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Buddleja

Buddleja

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Encyclopedia
Buddleja, often misspelled Buddleia (icon) but commonly known as the Butterfly Bush, is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

s. The generic name bestowed by Linnaeus honours the Reverend Adam Buddle
Adam Buddle
Adam Buddle was an English cleric and botanist.Born at Deeping St James, a small village near Peterborough, Buddle was educated at St Catharine's College, Cambridge, where he gained a BA in 1681, and an MA four years later. Buddle was eventually ordained into the Church of England, obtaining a...

 (1662–1715), a botanist and rector
Rector
The word rector has a number of different meanings; it is widely used to refer to an academic, religious or political administrator...

 in Essex, England, but who could never have seen a plant of the genus.

Classification


The genus Buddleja is now included in the figwort
Scrophularia
The genus Scrophularia of the family Scrophulariaceae comprises about 200 species of herbaceous flowering plants commonly known as figworts. Species of Scrophularia all share square stems, opposite leaves and open two-lipped flowers forming clusters at the end of their stems...

 family, Scrophulariaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, are a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral or rarely radial symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including...

; it had earlier been classified in either the Loganiaceae
Loganiaceae
Loganiaceae are a family of flowering plants classified in order Gentianales. The family includes 13 genera, distributed around the world's tropics.Earlier treatments of the family have included up to 29 genera...

 or in a family of its own, the Buddlejaceae.

Description


Of the approximately 100 species nearly all are shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s <5 m (16.4 ft) tall, but a few qualify as tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s, the largest reaching 30 m (98.4 ft). Both evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

 and deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

 species occur. The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are lanceolate in most species, and arranged in opposite pairs on the stems (alternate in one species, B. alternifolia
Buddleja alternifolia
Buddleja alternifolia is a species endemic to Kansu, China, where it grows along river banks in thickets at elevations of 1,500 - 4,000 m. First described and named by Carl Maximowicz in 1880, the plant was not introduced to cultivation until 1915, by Purdom and Farrer. -Description:B...

); they range from 1–30 cm (0.393700787401575–11.8 in) long. The flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s are produced in dense panicle
Panicle
A panicle is a compound raceme, a loose, much-branched indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate flowers attached along the secondary branches; in other words, a branched cluster of flowers in which the branches are racemes....

s 10–50 cm (3.9–19.7 in) long; each individual flower is tubular, about 1 cm (0.393700787401575 in) long, with the corolla divided into four spreading lobes (petal
Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...

s), about 3–4 mm (0.118110236220472–0.15748031496063 in) across. Flower colour varies widely, with white, pink, red, purple, orange or yellow flowers produced by different species and cultivars; they are rich in nectar and often strongly scented. The fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 is a small capsule
Capsule (fruit)
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels that in most cases is dehiscent, i.e. at maturity, it splits apart to release the seeds within. A few capsules are indehiscent, for example...

 about 1 cm (0.393700787401575 in) long and 1–2 mm (0.0393700787401575–0.078740157480315 in) diameter, containing numerous small seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

s; in a few species (previously classified in the separate genus Nicodemia) the capsule is soft and fleshy, forming a berry
Berry
The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. Grapes are an example. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels with a thin covering and fleshy interiors....

.

Distribution


The genus is endemic to four continents. Over 60 species are native throughout the warmer parts of the New World
New World
The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically America and sometimes Oceania . The term originated in the late 15th century, when America had been recently discovered by European explorers, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European middle...

 from the southern United States
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 south to Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

, while many other species are found in the Old World
Old World
The Old World consists of those parts of the world known to classical antiquity and the European Middle Ages. It is used in the context of, and contrast with, the "New World" ....

, in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, and parts of Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, but all are absent as natives from Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and Australasia
Australasia
Australasia is a region of Oceania comprising Australia, New Zealand, the island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. The term was coined by Charles de Brosses in Histoire des navigations aux terres australes...

. The species are divided into three groups based on their floral type: those in the New World are mostly dioecious
Plant sexuality
Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. This article describes morphological aspects of sexual reproduction of plants....

 (occasionally monoecious or trioecious), while those in the Old World are exclusively monoecious
Plant sexuality
Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. This article describes morphological aspects of sexual reproduction of plants....

 with perfect flowers.

Cultivation and uses


As garden shrubs Buddlejas are 20th-century plants, with the exception of B. globosa
Buddleja globosa
Buddleja globosa, also known as the Orange Ball Buddleja, is a species endemic to Chile and Argentina, where it grows in dry and moist forest, from sea level to 2,000 m. The species was first described and named by Hope in 1782 -Description:...

, introduced to Britain from southern Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

 in 1774 and disseminated from the nursery of Lee and Kennedy
Lee and Kennedy
Lee and Kennedy were prominent nurserymen in three generations at The Vineyard, in Hammersmith, west of London."For many years," wrote John Claudius Loudon in 1854 "this nursery was deservedly considered the first in the world." The partnership was originated with a nurseryman, Lewis Kennedy , who...

, Hammersmith.

Several species are popular garden plants, the species are commonly known as 'butterfly bushes' owing to their attractiveness to butterflies, and have become staples of the modern butterfly garden
Butterfly Garden
Butterfly Garden is a life simulation game by independent developer Autonomous Productions, revolving around the raising and collecting of butterflies. Initially for the Xbox 360 via Xbox Live Arcade, the developers have promised there will be a PC version and WiiWare version...

; they are also attractive to bee
Bee
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila...

s and moth
Moth
A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Moths form the majority of this order; there are thought to be 150,000 to 250,000 different species of moth , with thousands of species yet to be described...

s. Some species of South American Buddleja have evolved long red flowers to attact hummingbird
Hummingbird
Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, most species measuring in the 7.5–13 cm range. Indeed, the smallest extant bird species is a hummingbird, the 5-cm Bee Hummingbird. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings...

s as exclusive pollinator
Pollinator
A pollinator is the biotic agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain...

s.

The most popular cultivated species is Buddleja davidii
Buddleja davidii
Buddleja davidii , also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a native of Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China and of Japan. It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. B...

from central China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, named after the French naturalist Père Armand David
Armand David
Father Armand David was a Lazarist missionary Catholic priest as well as a zoologist and a botanist.-General Biography:...

. Other common garden species include Buddleja globosa
Buddleja globosa
Buddleja globosa, also known as the Orange Ball Buddleja, is a species endemic to Chile and Argentina, where it grows in dry and moist forest, from sea level to 2,000 m. The species was first described and named by Hope in 1782 -Description:...

from southern Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

, grown for its strongly honey
Honey
Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans...

 - scented orange globular flower-heads, and Buddleja alternifolia
Buddleja alternifolia
Buddleja alternifolia is a species endemic to Kansu, China, where it grows along river banks in thickets at elevations of 1,500 - 4,000 m. First described and named by Carl Maximowicz in 1880, the plant was not introduced to cultivation until 1915, by Purdom and Farrer. -Description:B...

with lilac-coloured flowers. Several interspecific hybrids can also be found, notably B. × 'Lochinch' (B. davidii × B. fallowiana
Buddleja fallowiana
Buddleja fallowiana is endemic to the Yunnan province in western China, where it grows in open woodland, along forest edges and watercourses. The plant was named in 1917 by Balfour and Smith for George Fallow, a gardener at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh killed in Egypt during the First World...

) and B. × weyerana (B. globosa × B. davidii), the latter the only known cross between a South American and an Asiatic species.

Some species commonly escape from the garden. B. davidii in particular is a great coloniser of dry open ground; in towns in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, it often self-sows on waste ground or old masonry, where it grows into a dense thicket, and it is listed as an invasive species
Invasive species
"Invasive species", or invasive exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions....

 in many areas. It is frequently seen beside railway
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 lines, on derelict factory sites and, in the aftermath of the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, on urban bomb sites. This earned it the popular nickname of 'the bombsite plant' among people of the war-time generation.

Popular garden cultivars include 'Royal Red' (reddish-purple flowers), 'Black Knight' (very dark purple), 'Sungold' (golden yellow), and 'Pink Delight' (pink). In recent years, much breeding work has been undertaken to create more compact buddlejas, most recently the production of dwarf varieties such as 'Lo & Behold'(TM) 'Blue Chip'(TM), and 'Buzz' (TM), which reach no more than 2–3 ft (0.6096–0.9144 m) tall, and are also seed sterile, an important consideration in the USA where B. davidii and its cultivars are banned from many states on account of their invasiveness.

Nomenclature


The botanic name has been the source of some confusion. By modern practice of botanical Latin, the spelling of a generic name made from "Buddle" would be "Buddleia", but Linnaeus in 1753 and 1754 spelled it "Buddleja". The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has gradually changed to incorporate stricter rules about orthographic variants
Orthographical variant (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, an orthographical variant is a variant spelling of the same name. For example, Hieronima and Hyeronima are orthographical variants of Hieronyma. One of the spellings is to be treated as the correct one.Priority starts with this date of publication, if not otherwise...

, and as of the 2006 edition requires (article 60, particularly 60.5) that Linnaeus' spelling should be followed in this case.

Species


The many species of Buddleja have been the subject of much taxonomic contention. The listing below is based on the most recent reviews of the genus, by Leeuwenberg (Asiatic and African species) in 1979, and Norman (American species) in 2000 (see Monographs). In the former's work, many 'species' have been sunk as varieties.
  • Buddleja acuminata
    Buddleja acuminata
    Buddleja acuminata is a rare shrub endemic to the northern half of Madagascar and eastern Zaire, where it grows along forest edges and in clearings at elevations of 50 - 800 m. The species was first named and described by Poiret in 1810...

    Poir.
  • Buddleja albiflora
    Buddleja albiflora
    Buddleja albiflora is a deciduous shrub native to the mountains of central China, where it grows on shrub-clad slopes at altitudes of between 1,000 and 2,000 m. Named rather carelessly by Hemsley, the species was discovered by Henry, and introduced to western cultivation by Wilson in...

    Hemsl.
  • Buddleja alternifolia
    Buddleja alternifolia
    Buddleja alternifolia is a species endemic to Kansu, China, where it grows along river banks in thickets at elevations of 1,500 - 4,000 m. First described and named by Carl Maximowicz in 1880, the plant was not introduced to cultivation until 1915, by Purdom and Farrer. -Description:B...

    Maxim.
  • Buddleja americana
    Buddleja americana
    Buddleja americana is the most widespread of all the Buddleja species native to the Americas, its range extending south from Tamaulipas, Mexico, through Central America and much of the West Indies into South America, reaching eastward to Venezuela, westward as far as the Galapagos, and south to...

    L.
  • Buddleja anchoensis
    Buddleja anchoensis
    Buddleja anchoensis is endemic to the Río Piraí between Santa Cruz and the Andean foothills in Bolivia. The species was named by Otto Kuntze in 1898 -Description:...

    Kuntze
  • Buddleja araucana
    Buddleja araucana
    Buddleja araucana is endemic to the semi-deserts and steppes of Patagonia, from southern Mendoza to Río Negro and Neuquen provinces in Argentina, and adjacent Chile. The species was first described and named by Philippi in 1873.-Description:...

    Phil.
  • Buddleja aromatica
    Buddleja aromatica
    Buddleja aromatica is endemic to the Cordillera Oriental and Central of Bolivia, and northern Argentina, where it grows on rocky areas amid semi-arid scrub and thorn. The species was first described and named by Rémy in 1847.-Description:...

    Rémy
  • Buddleja asiatica
    Buddleja asiatica
    Buddleja asiatica is a tender deciduous shrub native to a vast area of the East Indies, and first described by Loureiro in 1790. The shrub can be found in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, New Guinea, and the Philippines, growing in open...

    Lour.
  • Buddleja auriculata
    Buddleja auriculata
    Buddleja auriculata is an evergreen winter-flowering shrub native to South Africa and introduced to western cultivation in 1923 .In the UK the shrub is popular as a source of nectar for late Red Admiral butterflies still on the wing in December ....

    Benth.
  • Buddleja axillaris
    Buddleja axillaris
    Buddleja axillaris is a shrub endemic to Madagascar, the Comoro Islands, and Tanzania, growing in forests at elevations of 300 - 1400 m. The species was first named and described by Willdenow in 1827 -Description:...

    Willd. ex. Roem. et Schult.
  • Buddleja bhutanica
    Buddleja bhutanica
    Buddleja bhutanica is a species endemic to Bhutan, where it grows in bush on mountain slopes at elevations around 1,700 m. The shrub was first described and named by Yamazaki in 1971.-Description:...

    T. Yamaz.
  • Buddleja blattaria
    Buddleja blattaria
    Buddleja blattaria is a small shrub endemic to the regions of Piura and Cajamarca in northern Peru. The species was first described and named by J. F. Macbride in 1934.-Description:B. blattaria is a dioecious shrub,...

    J. F. Macbr.
  • Buddleja brachiata
    Buddleja brachiata
    Buddleja brachiata is endemic to southern Brazil from Goiás to São Paolo, where it grows on disturbed areas along rivers. The species was first described and named by Chamisso & von Schlechtendal in 1827.-Description:...

    Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Buddleja brachystachya
    Buddleja brachystachya
    Buddleja brachystachya is a small shrub endemic to the Yunnan, Szechuan and Kansu provinces of China, where it grows on open, rocky, often dry, places at altitudes of between 2,000 and 2,400 m. It was first described and named by Diels in 1912....

    Diels.
  • Buddleja bullata
    Buddleja bullata
    Buddleja bullata is a variable species endemic to the Andes, from Venezuela south through Colombia and Ecuador to Peru, at elevations of 1800 – 3600 m, where it grows on stream beds and in the remnants of montane forest. The species was first described and named by Kunth in 1818.-Description:B...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja cardanesii
    Buddleja cardanesii
    Buddleja cardenasii is a species endemic only to the region of Cochabamba in Bolivia at an altitude of around 3,000 m. The species was first described and named by Standley in 1935.-Description:...

    Standl. ex E. M. Norman
  • Buddleja cestriflora
    Buddleja cestriflora
    Buddleja cestriflora is a rare species endemic only to a small area near the eastern coast of Brazil, where it grows in the cloud forest along roadsides and in wet rocky clearings on the eastern border of Serra Geral of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The species was first described and named...

    Cham.
  • Buddleja chapalana
    Buddleja chapalana
    Buddleja chapalana is a rare species endemic to the rocky cliffs bordering the northern and western shores of Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico. The shrub grows in shade amidst deciduous woodland at an altitude of 1750 - 2500 m. B. chapalana was first described and named by Robinson in 1891....

    B. L. Rob.
  • Buddleja chenopodiifolia
    Buddleja chenopodiifolia
    Buddleja chenopodiifolia is a species endemic to the dry rocky or clay hillsides of southern Peru at altitudes of 2200 - 3100 m; it was first described and named by Kraenzlin in 1913. -Description:...

    Kraenzl.
  • Buddleja colvilei
    Buddleja colvilei
    Buddleja colvilei is endemic to the eastern Himalaya. Discovered by Hooker in 1849, he described it as 'the handsomest of all Himalayan shrubs' -Description:...

    Hook.f. & Thomson
  • Buddleja cordata
    Buddleja cordata
    Buddleja cordata is endemic to Mexico, growing along forest edges and water courses at elevations of 1500 – 3000 m.-Description:B. cordata is a large deciduous shrub or tree...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja cordobensis
    Buddleja cordobensis
    Buddleja cordobensis is a species endemic to dry hillsides in the Argentine provinces of Córdoba, San Luís, and La Rioja at altitudes of 700 - 1500 m; it was first described and named by Grisebach in 1874. -Description:...

    Griseb.
  • Buddleja coriacea
    Buddleja coriacea
    Buddleja coriacea is endemic to much of Bolivia, growing in clearings, scrub, woodland edges, and along streams at elevations Buddleja coriacea is endemic to much of Bolivia, growing in clearings, scrub, woodland edges, and along streams at elevations Buddleja coriacea is endemic to much of...

    J.Rémy
  • Buddleja corrugata
    Buddleja corrugata
    Buddleja corrugata is a species endemic to north-western Mexico including the Baja California Sur, growing on limestone at altitudes of 200 – 1900 m; it was first described and named by Jones in 1933.-Description:...

    M. E. Jones
  • Buddleja crispa
    Buddleja crispa
    Buddleja crispa - sometimes called the Himalayan Butterfly Bush - is native to Afghanistan, Bhutan, North India, Nepal, Pakistan and China , where it grows on dry river beds, slopes with boulders, exposed cliffs, and in thickets, at an elevation of 1400 – 4300 m. Named by Bentham in 1835, B...

    Benth.
  • Buddleja crotonoides
    Buddleja crotonoides
    Buddleja crotonoides is a shrub with a wide distribution, from California south to Nicaragua. The shrub was first named and described by Gray in 1847. The shrub grows at elevations of 2,000 - 2,500 m in oak woods and on scree in association with Arbutus xalapiensis, Pinus sp., and Crataegus...

    A. Gray
  • Buddleja cuneata
    Buddleja cuneata
    Buddleja cuneata is a rare species endemic only to the southern plateau of Brazil, where it grows in dry and rocky fields from Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul. The species was first described and named by Chamisso in 1833.-Description:B...

    Cham.
  • Buddleja curviflora
    Buddleja curviflora
    Buddleja curviflora is a deciduous shrub native to southern Japan and Taiwan, where it grows in thickets on stony slopes at elevations of 100 - 300 m. B. curviflora was named and described Hooker & Arnott in 1838.-Description:B...

    Hook. & Arn.
  • Buddleja cuspidata
    Buddleja cuspidata
    Buddleja cuspidata is a species endemic to Madagascar, where it grows along river banks. The species was first named and described by Baker in 1895 -Description:...

    Baker
  • Buddleja davidii
    Buddleja davidii
    Buddleja davidii , also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a native of Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China and of Japan. It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. B...

    Franch.
  • Buddleja delavayi
    Buddleja delavayi
    Buddleja delavayi is an unremarkable Chinese species discovered by Forrest in the Tali Range above Dali , Yunnan, in 1910. The sole horticultural distinction of the shrub lies in its ability to flower in both the spring and autumn....

    Gagnep.
  • Buddleja diffusa
    Buddleja diffusa
    Buddleja diffusa is a species endemic to central Peru and northern Argentina, growing on dry hillsides above rivers and creeks at altitudes of 1000 – 1900 m; it was first described and named by Ruiz & Pavon in 1798.-Description:...

    Ruíz & Pav.
  • Buddleja domingensis
    Buddleja domingensis
    Buddleja domingensis is a species endemic to the uplands of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, growing in rocky, limestone ravines, along forest edges and roadsides; it was first described and named by Ignatz Urban in 1908.-Description:B...

    Urb.
  • Buddleja dysophylla
    Buddleja dysophylla
    Buddleja dysophylla is a species endemic to southern Africa, from Zaire and Tanzania south to Malawi, and from the Transvaal to eastern Cape Province, where it grows along forest edges or in scrub at altitudes of 0 - 2,600 m. . The species was named and described in 1883 by...

    (Benth.) Radlk.
  • Buddleja euryphylla
    Buddleja euryphylla
    Buddleja euryphylla is a species endemic to cloud forest in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras; it was first described and named by Standley & Steyermark in 1947. -Description:...

    Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Buddleja fallowiana
    Buddleja fallowiana
    Buddleja fallowiana is endemic to the Yunnan province in western China, where it grows in open woodland, along forest edges and watercourses. The plant was named in 1917 by Balfour and Smith for George Fallow, a gardener at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh killed in Egypt during the First World...

    Balf.f. & W.W.Sm.
  • Buddleja forrestii
    Buddleja forrestii
    Buddleja forrestii is a deciduous shrub or small tree widely distributed from India to western China. First described by Diels in 1912, he named the species for plant hunter George Forrest, who discovered the plant in Yunnan in 1903, and introduced it....

    Diels
  • Buddleja fragifera
    Buddleja fragifera
    Buddleja fragifera is a rare evergreen shrub endemic to the southern tip of Madagascar, where it grows amongst scrub near the coast. The species was first named and described by Leeuwenberg in 1975 -Description:...

    Leeuwenb.
  • Buddljea fusca Baker
  • Buddleja globosa
    Buddleja globosa
    Buddleja globosa, also known as the Orange Ball Buddleja, is a species endemic to Chile and Argentina, where it grows in dry and moist forest, from sea level to 2,000 m. The species was first described and named by Hope in 1782 -Description:...

    Hope
  • Buddleja glomerata
    Buddleja glomerata
    Buddleja glomerata is a shrub endemic to the mountains of the Karoo desert in South Africa, where it grows among boulders on dry hillsides. It has a number of common names locally, the most popular being 'Karoo Sagewood'.-Description:B...

    H. L. Wendl.
  • Buddleja grandiflora
    Buddleja grandiflora
    Buddleja grandiflora is endemic to the marshy fields and river margins of southern Brazil, and adjacent areas of Argentina and Uruguay. The species was first described and named by Chamisso & von Schlechtendal in 1827.-Description:...

    Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Buddleja hatschbachii
    Buddleja hatschbachii
    Buddleja hatschbachii is a very rare species found only in the wet ravines and rock slopes flanking the east side of the planalto of southern Brazil. The species was first described and named by Norman & Smith in 1976.-Description:...

    E. M. Norman & L. B. Sm.
  • Buddleja hieronymi
    Buddleja hieronymi
    Buddleja hieronymi is a species endemic to southern Bolivia and northern Argentina first described and named by Fries in 1905. -Description:B. hieronymi is a dioecious shrub 1 - 1.5 m high with greyish rimose bark...

    R. E. Fr.
  • Buddleja ibarrensis
    Buddleja ibarrensis
    Buddleja ibarrensis is a species endemic to a small area of Ecuador in the vicinity of Ibarra at an elevation of 2,200 m. Its natural habitat of the plant is subtropical or tropical moist montane, and it is threatened by habitat loss....

    E. M. Norman
  • Buddleja incana
    Buddleja incana
    Buddleja incana is endemic to Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, growing in canyon bottoms along streams at elevations of 2,700 - 4,500 m. The species was first named and described by Ruiz and Pavon in 1798. -Description:B...

    Ruiz & Pav.
  • Buddleja indica
    Buddleja indica
    Buddleja indica is an evergreen shrub native to Madagascar, Comoro, and the Mascarene Islands, where it grows from the coast into the mountains up to elevations of 2000 m in either scrub or clearings. B. indica was named and described by Lamarck in 1785.-Description:B...

    Lam.
  • Buddleja interrupta
    Buddleja interrupta
    Buddleja interrupta is a species endemic to the dry valleys and roadsides of northern Peru at altitudes Buddleja interrupta is a species endemic to the dry valleys and roadsides of northern Peru at altitudes...

    Kunth.
  • Buddleja iresinoides
    Buddleja iresinoides
    Buddleja iresinoides is a species endemic to the rocky hillsides and stream banks of Bolivia and northern Argentina at altitudes from 300 to 1500 m. The species was correctly identified as a Buddleja and named by Hosseus in 1924.-Description:...

    (Griseb.) Hosseus
  • Buddleja jamesonii
    Buddleja jamesonii
    Buddleja jamesonii is a species endemic to southern Ecuador, where it grows in moist, protected ravines and borders of tussocks at elevations of 3,000 - 4,000  m. The species, first named and described by Bentham in 1846, is now threatened by habitat loss.-Description:B. jamesonii is a...

    Benth.
  • Buddleja japonica
    Buddleja japonica
    Buddleja japonica is a deciduous shrub native to Honshu and Shikoku, Japan, where it grows on mountain slopes amid scrub. The shrub was named and described by Hemsley in 1889, and introduced to Western cultivation in 1896.-Description:B...

    Hemsl.
  • Buddleja kleinii
    Buddleja kleinii
    Buddleja kleinii is a species limited to a small area of cloud forest bordering the eastern portion of the Serra Geral of Santa Catarina and the Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil at altitudes from 1200 to 1650 m. The species was named by Norman & Smith in 1976. -Description:B. kleinii is a...

    E. M. Norman & L. B. Sm.
  • Buddleja lanata
    Buddleja lanata
    Buddleja lanata is a species endemic to Ecuador where it grows on dry, windy plateaux amid grasses and bracken at elevations of 1,150 - 2,700 m. The species, first named and described by Bentham in 1845 is now threatened by habitat loss....

    Benth.
  • Buddleja lindleyana
    Buddleja lindleyana
    Buddleja lindleyana is a deciduous shrub native to the provinces of Anhwei, Hunan, Hupeh, Kiangsu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan in China, where it grows in rocky scrub alongside streams and tracks at elevations of between 200 m and 2700 m. The shrub has also naturalized on Okinawa-jima, Japan,...

    Fortune ex Lindl.
  • Buddleja lojensis
    Buddleja lojensis
    Buddleja lojensis is a species endemic to the Loja region of southern Ecuador, and Piura in Peru, where it grows on mountains, savannahs and scrub, notably near streams, at elevations of 1,600 - 2,550 m. The species was first identified and described by Norman in 1982. -Description:B....

    E. M. Norman
  • Buddleja longifolia
    Buddleja longifolia
    Buddleja longifolia is a species now restricted to remnants of montane forest in Loja, Ecuador, and northern Peru at altitudes of 2100 – 2600 m. The species was first described and named by Kunth in 1818.-Description:B...

    Kunth.
  • Buddleja longiflora
    Buddleja longiflora
    Buddleja longiflora is a rare species endemic to one small area of Brazil, growing in fields high on the Serra do Caparaó at an altitude of 2400 m. The species was first described and named by Brade in 1957.1, ed. quar. 2: 349. t. 186. 1818....

    Brade
  • Buddleja loricata
    Buddleja loricata
    Buddleja loricata is a hardy evergreen shrub endemic to South Africa and Mozambique, where it grows on mountain slopes at elevations above 1,800  m. The shrub has only recently been introduced to cultivation in Europe.-Description:B...

    Leeuwenb.
  • Buddleja madagascariensis
    Buddleja madagascariensis
    Buddleja madagascariensis, also known as smokebush, is a tender evergreen shrub or climbing vine endemic to Madagascar. The species was first named and described by Lamarck in 1792, and introduced to cultivation in 1827. It was given the Award of Garden Merit by the RHS in 2002.The shrub grows...

    Lam.
  • Buddleja marrubiifolia
    Buddleja marrubiifolia
    Buddleja marrubifolia is a species endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert from southern Texas to San Luis Potosí in Mexico, where it grows on limestone and gypsum soils in canyons and arroyos at elevations of 600 - 2,250 m. The species was first named and described by Bentham in 1846.-Description:B...

    Benth.
  • Buddleja megalocephala
    Buddleja megalocephala
    Buddleja megalocephala is a species endemic to Guatemala, in the Central Highlands, the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, and Mt. Tacana on the border with Mexico, where it grows in open areas associated with evergreen cloud forest at elevations of 2700 - 4,000 m. The species was first named and...

    Donn. Sm.
  • Buddleja mendozensis
    Buddleja mendozensis
    Buddleja mendozensis is an extremely variable species endemic to the xeric and subxeric areas of Argentina, from Jujuy to southern Mendoza and La Pampa, where it grows on rocks at altitudes of 600 - 3,000 m. The species was first named by Gillies , and described by Bentham in...

    Gillies ex. Benth.
  • Buddleja misionum
    Buddleja misionum
    Buddleja misionum is a species endemic to dry rocky fields and roadsides in southern Paraguay, the Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, and the provinces of Corrientes and Misiones in Argentina; it was first described and named by Kraenzlin in 1913. -Description:...

    Kraenzl.
  • Buddleja montana
    Buddleja montana
    Buddleja montana is a species endemic to the rocky hillsides of the cordilleras of Peru at altitudes of 2,700 - 4,000 m, extending into Bolivia; it was named and described by Britton in 1898. -Description:...

    Britton
  • Buddleja myriantha
    Buddleja myriantha
    Buddleja myriantha is a species endemic to upper Burma and western China, including Tibet, where it grows along forest edges, thickets and streams at altitudes of 2,000 to 3,200 m. The species was first described and named by Diels in 1912....

    Diels.
  • Buddleja nitida
    Buddleja nitida
    Buddleja nitida is a species endemic to much of Central America, from southern Chiapas in Mexico south to the Sierra de Talamanca in northern Panama, where it grows on limestone slopes, in cloud forest, in clearings and pastures at altitudes of 2,000 - 4,000 m. The species was first named...

    Benth.
  • Buddleja nivea
    Buddleja nivea
    Buddleja nivea is a vigorous shrub endemic to western China, evergreen in the wild, but deciduous in cultivation in the UK. The plant was discovered by Wilson in the Yangtse basin at altitudes of between 700 m and 3,600 m. Introduced to cultivation in 1901, it was named by Duthie in 1905...

    Duthie
  • Buddleja oblonga
    Buddleja oblonga
    Buddleja oblonga is a species endemic to the Serra do Caparaó and south as far as Paraná in Brazil, where it grows in fields and damp thickets near streams at altitudes of 1,000 - 2,200 m. The species was first named and described by Bentham in 1846....

    Benth.
  • Buddleja officinalis
    Buddleja officinalis
    Buddleja officinalis is a deciduous early-spring flowering shrub native to west Hubei, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces in China introduced to western cultivation in 1908....

    Maxim.
  • Buddleja paniculata
    Buddleja paniculata
    Buddleja paniculata is native to a wide upland area from northern India to Bhutan, growing along forest margins, in thickets, and on rocky slopes at elevations of 500 – 3000 m. The species was named by Wallich and introduced to the UK in 1823 as seed sent by a Major Madden from the Himalaya...

    Wallich.
  • Buddleja parviflora
    Buddleja parviflora
    Buddleja parviflora is endemic to much of upland Mexico north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in forests at elevations of 750 – 3500 m. The species was first named and described by Kunth in 1818. -Description:B...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja perfoliata
    Buddleja perfoliata
    Buddleja perfoliata is endemic to the xerophytic and subzerophytic grasslands of central Mexico at elevations of 1500 – 2700 m. The species was first named and described by Kunth in 1818. -Description:...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja pichinchensis
    Buddleja pichinchensis
    Buddleja pichinchensis is endemic to the southern Cordillera Central of Colombia and the northern and central highlands of Ecuador, where it grows with Escallonia in páramo and subparamo regions at altitudes of between 3,300 and 4,200 m. The species was first named and described by Kunth in...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja polycephala
    Buddleja polycephala
    Buddleja polycephala is endemic to southern Ecuador and areas around Ayabaca and Piura, and Cajamarca in Peru, at elevations of 2,000 - 2,700 m. The species was first named and described by Kunth in 1818. -Description:...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja polystachya
    Buddleja polystachya
    Buddleja polystachya is a multi-branched shrub or occasionally small tree endemic to the semi-arid highlands flanking the Red Sea in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, where it grows in secondary scrub or around forest at elevations of between 2,200 and 3,600 m ...

    Fresen.
  • Buddleja pulchella
    Buddleja pulchella
    Buddleja pulchella is endemic to the open mountain forest of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Tanzania at elevations of 1,200 - 2,000 m. The species was first named and described by Brown in 1894. -Description:B...

    N. E. Br.
  • Buddleja racemosa
    Buddleja racemosa
    Buddleja racemosa, commonly known as the Wand Butterfly Bush, is endemic to the southern edge of the limestone Edwards Plateau in Texas, USA, from Austin to Rocksprings, growing around streams, creeks and springs at elevations of 250 -750 m. The plant was first named and described by John...

    Torr.
  • Buddleja ramboi
    Buddleja ramboi
    Buddleja ramboi is a very rare Brazilian species found only infrequently in the shrubby or grassy fields of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The species was described and named by Smith in 1955.-Description:B...

    L. B. Sm.
  • Buddleja rufescens
    Buddleja rufescens
    Buddleja rufescens is endemic to western Peru from Piura to Ica where it grows along roadsides, dry river courses, and in remnants of scrubby woodland from sea level to 2,000 m. The species was first named and described by Willdenow in 1827....

    Willd. ex Schultes & Schultes
  • Buddleja saligna
    Buddleja saligna
    Buddleja saligna, the False, or Bastard, Olive, is almost endemic to South Africa where it has a wide distribution. It occurs most often in ravines and against outcrops, and is distributed from coastal elevations to the central plateau at elevations Buddleja saligna, the False, or Bastard, Olive,...

    Willd.
  • Buddleja salviifolia
    Buddleja salviifolia
    Buddleja salviifolia, common name sage bush, is a large shrub endemic to much of southern Africa, where it grows on rocky hillsides, along forest margins and watercourses. The species was described and named by Lamarck in 1792...

    (L.) Lam.
  • Buddleja scordioides
    Buddleja scordioides
    Buddleja scordioides is endemic to central Arizona, southeastern New Mexico, southwestern Texas, and the Chihuahua Desert of Mexico, growing amidst xeric thorn-scrub on alkaline soils at elevations of 600 - 2,500 m. The species was first named and described by Kunth in 1818. -Description:B....

    Kunth
  • Buddleja sessiliflora
    Buddleja sessiliflora
    Buddleja sessiliflora is endemic to southern Arizona, the extreme south of Texas, northern Baja California and much of central and northern Mexico excluding the Chihuahua Desert. The shrub grows in thorn savannah, forests, riparian woodland, along roadsides and in disturbed areas from sea level to...

    Kunth
  • Buddleja skutchii
    Buddleja skutchii
    Buddleja skutchii is endemic to much of the sierras of Central America, growing mostly in pine-oak forest, also in cloud forest, and in shrubby secondary growth. The species was first named and described by Morton in 1935. -Description:...

    C. V. Morton
  • Buddleja simplex
    Buddleja simplex
    Buddleja simplex is probably extinct, as no record of it has been made for nearly 200 years. It was a species endemic to Saltillo in Mexico, described and named by Kraenzlin in 1912. -Description:...

    Kraenzl.
  • Buddleja soratae
    Buddleja soratae
    Buddleja soratae is a rare species endemic to one small area of Bolivia around Sorata, growing along forest edges at altitudes of 2,700 - 3,200 m; it was first described and named by Kraenzlin in 1913. -Description:...

    Kraenzl.
  • Buddleja speciosissima
    Buddleja speciosissima
    Buddleja speciosissima is a rare species restricted to Mount Itatiaia in Brazil, where it grows in rocky grassland at altitudes of 2,000 - 2,500 m; it was first described and named by Taubert in 1893. -Description:...

    Taub.
  • Buddleja sphaerocalyx
    Buddleja sphaerocalyx
    Buddleja sphaerocalyx is a species endemic to Madagascar, where it grows in moist forests, principally along river banks, at altitudes of 300 - 2,200 m. . The species was named and described in 1887 by Baker.-Description:B...

    Baker
  • Buddleja stachyoides
    Buddleja stachyoides
    Buddleja stachyoides is the most widespread member of the genus in South America, endemic to woodland edges, roadsides and riversides in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The species was first described and named by Chamisso & von Schlechtendal in 1827.-Description:B...

    Cham & Schltdl.
  • Buddleja suaveolens
    Buddleja suaveolens
    Buddleja suaveolens is endemic to central Chile, growing mostly in rocky areas along rivers at elevations of 500 – 2,900 m. The species was first named and described by Kunth and Bouché in 1845. -Description:...

    Kunth & Bouché
  • Buddleja thyrsoides
    Buddleja thyrsoides
    Buddleja thyrsoides is a lowland species endemic from southern Paraguay to the deltas of the Río de la Plata and Paraná River in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. The species was first described and named by Lamarck in 1792.-Description:...

    Lam.
  • Buddleja tubiflora
    Buddleja tubiflora
    Buddleja tubiflora is endemic to much of northern Argentina, southern Paraguay, and southern Brazil, where it grows at the edge of woodlands, thickets, and in old fields, at low elevations. The species was first named and described by George Bentham in 1846 -Description:B...

    Benth.
  • Buddleja tucamensis
    Buddleja tucamensis
    Buddleja tucamensis is endemic to the La Paz Department of Bolivia and to the Catamarca Province of Argentina, growing on rocky hillsides, along streams and roads from sea level to 3,300 m. The species was first named and described by Grisebach in 1874 -Description:B. tucamensis is a...

    Griseb.
  • Buddleja utahensis
    Buddleja utahensis
    Buddleja utahensis is a species of butterfly bush native to the southwestern United States, where it is known by the common names Utah butterfly bush and Panamint butterfly bush.-Description:B...

    Coville
  • Buddleja vexans
    Buddleja vexans
    Buddleja vexans is a newly recognized species endemic to central Peru, growing along streams, roads and cliffs at altitudes of 3,300 - 3,900 m. Norman adjudged the plant to be a probable hybrid between B. coriacea and B. incana.-Description:...

    Kraenzl. & Loes. ex E. M. Norman
  • Buddleja yunnanensis
    Buddleja yunnanensis
    Buddleja yunnanensis is a vigorous shrub native to Yunnan and much of the rest of south-western China, where it grows on forest margins, thickets, and along streams at elevations of 1,000 - 2,500 m. The shrub was first described and named by Francois Gagnepain in 1915, however its taxonomy...

    Gagnep.


  • Formerly placed here
    • Cephalanthus glabratus (Spreng.) K.Schum. (as B. glabrata Spreng.)

    See also


    Asiatic and African species:
    • Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Netherlands.

    American species:
    • Norman, E. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica, Vol. 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA. ISSN 0071 - 5794

    Cultivated species and cultivars:
    • Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 9780881926880

    External links