Córdoba, Spain

Córdoba, Spain

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History


The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos
Tartessos
Tartessos or Tartessus was a harbor city and surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula , at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting in the middle of the first millennium BC, for example Herodotus, who describes it as...

 period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy. The first historical mention of a settlement dates, however, to the Carthaginian expansion across the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian peninsula and the second longest river to be its whole length in Spain. The Guadalquivir is 657 kilometers long and drains an area of about 58,000 square kilometers...

, when the general Hamilcar Barca
Hamilcar Barca
Hamilcar Barca or Barcas was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago. He was also father-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair....

 renamed it Kartuba, from Kart-Juba, meaning "the City of Juba
Juba I of Numidia
Juba I of Numidia was a King of Numidia. He was the son and successor to King of Numidia Hiempsal II.- Family :...

", the latter being a Numidian commander who had died in a battle nearby. Córdoba was conquered by the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 in 206 BC. In 169 the Roman consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Marcus Claudius Marcellus , five times elected as consul of the Roman Republic, was an important Roman military leader during the Gallic War of 225 BC and the Second Punic War...

 founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement. Between 143 and 141 BC the town was besieged by Viriatus. A Roman Forum is known to have existed in the city in 113 BC.

At the time of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior Baetica
Hispania Baetica
Hispania Baetica was one of three Imperial Roman provinces in Hispania, . Hispania Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, and to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis. Baetica was part of Al-Andalus under the Moors in the 8th century and approximately corresponds to modern Andalucia...

. Great Roman philosophers such as Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero...

, orators such as Seneca the Elder
Seneca the Elder
Lucius or Marcus Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician , was a Roman rhetorician and writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Cordoba, Hispania...

 and poets such as Lucan
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus , better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba , in the Hispania Baetica. Despite his short life, he is regarded as one of the outstanding figures of the Imperial Latin period...

 came from Roman Cordoba. Later, it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of the Byzantine Empire (552–572) and under the Visigoths, who conquered it in the late 6th century.

Córdoba was captured in 711 by an Arab/Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

 Muslim army. In 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus; in Arabic it was known as قرطبة (Qurṭubah). In May 766, it was chosen as the capital of the independent Arab Muslim emirate of al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

, later a Caliphate
Caliphate of Córdoba
The Caliphate of Córdoba ruled the Iberian peninsula and part of North Africa, from the city of Córdoba, from 929 to 1031. This period was characterized by remarkable success in trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Islamic Iberia were constructed in this period, including the famous...

 itself. During the caliphate apogee (1000 AD), Córdoba had a population of roughly 500,000 inhabitants, though estimates range between 350,000 and 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Córdoba was one of the most advanced cities in the world as well as a great cultural, political, financial and economic centre. The Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time; under caliph Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II was the second Caliph of Cordoba, in Al-Andalus , and son of Abd-ar-rahman III . He ruled from 961 to 976....

 Córdoba had 3,000 mosques, splendid palaces and 300 public baths
Public bathing
Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness. The term public may confuse some people, as some types of public baths are restricted depending on membership, gender, religious affiliation, or other reasons. As societies have changed, public baths have been replaced as private bathing...

, and received what was then the largest library in the world, housing from 400,000 to 1,000,000 volumes.

Reinhardt Dozy wrote:,

"The fame of Córdoba penetrated even distant Germany: the Saxon nun Hroswitha, famous in the last half of the 10th century for its Latin poems and dramas, called it the Jewel of the World."

After the fall of the caliphate (1031), Córdoba became the capital of a Republican independent taifa. This short-lived state was conquered by Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad, lord of Seville
Taifa of Seville
The Taifa of Seville was a short lived medieval kingdom, in what is now southern Spain and Portugal. It originated in 1023 and lasted until 1091, and was under the rule of the Arab Abbadid family.-History:...

, in 1070. In turn, the latter was overthrown by the Almoravids
Almoravids
The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th-century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Their capital was Marrakesh, a city which they founded in 1062 C.E...

, who were later replaced by the Almohads.

During the latter's domination the city declined, the role of the capital of Muslim al-Andalus having been given to Seville
Seville
Seville is the artistic, historic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain. It is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of above sea level...

. On 29 June 1236, after a siege of several months, it was captured by King Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile
Saint Ferdinand III, T.O.S.F., was the King of Castile from 1217 and León from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the...

, during the Spanish Reconquista. The city was divided into 14 colaciones, and numerous new church buildings were added.

The city declined especially after Renaissance times. In the 18th century it was reduced to just 20,000 inhabitants. The population and economy started to increase only in the early 20th century.

With the most extensive historical heritages in the world declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 (on 17 December 1984), the city also features a number of modern areas, including the districts of Zoco and the railway station district.

The regional government (the Junta de Andalucía) has for some time been studying the creation of a Córdoba Metropolitan Area that would comprise, in addition to the capital itself, the towns of Villafranca de Córdoba
Villafranca de Córdoba
Villafranca de Córdoba is a city located in the province of Córdoba, Spain.-External links:* - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía...

, Obejo
Obejo
-External links:* - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía...

, La Carlota, Villaharta
Villaharta
Villaharta is a city located in the province of Córdoba, Spain.-External links:* - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía...

, Villaviciosa, Almodóvar del Río
Almodóvar del Río
Almodóvar del Río is a city located in the province of Córdoba, Spain.-External links:* - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía...

 and Guadalcázar
Guadalcázar
Guadalcázar is a city located in the province of Córdoba, southern Spain.-External links:* - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía...

. The combined population of such an area would be around 351,000.

Geography


The city is located on the banks of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian peninsula and the second longest river to be its whole length in Spain. The Guadalquivir is 657 kilometers long and drains an area of about 58,000 square kilometers...

 river, and its easy access to the mining resources of the Sierra Morena (coal, lead, zinc) satisfies the population’s needs.

The city is located in a depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. In the north is the Sierra Morena, which defines the borders of the municipal area.

Córdoba is one of the few cities in the world that has a near-exact antipodal
Antipodes
In geography, the antipodes of any place on Earth is the point on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points that are antipodal to one another are connected by a straight line running through the centre of the Earth....

 city – Hamilton
Hamilton, New Zealand
Hamilton is the centre of New Zealand's fourth largest urban area, and Hamilton City is the country's fourth largest territorial authority. Hamilton is in the Waikato Region of the North Island, approximately south of Auckland...

, New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

.

Climate


Córdoba has the highest summer average daily temperatures in Europe (averaging 36.2 °C (97 °F) in July) and days with temperature over 40 °C (104 °F) are common in the summer months. July's 24 hour average of 27.2 °C (81 °F) is also among the highest in Europe, despite having relatively cool nightly temperatures.

Córdoba has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 with Atlantic coastal influences. Winters are mild with isolated frosts. Precipitation is concentrated in the coldest months; this is due to the Atlantic coastal influence. Precipitation is generated by storms from the west that occur most frequently from December through February. This Atlantic characteristic then gives way to a hot summer with significant drought more typical of Mediterranean climates.

Annual rain surpasses 500 mm, although there is a recognized inter-annual irregularity. In agreement with the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, the local climate can be described as Csa.

Registered maximum temperatures at the Córdoba Airport (located at 6 km of the city) are 46.6° (23 July 1995) and 46.2° (1 August 2003). The minimum temperature is −8.2° (28 January 2005).

Historic architecture




Córdoba has the second largest Old town in Europe, the largest urban area in the world declared World Heritage by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

. The most important building and symbol of the city, the Great Mosque of Córdoba and current cathedral, alongside the Roman bridge
Roman bridge of Córdoba
The Roman bridge of Córdoba is a bridge in Córdoba, Andalusia, southern Spain, built in the early 1st century BC across the Guadalquivir river.It is included in the small preserved area known as Sotos de la Albolafia.- History :...

, are the best known facet of the city. Other Roman remains include the Roman Temple
Roman temple of Córdoba
The Spanish city of Córdoba has the remains of a Roman temple, which was discovered in the 1950s during the expansion of City Hall. It is located in the angle formed by the streets Claudio Marcelo and Capitulares. It was not the only temple that had the city, but it was possibly the most important...

, the Theatre, Mausoleum
Roman mausoleum of Córdoba
The Roman mausoleum of Córdoba is an ancient structure in the Jardines de la Victoria, Córdoba, Andalusia, southern Spain. It is a funerary monument of cylinder-shaped that corresponded to a group of funerary monuments of the Republican era, built the 1st century AD...

, the Colonial Forum, the Forum Adiectum, an amphitheater and the remains of the Palace of the Emperor Maximian
Maximian
Maximian was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305. He was Caesar from 285 to 286, then Augustus from 286 to 305. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian established his residence at Trier but spent...

 in the Archaeological site of Cercadilla, among others.

Near the mosque-cathedral is the old Jewish quarter, which consists of many irregular streets, such as Calleja de las Flores and Calleja del Pañuelo, and which is home to the Synagogue
Córdoba Synagogue
Córdoba Synagogue is a historic edifice in the Jewish Quarter of Córdoba, Spain built in 1315.The synagogue was built in Mudéjar style by architects led by Isaac Moheb. It consists of a courtyard, accessed from the street, which leads to a hallway, followed by the prayer room. On the eastern side...

 and the Sephardic House. In the extreme southwest of the Old Town is the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos
Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos
The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos , also known as the Alcázar of Córdoba, is a medieval Alcázar located in Córdoba, Spain next to the Guadalquivir River and near the Grand Mosque. The Alcázar takes its name from the Arabic word القصر...

, a former royal property and the seat of the Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition , commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition , was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the Medieval...

; adjacent to it are the Royal Stables, a breeding place of the Andalusian horse
Andalusian horse
The Andalusian, also known as the Pure Spanish Horse or PRE , is a horse breed developed in the Iberian Peninsula. Its ancestors have been present on the Iberian Peninsula for thousands of years. The Andalusian has been recognized as an individual breed since the 15th century, and its conformation...

. Near the stables are located, along the walls, the medieval Baths of the Caliphate. In the south of the Old town and east of the great mosque, in the Plaza del Potro
Plaza del Potro
The Plaza del Potro is one of the most representative of the Spanish city of Córdoba.In the middle of it is a fountain whose top is the figure of a colt that lifts his hands holding a sign with the coat of arms of the city. This Renaissance-style fountain dates from 1577, and the foal which is...

, is the Posada del Potro, a row of inn
INN
InterNetNews is a Usenet news server package, originally released by Rich Salz in 1991, and presented at the Summer 1992 USENIX conference in San Antonio, Texas...

s mentioned in literary works such as Don Quixote and La Feria de los Discretos and which remained active until 1972. Both the plaza and the inn get their name from the fountain in the center of the plaza, which represents a foal. Not far from this plaza is the Arco del Portillo (a 14th century arch).

Along the banks of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian peninsula and the second longest river to be its whole length in Spain. The Guadalquivir is 657 kilometers long and drains an area of about 58,000 square kilometers...

 are the Mills of the Guadalquivir, Muslim era buildings that took advantage of the water force to grind the flour. They include the Albolafia, Alegría, Carbonell, Casillas, Enmedio, Lope García, Martos, Pápalo, San Antonio, San Lorenzo and San Rafael mills.

Surrounding the large Old town are the Roman walls: gates include the Puerta de Almodóvar, the Puerta de Sevilla and Puerta del Puente
Puerta del Puente
The Puerta del Puente is a Renaissance gate in Córdoba, Spain-History:The gate is located on the site of previous Roman and Moorish gates, which united the city to the Roman Bridge....

, which are the only three gates remaining from the original thirteen. Towers and fortresses include the Malmuerta Tower
Torre de la Malmuerta
The Torre de la Malmuerta is a gate tower in Córdoba, Spain.The tower was built in 1406-1408, by order of King Henry III of Castile, over a pre-existing Almohad structure, to defend the gates of Rincón and Colodro...

, the Belén Tower and the Puerta del Rincón's Tower, and the fortress of the Calahorra Tower
Calahorra Tower
The Calahorra Tower is a fortified gate in Córdoba, Spain, of Islamic origin.-History:The tower was built during the late 12th century by the Almohads to protect the nearby Roman Bridge on the Guadalquivir...

 and of the Donceles Tower.

Palace buildings in the Old Town include the Palacio de Viana (14th century) and the Palacio de la Merced
Palacio de la Merced
The Palacio de la Merced is a historical building in Córdoba, Andalusia, southern Spain. Once home to the convent of La Merced Calzada, it is now home to the Provincial Deputy of Córdoba, a sovra-municipal services institution of the province of Córdoba....

 among others. On the outskirts of the city lies the Archaeological site of the city of Medina Azahara
Medina Azahara
Medina Azahara is the ruins of a vast, fortified Arab Muslim medieval palace-city built by Abd-ar-Rahman III al-Nasir, Ummayad Caliph of Córdoba, and located on the western outskirts of Córdoba, Spain. It was an Arab Muslim medieval town and the de-facto capital of al-Andalus, or Muslim Spain, as...

, which, together with the Alhambra in Granada, is one of the main Spanish-Muslim architectures in Spain.

Other sights are the Cuesta del Bailío (a staircase connecting the upper and lower part of the city) and the Minaret of San Juan, once part of an Islamic mosque.

Fernandine churches


The city is home to 12 Christians churches that were to built (many as transformations of mosques) by Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile
Saint Ferdinand III, T.O.S.F., was the King of Castile from 1217 and León from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the...

 after the reconquest of the city in the 13th century. They should both acts as churches and as the administrative centers in the neighborhoods in which it the city was divided in medieval times. Some of those that remain are:

  • San Nicolás de la Villa.
  • San Miguel.
  • Church of San Juan y todos los Santos, on the Lope de Hoces Street.
  • Santa Marina de Aguas Santas
    Santa Marina (Córdoba)
    Santa Marina is a church in Córdoba, Spain. It is one of the so-called "Fernandinean Churches", edificated in the city after Ferdinand III of Castile conquered it from the Moors in the 13th century...

    .
  • San Agustín. Begun in 1328, it has now a 18th century appearance. The façade bell tower, with four bells, dates to the 16th century.
  • San Andrés, largely renovated in the 14th and 15th centuries. It has a Renaissance portal (1489) and a bell tower from the same age, while the high altar is a Baroque
    Baroque art
    Baroque painting is the painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement. The movement is often identified with Absolutism, the Counter Reformation and Catholic Revival, but the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states throughout Western...

     work by Pedro Duque Cornejo.
  • San Lorenzo.
  • Church of Santiago.
  • San Pedro
    San Pedro (Córdoba)
    thumb|250px|San Pedro.San Pedro is a church in Córdoba, Spain. It is located in the square of the barrio bearing its name.-History:...

    .
  • Church of La Magdalena. Like the others, it combines Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

    , Mudéjar
    Mudéjar
    Mudéjar is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity...

     and Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     elements.
  • San Pablo. In the church's garden in the 1990s the ruins of an ancient Roman circus were discovered.

Other religious structures


  • San Hipólito. It houses the tombs of Ferdinand IV
    Ferdinand IV of Castile
    Ferdinand IV, El Emplazado or "the Summoned," was a king of Castile and León and Galicia...

     and Alfonso XI of Castile
    Alfonso XI of Castile
    Alfonso XI was the king of Castile, León and Galicia.He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313...

    , kings of Castile and León
    Castile and León
    Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was so constituted in 1983 and it comprises the historical regions of León and Old Castile...

    .
  • San Francisco
  • San Salvador y Santo Domingo de Silos
  • Shrine of Nuestra Señora de Linares
  • Tower of Santo Domingo de Silos
  • Shrine of Nuestra Señora de la Fuensanta
  • Chapel of San Bartolomé

Sculptures and memorials


Scattered throughout the city are ten statues of Archangel Raphael
Raphael (archangel)
Raphael is an archangel of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, who in the Judeo-Christian tradition performs all manners of healing....

, protector and custodian of the city. These are called Triumphs of Saint Raphael and are located in landmarks such as the Roman Bridge
Roman bridge of Córdoba
The Roman bridge of Córdoba is a bridge in Córdoba, Andalusia, southern Spain, built in the early 1st century BC across the Guadalquivir river.It is included in the small preserved area known as Sotos de la Albolafia.- History :...

, the Puerta del Puente
Puerta del Puente
The Puerta del Puente is a Renaissance gate in Córdoba, Spain-History:The gate is located on the site of previous Roman and Moorish gates, which united the city to the Roman Bridge....

 and the Plaza del Potro
Plaza del Potro
The Plaza del Potro is one of the most representative of the Spanish city of Córdoba.In the middle of it is a fountain whose top is the figure of a colt that lifts his hands holding a sign with the coat of arms of the city. This Renaissance-style fountain dates from 1577, and the foal which is...

.

In the western part of the Historic Centre are the statue to Seneca
Seneca the Younger
Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero...

 (near the Puerta de Almodóvar, a gate of Islamic ordigina), the Statue of Averroes
Averroes
' , better known just as Ibn Rushd , and in European literature as Averroes , was a Muslim polymath; a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics, Arabic music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy,...

 (next to the Puerta de la Luna), and Maimonides
Maimonides
Moses ben-Maimon, called Maimonides and also known as Mūsā ibn Maymūn in Arabic, or Rambam , was a preeminent medieval Jewish philosopher and one of the greatest Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages...

 (in the plaza de Tiberiades). Further south, near the Puerta de Sevilla, are the sculpture to the poet Ibn Zaydún
Ibn Zaydún
Abu al-Waleed Ahmad Ibn Zaydún al-Makhzumi known as Ibn Zaydún was a famous Arab poet of Cordoba and Seville. His romantic and literary life was dominated by his relations with the poetess Wallada bint al-Mustakfi, the daughter of the Ummayad Caliph Muhammad III of Cordoba...

 and the sculpture of the writer and poet Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm ) was an Andalusian philosopher, litterateur, psychologist, historian, jurist and theologian born in Córdoba, present-day Spain...

 and, inside the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos
Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos
The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos , also known as the Alcázar of Córdoba, is a medieval Alcázar located in Córdoba, Spain next to the Guadalquivir River and near the Grand Mosque. The Alcázar takes its name from the Arabic word القصر...

, the monument to the Catholic Monarchs and Christopher Columbus.

There are also several sculptures placed in plazas of the Old Town. In the central Plaza de las Tendillas is the equestrian statue of the Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba known as The Great Captain, Duke of Terranova and Santangelo, Andria, Montalto and Sessa, also known as Gonzalo de Córdoba, Italian: Gonsalvo or Consalvo Ernandes di Cordova was a Spanish general fighting in the times of the Conquest of Granada and the Italian Wars...

, in the Plaza de Capuchinos is the Cristo de los Faroles, in Plaza de la Trinidad is the statue of Luis de Góngora
Luis de Góngora
Luis de Góngora y Argote was a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered to be the most prominent Spanish poets of their age. His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism...

, in the Plaza del Cardenal Salazar is the bust of Ahmad ibn Muhammad abu Yafar al-Gafiqi, in the Plaza de Capuchinas is the statue to the bishop Osio, in Plaza del Conde de Priego is the monument to Manolete
Manolete
Manuel Laureano Rodríguez Sánchez , better known as Manolete, was a Spanish bullfighter.He rose to prominence shortly after the Spanish Civil War and is considered by some to be the greatest bullfighter of all time. His style was sober and serious, with few concessions to the gallery, and he...

 and the Campo Santo de los Mártires is a statue to Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II was the second Caliph of Cordoba, in Al-Andalus , and son of Abd-ar-rahman III . He ruled from 961 to 976....

 and the monument to the lovers.

In the Jardines de la Agricultura is the monument to the painter Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres was a Spanish painter.He was born and died in Córdoba, Spain, where he lived most of his life. His father was the famous painter Rafael Romero Barros and his mother was Rosario de Torres Delgado...

, a bust by sculptor Mateo Inurria, the bust of the poet Julio Aumente and the sculpture dedicated to the gardener Aniceto García Roldán, who was killed in the park. Further south, in the Gardens of the Duke of Rivas, is a statue of the writer and poet Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas made by the sculptor Mariano Benlliure
Mariano Benlliure
Mariano Benlliure was a Spanish sculptor, who executed many public monuments and religious sculptures in Spain, working in a heroic realist style....

.

In the Guadalquivir river, near the San Rafael Bridge is the Island of the sculptures, an artificial island with a dozen stone sculptures executed during the International Sculpture Symposium. Up the river, near the Miraflores bridge, is the "Hombre Río", a sculpture of a swimmer looking to the sky and whose orientation varies depending from the current.

Gardens, parks and natural environments


  • Jardines de la Victoria. Within the gardens there are two newly renovated facilities, the old Caseta del Círculo de la Amistad, today Caseta Victoria, and the Kiosko de la música, as well as a small Modernist
    Modernism
    Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

     fountain from the early 20th century. The northern sector, called Jardines of Duque de Rivas, features a pergola of neoclassical style, designed by the architect Carlos Sáenz de Santamaría; it is used as an exhibition hall and a café bar.
  • Jardines de la Agricultura, located between the Jardines de la Victoria and the Paseo de Córdoba: it includes numerous trails that radially converge to a round square which has a fountain or pond. This is known as the duck pond, and, in the center, has an island with a small building in which these animals live. Scattered throughout the garden are numerous sculptures such as the sculpture in memory of Julio Romero de Torres
    Julio Romero de Torres
    Julio Romero de Torres was a Spanish painter.He was born and died in Córdoba, Spain, where he lived most of his life. His father was the famous painter Rafael Romero Barros and his mother was Rosario de Torres Delgado...

    , the sculpture to the composer Julio Aumente and the bust of Mateo Inurria. In the north is a rose garden
    Rose garden
    A Rose garden or Rosarium is a garden or park, often open to the public, used to present and grow various types of garden roses. Designs vary tremendously and roses may be displayed alongside other plants or grouped by individual variety, colour or class in rose beds.-Origins of the rose...

     in form of a labirynth.
  • Parque de Miraflores, located on the south bank of the river Guadalquivir
    Guadalquivir
    The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian peninsula and the second longest river to be its whole length in Spain. The Guadalquivir is 657 kilometers long and drains an area of about 58,000 square kilometers...

    . It was designed by the architect Juan Cuenca Montilla as a series of terraces. Among other points of interest as the Salam and Miraflores Bridge and a sculpture by Agustín Ibarrola
    Agustín Ibarrola
    Agustín Ibarrola is a Spanish Basque painter and sculptor.He was born in Basauri , Spain.In 1948, the Delegation of Biscay and the city council of Bilbao granted him a scholarship to study in Madrid, where he lived until 1955....

    .
  • Parque Cruz Conde, located southwest of the city, is an open park and barrier-free park in English garden
    English garden
    The English garden, also called English landscape park , is a style of Landscape garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical Garden à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe. The...

    s style.
  • Paseo de Cordoba. Located on the underground train tracks, it is a long tour of several kilometers in length with more than 434,000 m². The tour has numerous fountains, including six formed by a portico of falling water which form a waterfall to a pond with four levels. Integrated into the tour is a pond of water from the Roman era
    Roman Empire
    The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

    , and the building of the old train station of RENFE, now converted into offices of Canal Sur
    Canal Sur
    Canal Sur is part of Radio y Televisión de Andalucía , the public broadcasting company of Andalusia. It was created by means of the devolved powers given to this region by Act of Parliament by its statute of autonomy....

    .
  • Jardines Juan Carlos I, in the Ciudad Jardín neighborhood. It is a fortress which occupies an area of about 12,500 square meters.
  • Jardines del Conde de Vallellano, located on both sides of the avenue of the same name. It includes a large L-shaped pond with a capacity of 3000 m³ (105,944 cu ft) and archaeological remains embedded in the gardens, among which is a Roman cistern from the second half of the 1st century BC.
  • Parque de la Asomadilla, with a surface of 27 hectares, is the second largest park in Andalusia. The park recreates a Mediterranean forest vegetation, such as hawthorn, pomegranate, hackberry, oak, olive, tamarisk, cypress, elms, pines, oaks and carob trees among others.
  • Balcón del Guadalquivir
  • Jardines de Colón
  • Sotos de la Albolafia. Declared Natural monument by the Andalusian Autonomous Government, it is located in a stretch of the Guadalquivir river from the Roman Bridge and the San Rafael Bridge, with an area of 21.36 hectares. Host a large variety of birds and is an important point of migration for many birds.
  • Parque periurbano Los Villares

Bridges


Córdoba has a total of seven bridges, one of which is under construction.

  • Roman Bridge
    Roman bridge of Córdoba
    The Roman bridge of Córdoba is a bridge in Córdoba, Andalusia, southern Spain, built in the early 1st century BC across the Guadalquivir river.It is included in the small preserved area known as Sotos de la Albolafia.- History :...

    , over the Guadalquivir
    Guadalquivir
    The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian peninsula and the second longest river to be its whole length in Spain. The Guadalquivir is 657 kilometers long and drains an area of about 58,000 square kilometers...

     River. It links the area of Campo de la Verdad with Barrio de la Catedral. It was the only bridge of the city for twenty centuries, until the construction of the San Rafael Bridge in the mid-20th century. Built in the early 1st century BC, during the period of Roman rule in Córdoba, probably replacing a more primitive of wood, it has a length of about 250 meters and consists of 16 arches.
  • San Rafael Bridge, consisting of eight arches of 25 m span and a length of 217 meters. The width is between parapets, divided into 12 meters of cobblestone for four circulations and two tiled concrete sidewalks. It was inaugurated on 29 April 1953 joining the Avenue Corregidor with Plaza de Andalucía. In January 2004, the plaques reading "His Excellency the Head of State and Generalissimo of all the Armies, Francisco Franco Bahamonde, opened this bridge of the Guadalquivir on 29 April 1953", which were in each of the entrances of the bridge, each in its own direction, were removed.
  • Andalusia Bridge, a suspension bridge.
  • Puente de Miraflores, known as "the rusty bridge". This bridge links the Street San Fernando and Ronda de Isasa with the Miraflores peninsula. It was designed by Herrero, Suárez and Casado and inaugurated on 2 May 2003. At first, in 1989, had considered the proposal of the architect-engineer Santiago Calatrava
    Santiago Calatrava
    Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, sculptor and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zürich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zürich, Paris, Valencia, and New York City....

    , that would looks like the Lusitania Bridge of Mérida
    Mérida, Spain
    Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain. It has a population of 57,127 . The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1993.- Climate :...

    , but was eventually discarded because of is potential impact on the artistic whole of the historic, because with its height could cover the view of the Great Mosque.
  • Autovía del Sur Bridge.
  • Abbas Ibn Firmas Bridge, under construction. It is part of the future variant west of Córdoba.
  • Puente del Arenal, connecting Avenue Campo de la Verdad with the Recinto Ferial (fairground) of Cordoba.

Politics and government


Local administration
Currently the mayor of Córdoba is Andrés Ocaña, United Left
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

, since the 8 May 2009 after replacing Rosa Aguilar
Rosa Aguilar
Joaquina Rosa Aguilar Rivero is a Spanish politician. She has been the mayor of Córdoba since 1999 and was shortlisted for the 2008 World Mayor award...

 because she left the party.

The City Council of Córdoba is divided into different areas: the Presidency, Security, Mobility, Equality and Participation; the Planning, Housing, Infrastructure and Environment; the Economy, Trade, Employment and Management; the Social; the Cultural Services and Tourism. The council holds regular plenary session once a month, but often held extraordinary plenary session to discuss issues and problems affecting the city.

The Governing Board, chaired by the mayor, consists of five councillors of United Left
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

 (IU), two councilors of Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party is a social-democratic political party in Spain. Its political position is Centre-left. The PSOE is the former ruling party of Spain, until beaten in the elections of November 2011 and the second oldest, exceeded only by the Partido Carlista, founded in...

 (PSOE) and other three members not elected. The municipal council consists of 29 members: 14 of People's Party
People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party is a conservative political party in Spain.The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance , a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship...

, 11 of IU and 4 of PSOE.
style="font-weight: bold; font-size: 1.1em; margin-bottom: 0.5em"| List of mayors since the democratic elections of 1979
Legislature Name Party
1979–1983 Julio Anguita
Julio Anguita
Julio Anguita González is a Spanish communist politician. He was Mayor of Córdoba, Spain from 1979 to 1986 and coordinator of United Left between 1989 and 1999 and General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain from 1988 to 1998.-Biography:A member of a military family, he broke with familiar...

 
PCE
Communist Party of Spain
The Communist Party of Spain is the third largest national political party in Spain. It is the largest member organization of the United Left electoral coalition and has influence in the largest trade union in Spain, Workers' Commissions ....

1983–1987 Julio Anguita (until February 1, 1986)
Herminio Trigo
PCE
Communist Party of Spain
The Communist Party of Spain is the third largest national political party in Spain. It is the largest member organization of the United Left electoral coalition and has influence in the largest trade union in Spain, Workers' Commissions ....

(IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

)
1987–1991 Herminio Trigo IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

1991–1995 Herminio Trigo IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

Manuel Pérez Pérez IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

1995–1999 Rafael Merino PP
People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party is a conservative political party in Spain.The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance , a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship...

1999–2003 Rosa Aguilar
Rosa Aguilar
Joaquina Rosa Aguilar Rivero is a Spanish politician. She has been the mayor of Córdoba since 1999 and was shortlisted for the 2008 World Mayor award...

 
IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

2003–2007 Rosa Aguilar IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...

2007–2011 Rosa Aguilar (until April 23, 2009)
Andrés Ocaña
IU
United Left (Spain)
The United Left is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 bringing together several political organisations opposed to Spain joining NATO. It was formed by a number of groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was dominated by the Communist Party of Spain...



Administrative division
Since July 2008, the city is divided into 10 administrative districts, coordinated by the Municipal district boards, which in turn are subdivided into neighbourhood
Neighbourhood
A neighbourhood or neighborhood is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town or suburb. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. "Researchers have not agreed on an exact definition...

s
District District Location
Centro Poniente-Sur
Levante Sur
Noroeste Sureste
Norte-Sierra Periurbano Este-Campiña
Poniente-Norte Periurbano Oeste-Sierra

Museums

  • Archeological and Ethnological Museum of Córdoba.
  • Julio Romero de Torres Museum.
  • Museum of Fine Arts.
  • Dioceses Museum.
  • Baths of the Fortress Califal.
  • Botanical Museum of Cordova.
  • Three Cultures Museum.
  • Bullfighting Museum.
  • Molino de Martos Hydraulic Museum.

May celebrations


Tourism is especially intense in Córdoba during May because of the weather and as this month hosts three festivals.

The May Crosses Festival takes place at the beginning of the month. During three or four days, crosses of around 3 meters of height are placed in many squares and streets and decorated with flowers and a contest is held to choose the most beautiful one. Usually there is regional food and music near the crosses.

The Patios Festival is celebrated during the second and third week of the month. Many houses of the historic center open their private patios to the public and compete in a contest. Both the architectonic value and the floral decorations are taken into consideration to choose the winners. It is usually very difficult and expensive to find accommodation in the city during the festival.

Córdoba's Fair takes place at the ending of the month and is similar to the better known Seville Fair
Seville Fair
The Seville Fair is held in the Andalusian capital of Seville, Spain. The fair generally begins two weeks after the Semana Santa, or Easter Holy Week....

 with some differences, mainly that the Seville one is private, while the Cordoba one is not.

People



Córdoba was the birthplace of the following philosophers and religious scholars:
  • In Roman times the Stoic
    STOIC
    STOIC was a variant of Forth.It started out at the MIT and Harvard Biomedical Engineering Centre in Boston, and was written in the mid 1970s by Jonathan Sachs...

     philosopher Seneca
  • In Islamic times
    • The Islamic scholar ibn Hazm
      Ibn Hazm
      Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm ) was an Andalusian philosopher, litterateur, psychologist, historian, jurist and theologian born in Córdoba, present-day Spain...

      , a major Muslim theologian and legal jurist,
    • The Islamic scholar ibn Rushd or Averroes
      Averroes
      ' , better known just as Ibn Rushd , and in European literature as Averroes , was a Muslim polymath; a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics, Arabic music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy,...

      , one of Islam's most famous and eminent scholars and philosophers,
    • Imam Abu 'Abdullah al-Qurtubi
      Al-Qurtubi
      Imam Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi or Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Ansari al-Qurtubi was a famous mufassir, muhaddith and faqih scholar from Cordoba of maliki origin. He is most famous for his commentary of the Quran, Tafsir al-Qurtubi....

      , a leading jurist of the Maliki
      Maliki
      The ' madhhab is one of the schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It is the second-largest of the four schools, followed by approximately 25% of Muslims, mostly in North Africa, West Africa, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and in some parts of Saudi Arabia...

       madhab, and
    • The rabbi
      Rabbi
      In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

       and Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides.


Córdoba was also the birthplace of
  • The Roman poet Lucan,
  • The medieval Spanish poet Juan de Mena
    Juan de Mena
    Juan de Mena was one of the most significant Spanish poets of the fifteenth century. He was highly regarded at the court of Juan II de Castilla, who appointed him veinticuatro of Córdoba, secretario de cartas latinas and cronista real...

  • The Renaissance poet Luis de Góngora
    Luis de Góngora
    Luis de Góngora y Argote was a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered to be the most prominent Spanish poets of their age. His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism...

    , who lived most of his life and wrote all his most important works but one in Córdoba.


The Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 philosopher Abraham Cohen de Herrera
Abraham Cohen de Herrera
Abraham Cohen de Herrera also known as Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abraham Irira was a religious philosopher and cabbalist. He is supposed by the historian Heinrich Graetz to have been born in 1570...

 and the Jewish mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero
Moses ben Jacob Cordovero, , was a central figure in the historical development of Kabbalah, leader of a mystical school in 16th-century Safed, Israel. He is known by the acronym the Ramak....

  both descended from families which lived in Córdoba before the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.

The painter Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres was a Spanish painter.He was born and died in Córdoba, Spain, where he lived most of his life. His father was the famous painter Rafael Romero Barros and his mother was Rosario de Torres Delgado...

 (1874–1930).

More recently, several flamenco
Flamenco
Flamenco is a genre of music and dance which has its foundation in Andalusian music and dance and in whose evolution Andalusian Gypsies played an important part....

 artists were born here as well, including
  • Vicente Amigo
    Vicente Amigo
    Vicente Amigo Girol is a Spanish flamenco composer and virtuoso guitarist, born in Guadalcanal, near Seville. He has played as backing guitarist on recordings by flamenco singers El Pele, Camarón de la Isla, Vicente Soto, Luis de Córdoba and the rociero band Salmarina, and he has acted as a...

  • Joaquín Cortés
    Joaquín Cortés
    Joaquín Pedraja Reyes "Joaquín Cortés" is a classically trained ballet and flamenco dancer from Spain of Romani origin.-Biography:...

  • Fosforito
    Fosforito
    Antonio Fernández Díaz known as Fosforito, is a flamenco singer and winner of the fifth Golden Key of flamenco singing. Only five of these have been awarded since the award's inception in 1862...

  • Paco Peña
    Paco Peña
    Paco Peña is a Spanish flamenco guitarist. He is regarded as one of the world's foremost traditional Flamenco players.Born in Córdoba, Spain as Francisco Peña Pérez, Paco Peña began learning to play the guitar from his brother at age 6 and made his first professional appearance at 12...

  • Juan Serrano
    Juan Serrano (Flamenco)
    Dr. Juan Serrano is a flamenco guitarist who has played concerts and made recordings throughout the world. He has devoted much of his life to giving concerts and teaching flamenco guitar in the United States....



Also recently
  • Fernando Tejero
    Fernando Tejero
    Fernando Tejero Muñoz-Torrero is a Spanish actor who spent his childhood and adolescence in Córdoba, Andalucía.Since he was very young, Tejero knew he wanted to be an actor. However his father wanted Tejero to become a bullfighter...

    , actor

Transport


The city is connected by high speed trains to the following Spanish cities: Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Seville
Seville
Seville is the artistic, historic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain. It is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of above sea level...

, Málaga
Málaga
Málaga is a city and a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010, it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. This is the southernmost large city in Europe...

 and Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

. More than 20 trains per day connect the downtown area, in 54 minutes, with Málaga María Zambrano station, which provides interchange capability to destinations along the Costa del Sol, including Málaga Airport
Málaga Airport
Málaga Airport , also known as Malaga Costa Del Sol Airport and Pablo Ruiz Picasso Airport, is the fourth busiest airport in Spain after Madrid-Barajas, Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca. It is an important airport for Spanish tourism as it is the main international airport serving the Costa Del Sol....

.

Twin towns – sister cities



Córdoba is twinned with: Córdoba
Córdoba, Argentina
Córdoba is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province. Córdoba is the second-largest city in Argentina after the federal capital Buenos Aires, with...

, Argentina, since 1969 A Coruña
A Coruña
A Coruña or La Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second-largest city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country...

, Spain, since 1976 Córdoba
Córdoba, Veracruz
Córdoba, officially known as Heroica Córdoba, is a city and the seat of the municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Veracruz. It was founded in 1618....

, Mexico, since 1980 Fes
Fes
Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

, Morocco, since 1982 Smara
Smara
Smara, also Semara , is a city in the Moroccan-Administered Western Sahara, with a population estimated at 42,056.-History:The largest city in its province, Smara was founded in the Saguia el-Hamra as an oasis for travellers in 1869. It is the only major city in Western Sahara that was not founded...

, Western Sahara, since 1987 La Habana Vieja, Cuba, since 2000 Damascus, Syria, since 2001 Nuremberg, Germany, since 2010 León
León, Spain
León is the capital of the province of León in the autonomous community of Castile and León, situated in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 136,985 makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter of the province's population...

, Spain, since 2010 Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, Pakistan Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara , from the Soghdian βuxārak , is the capital of the Bukhara Province of Uzbekistan. The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 . The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time...

, Uzbekistan Manchester, UK Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

, Palestine Territory Adana, Turkey Derna, Libya

External links