C4ISTAR

C4ISTAR

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In military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 usage, a number of abbreviations in the format C(x) followed by additional letters are used, based on expanded versions of the abbreviation C2 - command and control
Command and Control (military)
Command and control, or C2, in a military organization can be defined as the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission...

.

C2I stands for command, control, and intelligence.

C3I stands for command, control, communications, and intelligence.

C4I stands for command, control, communications, computers, and (military) intelligence.

C4ISTAR is the British acronym used to represent the group of the military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 functions designated by C4 (command, control, communications, computers), I (military intelligence
Military intelligence
Military intelligence is a military discipline that exploits a number of information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to commanders in support of their decisions....

), and STAR (surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance) in order to enable the coordination of operations.

C4ISR is the similar term used by the U.S. military (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance).

C4ISTAR and its related terms can be used to refer to infrastructure
Infrastructure
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function...

, a role of military units or individuals, or procedures employed.

Command, control and communications


Command and control refers to the ability of military commanders to direct forces. The addition of communications to the grouping reflects the fact that communications is required to enable this coordination. In modern warfare, computer
Computer
A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem...

s are also a key component. The common variations of this acronym are:
  • C²/C2/C&C (Command and control)
  • C²IS (command and control information systems)
  • C³ (command, control, and communications) [US DoD]
  • C3 (consultation, command, and control) [NATO]
  • C³I (command, control, communications, and intelligence)
  • C4 (command, control, communications, and computers)
  • C4IS (command, control, communication, computer, and intelligence simulator system)
  • C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
  • C4I (command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence)
  • C4I² (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, and interoperability)
  • C5I
    C5I
    C5I is a military acronym describing the core capabilities involved in:*Detecting pertinent military or civil activity*Analyzing the intent or impact of the activity upon friendly forces*Disseminating the activity and analysis to friendly forces...

     (command, control, communications, computers, combat systems, and intelligence)
  • C5ISR (command, control, communications, computers, combat systems, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)

Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance


ISTAR
ISTAR
ISTAR stands for Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance. In its macroscopic sense, ISTAR is a practice that links several battlefield functions together to assist a combat force in employing its sensors and managing the information they gather.Information is collected on...

stands for Intelligence (information gathering), surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people. It is sometimes done in a surreptitious manner...

, target acquisition
Target Acquisition
In the military, target acquisition denotes any process that provides detailed information about enemy forces and locates them with sufficient accuracy to permit continued monitoring or attacking it....

, and reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance is the military term for exploring beyond the area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about enemy forces or features of the environment....

. It describes methods of observing the enemy and one's area of operations. Variations on this include:
  • I (intelligence)
  • S&R (surveillance and reconnaissance)
  • RSTA (reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition)
  • STA (surveillance and target acquisition)
  • STAR (surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance)
  • ERSTA (electro-optical reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition)
  • STANO (surveillance, target acquisition, and night observation)
  • ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)

C4ISTAR


Many subsets of these elements are used, or have been used in the past, as acronyms. These include:
  • C³ISTAR (command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, reconnaissance)
  • C³ISR (command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
  • C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
    • C4ISR: The Journal of Net-Centric Warfare is also the name of a journal published by the DefenseNews Media Group.

See also

  • Command and control#Derivative terms
  • Artillery STA
  • Battlespace
    Battlespace
    Battlespace is a term used to signify a unified military strategy to integrate and combine armed forces for the military theatre of operations, including air, information, land, sea, and space to achieve military goals. It includes the environment, factors, and conditions that must be understood...

  • Battle command
    Battle command
    Battle command is the art and science of visualizing, describing, directing, and leading forces in operations against a hostile, thinking, and adaptive enemy. Battle command applies leadership to translate decision into actions, by synchronizing forces and warfighting functions in time, space, and...

  • Command center
    Command center
    A command center is any place that is used to provide centralized command for some purpose.While frequently considered to be a military facility, these can be used in many other cases by governments or businesses...

  • Fingerspitzengefühl
    Fingerspitzengefühl
    Fingerspitzengefühl is a German term, literally meaning "finger tips feeling" and meaning intuitive flair or instinct, which has been appropriated by the English language as a loanword...

  • Fog of war
    Fog of war
    The fog of war is a term used to describe the uncertainty in situation awareness experienced by participants in military operations. The term seeks to capture the uncertainty regarding own capability, adversary capability, and adversary intent during an engagement, operation, or campaign...

  • Network-centric warfare
    Network-centric warfare
    Network-centric warfare, also called network-centric operations, is a military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense in the 1990's....

  • RSTA (U.S. Army)
    RSTA (U.S. Army)
    Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition , is a type of unit in the United States Army.-Overview and makeup:RSTA units are small reconnaissance units based on cavalry squadrons, and act at the Squadron level as a Brigade Reconnaissance Team for the Regiment .Some units, such as the...

  • Intent (Military)
    Intent (military)
    Intent is a key capability in 21st century military operations and is a vital element to facilitate subordinates initiative , self-synchronisation Intent is a key capability in 21st century military operations and is a vital element to facilitate subordinates initiative (U.S Army 2003, para.1-69),...