CI1 fossils

CI1 fossils

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CI1 fossils refer to alleged morphological evidence of microfossils found in five CI1 carbonaceous chondrite
Carbonaceous chondrite
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 7 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites. They include some of the most primitive known meteorites...

 meteorite fall: Alais, Orgueil, Ivuna, Tonk and Revelstoke. The research was published in March 2011 in the Journal of Cosmology
Journal of Cosmology
Journal of Cosmology describes itself as a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal of cosmology, although the quality of the process has been questioned. The journal was established in 2009 and is published by Cosmology Science Publishers...

by Richard B. Hoover
Richard B. Hoover
Richard B. Hoover is a NASA scientist who has authored 33 Volumes and 250 papers on astrobiology, extremophiles, diatoms, solar physics, X-ray/EUV optics and meteorites...

, an engineer. However, NASA distanced itself from Hoover's claim and his lack of expert peer-reviews.


Hoover's team used Environmental (ESEM
The environmental scanning electron microscope or ESEM is a scanning electron microscope that allows for the option of collecting electron micrographs of specimens that are "wet," uncoated, or both by allowing for a gaseous environment in the specimen chamber...

) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to analyze the meteorite samples, studying internal surfaces. Hoover also produced electron micrographs which he believes resemble the shape of trichomic cyanobacteria and other trichomic prokaryotes such as the filamentous sulfur bacteria. For comparison, Hoover compared the samples to those of terrestrial minerals and biological materials. Hoover concludes from these results that the CI1 fossils are indigenous to the samples.

The claims were initially submitted to the International Journal of Astrobiology
International Journal of Astrobiology
The International Journal of Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary scientific journal established in 2002 that covers research on the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and beyond. It accepts papers in astronomy, space science, planetary science, and biology that have a...

, which rejected the paper. NASA distanced itself from Hoover's claims, and the claims were debunked soon after publication.