometers south-west of Alba-Iulia, the capital of the county, and 300 meters above sea level at the base of the Surianu Mountains...

, Blaj
Blaj
Blaj is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania. It has a population of 20,758 inhabitants.The landmark of the city is the fact that it was the principal religious and cultural center of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church in Transylvania....

Praid
Praid
Praid is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania, and is composed of six villages:-Demographics:...

 and Roșiori Nord–Piatra Olt
Piatra Olt
Piatra-Olt is a town in Olt County, Romania. The town administers five villages: Bistriţa Nouă, Criva de Jos, Criva de Sus, Enoşeşti and Piatra. The town is an important railway station and road intersection.-History:...

 lines. On these lines, CFR is not allowed to operate its trains— companies which have leased the tracks have a virtual monopoly on their usage. Aside from CFR Călători, 12 other companies provide local passenger services, on non-interoperable tracks, even though none of these services exceed 40 km in line length. 28 private companies, including Petromidia and Servtrans, operate freight transport services on main lines with their own rolling stock, leasing usage rights from CFR. As of 2005, some of the leases have been breached and the tracks have therefore fallen back under the operation of CFR. In August 2005, CFR announced that it intended to privatize CFR Marfă, its freight division.

Passenger services



CFR Călători, the passenger service division of CFR, operates seven types of passenger train, both on Romania's territory, with rolling stock and locomotive
Locomotive
A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in the early 19th...

s, or internationally, with rolling stock. Also, CFR operates international trains on Romanian territory with its own locomotives. The train types vary in terms of speed and type of rolling stock.
In 2010, approximately 58 million passengers have traveled with the company. 10 million travelers have preferred private equity firms in particular on the side lines.

CFR train types are:
  • Personal (P) - the trains have assigned numbers from 2000 to 9999
  • Accelerat (A) - the trains have assigned numbers from 1000 to 1999
  • Rapid (R) - numbered from 200 to 499, from 600 to 999 and from 10000 to 14999
  • InterCity (IC) - numbered from 500 to 599
  • EuroCity (EC) - numbered as IC trains from 500 to 599
  • EuroNight (EN) - numbered as IC trains from 500 to 599
  • Special (S) - tourist trains operated on scenic routes with vintage rolling stock, numbered from S1 to S9


Aside from the seven main train types, CFR also operates night trains, which can be of any status (usually Rapid, InterCity or EuroNight). Freight trains, operated by CFR Marfă, have a different numbering system.

Personal



Personal trains, also known as commuter trains (navete or trenuri de navetiști), are the most abundant type of train on the CFR passenger network. They are used for two main purposes, as shuttle, or commuter, trains, linking towns with neighbouring villages, and linking neighbouring cities with each other.

Personal trains have the lowest average speed (34.3 km/h in 2004) and the least-comfortable (usually oldest) rolling stock, and have a reputation for being very slow, crowded and generally unkempt which is only gradually changing. Personal trains operate mostly on local routes and stop at every station. Train fares for this type are the cheapest, since no supplement is paid, only the base fee, based on distance. Seats are not reservable.
The rolling stock on Personal trains differs widely. On routes that link neighbouring cities with each other (such as Bucharest and Pitești
Pitesti
Pitești is a city in Romania, located on the Argeș River. The capital and largest city of Argeș County, it is an important commercial and industrial center, as well as the home of two universities. Pitești is situated on the A1 freeway connecting it directly to the national capital Bucharest,...

), the quality of the rolling stock is much better than those services which provide a shuttle link between cities and rural areas (such as the Timișoara-Berzovia line).

Most Personal rolling stock consist of uncompartmented single and double-decker cars. Some train services of this type, especially on rural routes, only have 2nd class rolling stock (i.e. there are no 1st class carriages). As of 2007, most Personal trains have only 2nd class cars. The livery of most Personal cars is painted in blue, with the rolling stock built in the 1970s and 1980s. Some very short rural routes in Romania's Bukovina
Bukovina
Bukovina is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains.-Name:The name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became...

 region use rolling stock from the 1940s and 1950s, refitted with bus seats and operating like railbus
Railbus
A railbus is a very lightweight type passenger rail vehicle that shares many aspects of their construction with a bus, usually having a bus, or modified bus body, and having four wheels on a fixed base, instead of on bogies...

es. CFR is currently refurbishing a range of double-decker Personal cars, that will be used on Personal and Accelerat trains. The refurbished cars, painted in exactly the same livery as the old ones, have been introduced since 2003, and are cleaner, although they still use most of the old fittings. Some routes (like Sibiu
Sibiu
Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

–Craiova) are operated by Desiro trainsets whereas others are operated by modernized electric trainsets.

The new private operators also use the term personal using mainly (refurbished) railbuses.

Accelerat


Accelerat trains (fast trains) are used for medium- and long-distance services that stop only in towns or cities. Accelerat trains use marginally better rolling stock than Personal trains, and have higher speeds. They are also more expensive, requiring the payment of a supplement alongside the base fee. Some services of the Accelerat type require a reservation. Accelerat trains are also used for cross-regional long-distance routes (for example, Oradea
Oradea
Oradea is the capital city of Bihor County, in the Crișana region of north-western Romania. The city has a population of 204,477, according to the 2009 estimates. The wider Oradea metropolitan area has a total population of 245,832.-Geography:...

 to Galați, a distance of more than 830 km). Despite the long distances, Accelerat trains tend to stop in every town (even though they bypass villages) and hence are very popular, though they are seldom used for express travel between two large cities.
Since 2009 the Accelerat 1821/1822 from Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

 to Constanța via Deva
Deva, Romania
Deva is a city in Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, on the left bank of the Mureș River. It is the capital of Hunedoara County.-Name:...

, Tîrgu Jiu, Craiova and Bucharest also travels to Mangalia
Mangalia
Mangalia , is a city and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanţa County, Romania.The municipality of Mangalia also administers several summer time seaside resorts: Cap Aurora, Jupiter, Neptun, Olimp, Saturn, Venus.-History:...

 with an extra sleeperette car and sleeper car.

The Accelerat rolling stock is formed of both single-decker cars, either of the old Y type, painted in blue, plain or with a white horizontal stripe or of the new "red" series (shared with the Rapid trains) and of new double-decker cars. Single-decker cars are all corridor-type, with the old cars having 8 seats per compartment in second class and 6 in first class whereas the new cars have 6 seats per compartment regardless of class. Double-decker cars have 4 seats per row in an open plan. Accelerat trains also have a reputation for being overcrowded and dirty due to the long distances which they travel and the relatively frequent stops they make.

CFR has, however, begun a modernisation process for Accelerat services. In early 2005, it introduced a new double-decker car for medium-distance, highly-used Accelerat routes such as Bucharest–Predeal
Predeal
Predeal is a town in Braşov County, Romania. It is the highest town and one of the most important mountain resorts in Romania, being located on the Prahova Valley at over...

. Desiro
Desiro
The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the future Desiro City and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them...

 trainsets have also been introduced on medium-distance Accelerat routes in Transylvania
Transylvania
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

 and Moldavia
Moldavia
Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

 (Iași - Vatra Dornei
Vatra Dornei
Vatra Dornei is a city and a spa and ski resort in the north of Romania, in Suceava County. The city administers three villages: Argestru, Roşu and Todireni.Until the 1950s it had a mixed population of Romanians, Ukrainians, Jews and Germans...

). Longer-distance Accelerat trains often have couchettes, and sleepers started to be added again to consists after a lengthy absence. Dining cars are never used on these trains. Currently (2010 schedule), many short and medium distance routes (such as Bucharest–Craiova, Bucharest–Râmnicu Vâlcea
Râmnicu Vâlcea
Râmnicu Vâlcea is the capital city of Vâlcea County, Romania .-Geography and climate:Râmnicu Vâlcea is situated in the central-south area of Romania...

Sibiu
Sibiu
Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

, Bucharest–Constanța, Bucharest–Galați, Bucharest–Tulcea
Tulcea
Tulcea is a city in Dobrogea, Romania. It is the administrative center of Tulcea county, and has a population of 92,379 as of 2007. One village, Tudor Vladimirescu, is administered by the city.- History :...

, Galați–Brașov, Craiova–Sibiu, Timișoara–Sibiu, Cluj-Napoca–Sibiu) are served by modernized double-decker cars or Desiro trainsets. Some long-distance Accelerat trains (Bucharest–Timișoara, Bucharest–Târgu Jiu
Târgu Jiu
Târgu Jiu is the capital of Gorj County, Oltenia, Romania. It is situated on the Southern Sub-Carpathians, on the banks of the river Jiu. Eight villages are administered by the city: Bârseşti, Drăgoeni, Iezureni, Polata, Preajba Mare, Româneşti, Slobozia and Ursaţi.-History:The city takes its name...

Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

, Bucharest–Cluj-Napoca–Satu Mare, Bucharest–Iași, Bucharest–Vatra Dornei, Iași–Timișoara, Sighetu Marmației
Sighetu Marmatiei
Sighetu Marmației , formerly Sighet, is a city in Maramureş County near the Iza River, in north-western Romania. It administers five villages: Iapa, Lazu Baciului, Șugău, Valea Cufundoasă and Valea Hotarului.-Geography:...

 - Bucharest) also use modernized Rapid-style cars.

Rapid


Rapid trains are significantly faster and more comfortable than Accelerat and Personal trains, and are the ones most commonly used for long-distance express travel between major Romanian cities. In 2011 all "Rapid" trains are modern cars. Rapid trains operate only on main lines between key population centres, making stops only in major towns and cities. Unlike Accelerat trains, they don't provide cross-regional long distance services, focusing instead on highly-travelled routes and making few stops.

Rolling stock on Rapid trains has recently been the object of CFR's modernisation plan. Various classes of cars have been refurbished, and fitted with air-conditioning, ecological toilets, etc. However, a small and rapidly-declining number of Rapid rolling stock, mainly on lesser-used routes, remains fairly aged and outdated. As of 2004, Siemens
Siemens AG
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich, Germany. It is the largest Europe-based electronics and electrical engineering company....

 Desiro
Desiro
The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the future Desiro City and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them...

 DMUs have been introduced on medium-distance Rapid routes. Most Rapid rolling stock is painted in red, usually with a white horizontal stripe. All cars are compartmented and first class is usually air-conditioned, with 6 seats per compartment both in second class and first class. Sleepers, couchettes and dining-cars are available on most long routes.

In the summer holiday season 2009, Rapid trains travel from Timişoara Nord, Oradea, Satu Mare and Sighetu Marmatiei down to the Romanian Black Sea Coast, having 1st/2nd class cars and sleeperettes/sleeper cars.

From Sighetu Marmatiei the Rapid train needs over 21 hours to complete the 850 km trip,
from Satu Mare nearly 22 hours to complete the 928 km trip.
from Oradea over 19 hours to complete the 913 km trip,
from Timişoara Nord over 15 hours to complete the 795 km trip.

In the case of travelling such a long distance as mentioned above, it is recommended
to book a sleeperette (you can choose between 4-6 passengers in a compartment).
The 6 passenger-compartment is the cheapest option for a higher comfort.
Fares and timetables can be checked on www.infofer.ro (click the English flag).

InterCity


InterCity
InterCity
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe...

(IC) is CFR's premier train type and is used for daytime express services between major cities, as well as shuttle services between Bucharest and the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

 coast and the Carpathian mountain resorts of Sinaia
Sinaia
Sinaia is a town and a mountain resort in Prahova County, Romania. The town was named after Sinaia Monastery, around which it was built; the monastery in turn is named after the Biblical Mount Sinai...

 and Predeal
Predeal
Predeal is a town in Braşov County, Romania. It is the highest town and one of the most important mountain resorts in Romania, being located on the Prahova Valley at over...

. InterCity trains typically only stop in large cities (generally of over 100,000 inhabitants). InterCity trains are the fastest out of all the train types, having an average speed of 87 km/h in 2004, and also use the most modern and comfortable rolling stock, rivalling the premier services of other European carriers. Due to this, InterCity prices include a significant supplement alongside the base fee. However, due to the fact that IC services are only slightly more expensive than Rapid services, InterCity trains have become very popular for both travellers and businesspeople.

There are two main types of InterCity rolling stock: standard (or "classic") and Desiro. The standard InterCity rolling stock is either new or refurbished (all IC rolling stock was built after 1995), with air-conditioning, power-plugs (in both 1st and 2nd class carriages) and plush bucket armchairs, as well as complementary newspapers, free meals and airplane-like service in first class. These trains generally have a reputation for their high levels of comfort, cleanliness and service. The InterCity standard livery is usually grey and red, especially in the case of the C160-class rolling stock, which is the newest type. Most InterCity rolling stock is compartmented, even though recently there has been a trend to abolish compartments in the process of refurbishing cars.

High-passenger and international IC services, such as the Bucharest-Constanța route, use the Romanian-built Astra AVA-200 cars, which have a maximum speed of 200 km/h and are the most comfortable rolling stock in the CFR fleet. In fact, according to Friends of CFR, a Romanian railway journal, there was a considerable downgrading in quality when the Bucharest–Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 IC service switched from being operated by CFR to being run by Austrian Railways (ÖBB
ÖBB
The Austrian Federal Railways is the national railway system of Austria, and the administrators of Liechtenstein's railways...

) in 2003, leading to numerous complaints that the route should revert back to CFR cars instead of Austrian ÖBB cars.

Beginning with December 2006, the company introduced the business service on certain IC routes (București Nord - Timișoara Nord, București Nord - Oradea). These wagons were refurbished by CFR Griviţa and they provide two classes: standard and standard exclusive. According to class, these rail cars provide leather or fabric-covered armchairs, monitors, individual displays for every seat, 4 channel audio system with earphones, wireless internet access, bar, air conditioning, and they are equipped with an elevator for disabled travellers.

The Siemens
Siemens AG
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich, Germany. It is the largest Europe-based electronics and electrical engineering company....

 Desiro
Desiro
The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the future Desiro City and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them...

 rolling stock, coloured in blue and white, which uses DMUs
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered by one or more on-board diesel engines. They may also be referred to as a railcar or railmotor, depending on country.-Design:...

, is used for shorter-distance IC services, usually with only one or two intermediary stops (for example, the Sibiu
Sibiu
Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

–Brașov route). They are also used on non-electrified routes, for example IC 571 from Gara de Nord
Gara de Nord
București Gara de Nord is the main railway station in Bucharest and the largest railway station in Romania...

, Bucharest, to Galați via Urziceni
Urziceni
Urziceni is a town in Ialomiţa County, Romania, located around 60 km north-east of Bucharest. It has a population of 17,090.Founded by Romanian shepherds, its name is derived from the word "urzică" . It was mentioned for the first time in a written document on 23 April 1596, during the reign...

. As of December 13, 2009, InterCity trains operate on the following routes:
Route Rolling stock
Classic Desiro
Desiro
The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the future Desiro City and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them...

Bucharest – Iași Yes
Bucharest – Bacău
Bacau
Bacău is the main city in Bacău County, Romania. It covers a land surface of 43 km², and, as of January 1, 2009, has an estimated population of 177,087. The city is situated in the historical region of Moldavia, at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the Bistriţa River...

 – Suceava
Suceava
Suceava is the Suceava County seat in Bukovina, Moldavia region, in north-eastern Romania. The city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1388 to 1565.-History:...

Yes
Bucharest – Ploiești
Ploiesti
Ploiești is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania. The city is located north of Bucharest....

 – Brașov
Yes
Bucharest – Brăila
Braila
Brăila is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and the capital of Brăila County, in the close vicinity of Galaţi.According to the 2002 Romanian census there were 216,292 people living within the city of Brăila, making it the 10th most populous city in Romania.-History:A...

 – Galați
Yes
Bucharest – Brașov – Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,747, located on the Mureş River. Since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania...

 – Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

Yes
Bucharest – Brașov – Cluj-Napoca – Oradea
Oradea
Oradea is the capital city of Bihor County, in the Crișana region of north-western Romania. The city has a population of 204,477, according to the 2009 estimates. The wider Oradea metropolitan area has a total population of 245,832.-Geography:...

Yes
Bucharest – Brașov – Miercurea Ciuc – Târgu Mureș Yes
Bucharest – Craiova – Timișoara Yes


Before early 2003, there was also a train type known as InterCityExpress (ICE), which ran from Bucharest to Constanța, but these have been discontinued and transformed into IC, while maintaining the same rolling stock.

EuroCity and EuroNight


EuroCity
EuroCity
EuroCity, abbreviated EC, denotes an international train service within the European inter-city rail network. In contrast to trains with the "IC" label, "EC" trains are international trains that meet certain criteria. The EuroCity label replaces the older Trans Europ Express name for...

(EC) and EuroNight
EuroNight
EuroNight, abbreviated EN, denotes all main-line national and international night train services within the European inter-city rail network. Unlike the equivalent day-running counterparts EuroCity and InterCity trains, the EuroNight trains tend to run during the nighttime and are equipped with...

(EN) are international trains which are usually run by CFR in partnership with another national carrier, depending on the origin and destination of the route. There trains are part of the pan-European express railway network. Not all international trains that come to or via Romania are of EC or EN type— most are usually run as Rapid trains on the territory of Romania. However, the night train from Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

 to Bucharest is run as a EuroNight train, and there is both a EuroCity and a EuroNight train from Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 to Bucharest via Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

. EuroCity trains are almost always comfortable and modern, even though not perhaps as comfortable as InterCity, since they generally use the same rolling stock as Rapid trains. EuroNight trains use modern sleepers and have a generally good safety record.

The CFR operates several different types of sleeping car
Sleeping car
The sleeping car or sleeper is a railway/railroad passenger car that can accommodate all its passengers in beds of one kind or another, primarily for the purpose of making nighttime travel more restful. The first such cars saw sporadic use on American railroads in the 1830s and could be configured...

s in EuroNight and other night trains. In international trains, the sleeping cars built by Deutsche Waggonbau AG around 1990 are preferred as these have a good level of comfort and showers. They are currently undergoing serious refurbishment to comply with international standards. In addition, several older types of sleeping cars (WLAB33, T2S) were recently bought second hand from Germany; these are being modernized and mostly used inside Romania and to the neighbour countries (as shown in the picture). They have replaced the archaic OSShD-B/Y sleeping cars previously used in these services.

Speeds


The speed limit for all trains in Romania is 140 km/h, although the only sectors trains run at that speeds are Bucharest–Câmpina
Câmpina
Câmpina is a city in Prahova county, Romania, north of the county seat Ploieşti, located on the main route between Wallachia and Transylvania. In 2003, the city celebrated 500 years since its founding.-History:...

 and Bucharest–Constanța, which is now undergoing heavy modernisation works, which will allow trains to go as fast as 160 km/h, and the only trains allowed to go that fast are those of InterCity and Rapid type. All other trains have a general speed limit of 120 km/h. Average operating speeds (including all stops in stations) according to CFR, were in 2004:
  • 34.3 km/h for Personal trains
  • 67 km/h for Accelerat trains
  • 85 km/h for Rapid trains
  • 87 km/h for InterCity trains


The longest train route, as of 2005, is the one between Iași, in the north-east, and Timișoara, in the west, which takes 15 hours with an Accelerat-type train. The longest route for an InterCity train (Oradea
Oradea
Oradea is the capital city of Bihor County, in the Crișana region of north-western Romania. The city has a population of 204,477, according to the 2009 estimates. The wider Oradea metropolitan area has a total population of 245,832.-Geography:...

 – Constanța) takes 12 hours to complete.

Freight services


Freight services in Romania are operated mostly by CFR Marfă, the freight division of CFR, as well as by 28 other private companies who operate on lines leased from CFR Infrastructură. The CFR Marfă fleet is made up of 987 locomotives, most of which were built in Romania or the former Yugoslavia
Former Yugoslavia
The former Yugoslavia is a term used to describe the present day states which succeeded the collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia....

. The fact that rail freight remains maintains a strong market share in Romania, as well as a number of efficiency reforms, has led CFR Marfă to perform quite well financially in recent years, even though it remains loss-making. In 2003, the CFR Marfă's net loss was 8.8 million new lei
Romanian leu
The leu is the currency of Romania. It is subdivided into 100 bani . The name of the currency means "lion". On 1 July 2005, Romania underwent a currency reform, switching from the previous leu to a new leu . 1 RON is equal to 10,000 ROL...

 (approximately US$3 million), reduced from 141.5 million new lei in 2002.
style="font-size: 115%; font-weight: bold;" |Main groups of goods carried on CFR Marfă services (2004)
Type of goods %
Coal 39.5
Oil products 10.9
Quarry and ballast products 3.8
Common metals and common metal articles 12.4
Cement 2.7
Ore 4.0
Agricultural products 3.6
Chemicals 4.2
Other 18.9
Source: The structure of the main groups of goods carried on the railways in 2004


Freight trains follow the same speed limits to those issued for passenger trains, although hazardous materials, explosive, nuclear, flammable, chemical or otherwise dangerous trains have a special regime. Most locomotives have a physical speed limit of 200 km/h, but freight trains are not usually run at speeds exceeding 100 km/h.

Main lines


Line 200 Brașov–Sibiu
Sibiu
Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

Vințu de Jos
Vintu de Jos
Vinţu de Jos, also known as Vinţ is a commune located in the centre of Alba County, Romania. It is composed of eighteen villages: Câmpu Goblii , Ciocaşu , Crişeni , Dealu Ferului , Gura Cuţului , Haţegana , Inuri , Laz , Mătăcina , Mereteu...

Deva
Deva, Romania
Deva is a city in Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, on the left bank of the Mureș River. It is the capital of Hunedoara County.-Name:...

Arad
Arad, Romania
Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

Curtici
Curtici
Curtici is a town located in Arad County, far western Romania. The town is situated at a 21 km distance from the county capital Arad, in the western part of Arad County. It is the most important railway meeting point of Central Europe with the western part of Romania...



Line 300 Bucharest–Ploiești
Ploiesti
Ploiești is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania. The city is located north of Bucharest....

–Brașov–Sighișoara
Sighisoara
Sighişoara is a city and municipality on the Târnava Mare River in Mureş County, Romania. Located in the historic region Transylvania, Sighişoara has a population of 27,706 ....

Câmpia Turzii
Câmpia Turzii
Câmpia Turzii is a city in Cluj County, Romania, which was formed in 1925 by the union of two villages, Ghiriş and Sâncrai...

–Cluj-Napoca–Oradea
Oradea
Oradea is the capital city of Bihor County, in the Crișana region of north-western Romania. The city has a population of 204,477, according to the 2009 estimates. The wider Oradea metropolitan area has a total population of 245,832.-Geography:...

–Episcopia Bihor

Line 400 Brașov–Sfântu Gheorghe
Sfântu Gheorghe
Sfântu Gheorghe is the capital city of Covasna County, Romania. Located in the central part of the country and in the historical region of Transylvania, it lies on the Olt River in a valley between the Baraolt Mountains and Bodoc Mountains...

Toplița
Toplita
Toplița is a city in Harghita County, Romania.The settlement has had multiple name changes: Taplócza, Toplicza, Gyergyó-Toplicza, from February 3, 1861 Oláh-Toplicza, or "Romanian Toplița", then from January 1, 1907 Maroshévíz, until 1918, when it received the Romanian name Toplița Română...

ReghinDej
Dej
Dej is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. It lies where the Someşul Mic River meets the river Someşul Mare River...

Jibou
Jibou
Jibou is a town in Sălaj County, Transylvania, Romania. In 2004 it had a population of 11,658.Jibou is 20 km by road northwest of Zalău, close to the Someş River. Its major attractions are the old Wesselényi house, Botanical Gardens and spa baths...

Baia Mare
Baia Mare
Baia Mare is a municipality in northwestern Romania and the capital of Maramureş County. The city is situated about 600 kilometres from Bucharest, the capital of Romania, 70 kilometres from the border with Hungary and 50 kilometres from the border with Ukraine...

Satu MareHalmeu
Halmeu
Halmeu is a commune of 7,062 inhabitants situated in Satu Mare County, Romania. It is composed of five villages:Until World War II, the village was home to a Jewish community, which numbered 479 souls in 1877...



Line 500 Bucharest–Ploiești–Buzău
Buzau
The city of Buzău is the county seat of Buzău County, Romania, in the historical region of Wallachia. It lies near the right bank of the Buzău River, between the south-eastern curvature of the Carpathian Mountains and the lowlands of Bărăgan Plain.The city's name dates back to 376 AD when the name...

Focșani
Focsani
Focşani is the capital city of Vrancea County in Romania on the shores the Milcov river, in the historical region of Moldavia. It has a population of 101,854.-Geography:...

Bacău
Bacau
Bacău is the main city in Bacău County, Romania. It covers a land surface of 43 km², and, as of January 1, 2009, has an estimated population of 177,087. The city is situated in the historical region of Moldavia, at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the Bistriţa River...

Roman
Roman, Romania
Roman is a mid-sized city, having the title of municipality, located in the central part of Moldavia, a traditional region of Romania. It is located 46 km east of Piatra Neamţ, in the Neamţ County at the confluence of Siret and Moldova rivers....

Suceava
Suceava
Suceava is the Suceava County seat in Bukovina, Moldavia region, in north-eastern Romania. The city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1388 to 1565.-History:...

–Vicșani

Line 600 Făurei
Faurei
Făurei is a town located in Brăila County, Romania.-References:...

Tecuci
Tecuci
Tecuci is a city in the Galaţi county of Romania , situated among wooded hills, on the right bank of the Bârlad River, and at the junction of railways from Galaţi, Bârlad and Mărăşeşti.-History:...

Bârlad
Bârlad
Bârlad is a city in Vaslui County, Romania. It lies on the banks of the Bârlad River, which waters the high plains of eastern Moldavia....

Vaslui
Vaslui
Vaslui , a city in eastern Romania, is the seat of Vaslui County, in the historical region of Moldavia.The city administers five villages: Bahnari, Brodoc, Moara Grecilor, Rediu and Viişoara.-History:...

–Iași–Ungheni
Ungheni
----Ungheni is the seventh largest city in Moldova and, since 2003, the seat of Ungheni District.There is a bridge across the Prut and a border checkpoint to Romania. There is another border town with the same name in Romania , on the other side of the Prut River.- History :The first historical...



Line 700 Bucharest–Urziceni
Urziceni
Urziceni is a town in Ialomiţa County, Romania, located around 60 km north-east of Bucharest. It has a population of 17,090.Founded by Romanian shepherds, its name is derived from the word "urzică" . It was mentioned for the first time in a written document on 23 April 1596, during the reign...

–Făurei–Brăila
Braila
Brăila is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and the capital of Brăila County, in the close vicinity of Galaţi.According to the 2002 Romanian census there were 216,292 people living within the city of Brăila, making it the 10th most populous city in Romania.-History:A...

–Galați

Line 800 Bucharest–Fetești
Fetesti
Feteşti is a city and municipality in Ialomiţa County, Romania, with a population of 34,076. It is located in the Bărăgan plain, on the Borcea branch of the Danube. Feteşti has the second largest population in Ialomiţa, after Slobozia....

Cernavodă
Cernavoda
Cernavodă is a town in Constanţa County, Dobrogea, Romania with a population of 20,514.The town's name is derived from the Slavic černa voda , meaning "black water". This name is regarded by some scholars as a calque of the earlier Thracian name Axíopa, from IE *n.ksei "dark" and upā "water"...

–Constanța–Mangalia
Mangalia
Mangalia , is a city and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanţa County, Romania.The municipality of Mangalia also administers several summer time seaside resorts: Cap Aurora, Jupiter, Neptun, Olimp, Saturn, Venus.-History:...



Line 900 Bucharest–Craiova–Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Drobeta-Turnu Severin is a city in Mehedinţi County, Oltenia, Romania, on the left bank of the Danube, below the Iron Gates.The city administers three villages: Dudaşu Schelei, Gura Văii, and Schela Cladovei...

Caransebeș
Caransebes
Caransebeş is a city in Caraş-Severin County, part of the Banat region in southwestern Romania. It is located at the confluence of the river Timiş with the river Sebeş, the latter coming from the Ţarcu Mountains. To the west, it is in direct contact with the Banat hills...

Lugoj–Timișoara–Stamora Moravița

Locomotives and stock


CFR Călători (passenger services) and CFR Marfă (freight services) use a range of electric (known as LE), diesel electric (LDE), diesel hydraulic (LDH) and diesel mechanical (LDM/LDMM) locomotives. SFT (tourist railways division) uses steam locomotives (both narrow gauge and standard gauge) and diesel mechanical locomotives.

Each of the four CFR divisions have their own locomotives, and these are generally not interchanged. For example, a CFR Marfǎ locomotive should not be used to pull a CFR Cǎlǎtori train. In practice however, this rule does not hold, and frequently the companies use other rolling stock through informal lease agreements. Moreover, private companies' rolling stock is used at times, usually because of emergencies (such as a locomotive breaking down and requiring a replacement to keep the line open, and an unused private locomotive being closer).

Electric locomotives


Most of the electric locomotives employed by CFR were built by Electroputere
Electroputere
Electroputere S.A. , is a company based in Craiova, Romania. Founded in 1949, it is today one of the largest industrial companies in Romania....

 Craiova (known as EA-type) and Rade Končar
Rade Koncar
Rade Končar was a Yugoslav Communist leader and legendary World War II resistance fighter.-Biography:...

 Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

 (known as EC-type). All are built for standard gauge (1435 mm) and run using a catenary wire at 50 Hz 25 kV AC
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

. All trains have electric heating. CFR currently owns 1,066 electric locomotives, 933 of which were built by Electroputere(Class 40,41,42) and 133 built by Končar(Class 43,44,46). Older electric locomotives are painted in grey livery, while modernised (post-1999) rolling stock use red livery.
Name Builder Specifications and Notes Maximum speed Years built
Class 40 Electroputere
Electroputere
Electroputere S.A. , is a company based in Craiova, Romania. Founded in 1949, it is today one of the largest industrial companies in Romania....

5100 kW or 6600 kW (Softronic Phoenix passenger) Co'Co' axle formula
UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements
The UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements describes the wheel arrangement of locomotives, multiple units and trams. It is set out in the International Union of Railways "Leaflet 650 - Standard designation of axle arrangement on locomotives and multiple-unit sets". It is used in much...

120 km/h and 160 km/h (Softronic Phoenix passenger) 1965–1991
Class 41 Electroputere 5100 kW Co'Co' axle formula 160 km/h 1966–1991
Class 42 Electroputere 5100 kW Co'Co' axle formula. Only 1 was built, for speed tests. 200 km/h 1977
Class 43 Končar
Koncar
Končar may refer to:*Rade Končar, World War II Yugoslav Communist resistance fighter*KONČAR Group, an electrical engineering company of Croatia*Končar class fast attack craft, a class of military ship built for the SFR Yugoslav Navy in the 1970s...

3400 kW Bo'Bo'
Bo-Bo
A Bo-Bo or Bo′Bo′ is a locomotive with two independent four-wheeled bogies with all axles powered by individual traction motors...

 axle formula
120 km/h 1973–1984
Class 44 Končar 3400 kW Bo'Bo' axle formula 160 km/h 1973–1984
Class 45 Electroputere - Siemens Mobility 5100 kW Co'Co' axle formula. Heavily modernised class 41 locomotives, with new bogies, gears, control systems and brakes. First CFR locomotives to use computerised traction control. 24 are currently in service, with 20 currently being converted from class 41. 160 km/h 1999–2000
Class 46 Končar and Softronic 3840 kW Bo'Bo' axle formula heavily modernised class 43/44 locomotives. 160 km/h 1999–2001
Class 47 Electroputere - Softronic (subclasses 476 and 477 - "Delfin", and 478 - Softronic Phoenix freight) or Promat (subclasses 470, 474) 6600 kW Co'Co' axle formula, modernized from Class 40 and 41 for heavy loads. Only 1 is owned by CFR Călători; the others belong to freight operators, including CFR Marfă. 120 km/h; 160 km/h (subclass 476) 2006–present
Class 48 Softronic 8200 kW Co'Co' axle formula new build Softronic Transmontana locomotive. 160 km/ 2010–present

Diesel locomotives


CFR's diesel locomotives have been built by Electroputere Craiova (classes 60 to 68) and FAUR Bucharest
Faur
Faur can be:* José Faur, Sepharadi Hakham , teacher and scholar* Freda du Faur, the first female mountaineer to climb New Zealand's tallest mountain, Mount Cook* Guy Du Faur, Seigneur de Pibrac, French jurist and poet...

 (classes 69 to 95). In recent years, diesel locomotives are mostly painted in a blue livery, while older ones have a grey livery.

Classes 60 and 62 have as prime mover a twin-bank cylinder Sulzer 12LDA28 diesel engine rated at 2100 hp@750rpm, being derated from its nominal power by a smaller turbocharger and a lower max rpm. The difference between classes 60 and 62 is that the class 62 features traction motors certified and capable of pulling passenger coaches at 120 km/h instead of the 100 km/h allowed for class 60.

Classes 63 and 65 are modified by replacing Sulzer engines with 2 stroke 8 cylinders EMD 8-710G which develop 2150 hp at crankshaft at 900 rpm, the generators were replaced with alternators and DC traction motors were replaced with new ones. Class 63 has as max speed 120 km/h while class 65 is limited to 100 km/h. 63 and 65 are in service for CFR Calatori only in passenger coaches' traction. 63 and 65 do not feature Dynamic Braking Systems available in North America

The following classes are currently in service:
Name Type Specifications and Notes Maximum speed Years built
Class 60 Diesel electric 1546 kW and 1700 kW (Remarul Carpathia 2300 DE-M) Co'Co' axle formula 100 km/h 1959–1981
Class 62 Diesel electric 1546 kW Co'Co' axle formula 120 km/h 1966–1981
Class 63 Diesel electric 1582 kW Co'Co' axle formula. Modernised version of class 62 (includes electrical train heating and turbocharged 2 stroke,V8 EMD 8-710G diesel engine). Ca. 60 (including Class 65) in service. 120 km/h 2000–present
Class 65 Diesel electric 1582 kW Co'Co' axle formula. Modernised version of class 60 (includes Electrical Train Heating and turbocharged 2, V8, EMD 8-710G diesel engine). 100 km/h 2004–present
Class 67/68 Diesel electric 1546 kW Co'Co' axle formula. Same as class 60, but uses broad gauge (1520 mm) for railways near the Moldova
Moldova
Moldova , officially the Republic of Moldova is a landlocked state in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the West and Ukraine to the North, East and South. It declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the preceding Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991, as part...

n and Ukrainian
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 borders.
100 km/h 1959–1988
Class 69 Diesel electric 920 kW, Bo'Bo' axle formula. 18 are currently in operation. 100 km/h 1975–1977
Class 73 Diesel electric 920 kW, Bo'Bo' axle formula. Same as class 69 but with two air compressors. 10 are currently in operation. 100 km/h 1975–1977
Class 80 Diesel hydraulic 920 kW, B'B' axle formula. Uses steam heating. 100 km/h 1966–1985
Class 81 Diesel hydraulic 920 kW, B'B' axle formula. Same as class 80, but has no train heating. 100 km/h 1966–1985
Class 82 Diesel hydraulic 1104 kW, B'B' axle formula. Based on class 80/81 overhauled by Alstom
Alstom
Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

 with new control systems, rebuilt body, electrical train heating and Caterpillar
Caterpillar Inc.
Caterpillar Inc. , also known as "CAT", designs, manufactures, markets and sells machinery and engines and sells financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network. Caterpillar is the world's largest manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas...

 engine. 20 or more are currently in operation. Also 1000 kW B'B' axle formula modernized by Remarul.
100 km/h 1999–current
Present (time)
The present is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection or a speculation . It is a period of time between the past and the future, and can vary in meaning from being an instant to a day or longer...

Class 83 Diesel hydraulic 1104 kW, B'B' axle formula. Same as class 82 but uses MTU engine. 2 are currently in use. 100 km/h 1998
Class 84 Diesel hydraulic 920 kW, B'B' axle formula. Same as class 80 but is used on broad-gauge railways. 100 km/h 1998
Subclass 841 Diesel hydraulic 1000 kW, B'B' axle formula, modernized by Remarul (Carpathia 1300 DH-M) 100 km/h 2009–Present
Class 87 Diesel hydraulic B'B' axle formula. Used for narrow gauge services. 4 are currently in operation (though 5 other locomotives are used by private operators). 40 km/h 1979–1984
Class 88 Diesel mechanical shunter 184 kW B axle formula. 81 were built originally, though a significant amount have been replaced by newer types. 40 km/h 1981–1984
Class 95 Diesel mechanical shunter 88 kW B axle formula. 8 are currently in use (3 of which are used by SFT). 55 km/h 1935–1950

Diesel multiple units


CFR Călători uses diesel multiple units (DMUs) mainly for passenger services on shorter and little-used lines, even though recently, with the introduction of the Siemens Desiro DMU, they have been used for InterCity services on longer distances.
Name Builder Specifications and Notes Maximum speed Years built
Class 77 Malaxa
Faur
Faur can be:* José Faur, Sepharadi Hakham , teacher and scholar* Freda du Faur, the first female mountaineer to climb New Zealand's tallest mountain, Mount Cook* Guy Du Faur, Seigneur de Pibrac, French jurist and poet...

88 kW power. Archaic railbus
Railbus
A railbus is a very lightweight type passenger rail vehicle that shares many aspects of their construction with a bus, usually having a bus, or modified bus body, and having four wheels on a fixed base, instead of on bogies...

 used mainly on rural routes in Banat
Banat
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania , the western part in northeastern Serbia , and a small...

 and Bukovina
Bukovina
Bukovina is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains.-Name:The name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became...

. They are currently being phased out or extensively refurbished.
70 km/h 1935–1942
Class 78 Malaxa 162 kW power. 31 currently in use, with 29 fully refurbished. Most are used as official government trains or by company officials when travelling (some have beds, showers, luxury fittings and press rooms). 100/120 km/h 1939–1954
Class 79 Waggonbau Görlitz
Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm, Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Its headquarters are in Berlin, Germany....

132 kW power. Formerly used by Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 as class 772 railbus and comprehensively modernised by MARUB Brașov. 12 units were bought in 1993–1996 by CFR for use on rural Personal services. Some are rented to private operators.
90 km/h 1960–1977
Class 92 MARUB Brașov 153/208 kW power. Diesel hydraulic railbuses. 2 are currently in service. Contain 56 second-class seats. 80 km/h 1995
Class 96 (Desiro
Desiro
The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the future Desiro City and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them...

)
Siemens AG
Siemens AG
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich, Germany. It is the largest Europe-based electronics and electrical engineering company....

550 kW. Diesel mechanical DMUs. 96 currently in operation some of them with more comfortable seats. Also known as Săgeata Albastră (Blue Arrow). Currently used in Rapid, Accelerat and Personal services. The version with more comfortable seats are used as InterCity. 120 km/h 2003–present
Class 98 (formerly 91/92) Düwag 485 kW. Bought from Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 and contain 12 first-class and 112 second-class seats. 2 are currently in operation, on Personal services between Satu-Mare and Jibou.
120 km/h 1994

Electric multiple units


Until June 2006, there were no electric multiple units (EMUs) in service. However, CFR has recently bought some second-hand Z-6100 EMU from SNCF
SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

, and their CFL
Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois
Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois is the national railway company of Luxembourg. In 2005, the company carried approximately 14.1 million passengers and 11.7 million tonnes of goods...

 version 250 with 2 cars and 260 with 3 cars, which are currently being modernised by Remarul 16 Februarie in Cluj and will be used for commuter trains. The first one is already in service, as class 58. CFR Calatori now plans to buy some 21 new EMUs, either from Siemens
Siemens AG
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich, Germany. It is the largest Europe-based electronics and electrical engineering company....

, Bombardier
Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm, Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Its headquarters are in Berlin, Germany....

 or Alstom
Alstom
Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

. They should be delivered between 2007 and 2008. There are some rumours that some high-speed EMUs will also be bought (possibly of Pendolino
Pendolino
Pendolino is an Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Slovakia, Switzerland, China and shortly in Romania and Poland...

 type) for InterCity service, on the Bucharest-Brașov and Bucharest-Constanța line. Furthermore, a 6-car regional EMU built by Electroputere
Electroputere
Electroputere S.A. , is a company based in Craiova, Romania. Founded in 1949, it is today one of the largest industrial companies in Romania....

 has been in prototype stage since 1990 after it experienced brake and engine problems during initial testing.
Name Builder Specifications and Notes Maximum speed Years built
Class 58 SNCF
SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

 (modernized by Remarul 16 Februarie)
690 kW power. Intended to be used on local and regional electrified railways. 280 seats. 120 km/h 1965–1975

Rail links with adjacent countries


Romania is linked by rail with all its neighboring countries
  • Same gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
    •   Bulgaria
      Bulgarian State Railways
      The Bulgarian State Railways are Bulgaria's state railway company and the largest railway carrier in the country, established as an entity in 1885. The company's headquarters are located in the capital Sofia. Since the 1990s the BDZ has met serious competition from automotive transport...

    •   Hungary
      Hungarian State Railways
      Hungarian State Railways is the Hungarian national railway company, with divisions "MÁV Start Zrt" and "MÁV Cargo Zrt" ....

    •   Serbia
      Serbian Railways
      Serbian Railways is the national railway carrier of Serbia. Its current network spans a distance of 4,347 km in length, with 32% electrified railways....

  • Break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/ 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 5⁄6 in)
    •   Moldova
      Calea Ferată din Moldova
      CFM is the only railway operator in the Republic of Moldova, that is responsible for passenger and cargo transportation, as well as the railway infrastructure maintenance, within the country. It is the successor of MZhD, a subdivision of the USSR railway...

    •   Ukraine

See also


  • Bucureşti Gara de Nord
  • CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj
    CFR Cluj is a Romanian professional football club from the city of Cluj-Napoca in Transylvania, Romania. The club had spent most of their existence in the lower divisions, except for a spell in Divizia A in the 1970s, until they received significant financial backing from Árpád Pászkány in 2002...

    , a Romanian football (soccer) club that bears the company's initials
  • Grup Feroviar Roman
    Grup Feroviar Roman
    Grup Feroviar Român, or simply GFR, is the largest private railway company in Romania and one of the largest in South Eastern Europe. Founded in 2001, the company owns freight operations in Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Serbia, Ukraine, Moldova, Montenegro and Mozambique, and railcar production and...

  • Rail transport by country
    Rail transport by country
    This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country.Other indexes available include:*List of railway companies by country*List of countries by rail transport network size*Rail usage statistics by country...


  • Rail transport in Romania
    Rail transport in Romania
    The first railway in the Kingdom of Romania opened in 1869 and linked Bucharest and Giurgiu. The first railway on current Romanian territory opened in 1854, between Oraviţa and Baziaş in Banat, however that region was under the administration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time.Since then,...

  • Regiotrans
    Regiotrans
    Regiotrans is a private rail company headquartered in Brașov, Romania. It was founded in 2005 and is exclusively active in the passenger transport sector.-Routes:Regiotrans primarily runs local trains...

  • Transportation in Romania

External links