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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Overview

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a United States national laboratory
United States Department of Energy National Laboratories
The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy for the purpose of advancing science and helping promote the economic and defensive national interests of the United...

 located in Upton, New York
Upton, New York
Upton, New York is a hamlet on Long Island in the town of Brookhaven. It is the home of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and a National Weather Service station.Upton is located in Suffolk County, New York in the USA....

 on Long Island
Long Island
Long Island is an island located in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which are boroughs of New York City , and two of which are mainly suburban...

, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton
Camp Upton
Camp Upton was an installation of the United States Army located in Yaphank on Long Island in Suffolk County, New York. It was located near Camp Mills.-History:...

, a former U.S. Army base. Its name stems from its location in the greater area of the Town of Brookhaven
Brookhaven, New York
The Town of Brookhaven is one of the ten towns into which Suffolk County, New York, United States, has been divided. Part of the New York metropolitan area, it is located in central Suffolk County and is the only town in the county that stretches from the North Shore to the South Shore of Long...

.

Brookhaven, which originally was owned by the Atomic Energy Commission
United States Atomic Energy Commission
The United States Atomic Energy Commission was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S...

, is now owned by the Commission's successor, the United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

, which subcontracts the actual research and operation to universities and research organizations.
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Encyclopedia

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a United States national laboratory
United States Department of Energy National Laboratories
The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy for the purpose of advancing science and helping promote the economic and defensive national interests of the United...

 located in Upton, New York
Upton, New York
Upton, New York is a hamlet on Long Island in the town of Brookhaven. It is the home of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and a National Weather Service station.Upton is located in Suffolk County, New York in the USA....

 on Long Island
Long Island
Long Island is an island located in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which are boroughs of New York City , and two of which are mainly suburban...

, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton
Camp Upton
Camp Upton was an installation of the United States Army located in Yaphank on Long Island in Suffolk County, New York. It was located near Camp Mills.-History:...

, a former U.S. Army base. Its name stems from its location in the greater area of the Town of Brookhaven
Brookhaven, New York
The Town of Brookhaven is one of the ten towns into which Suffolk County, New York, United States, has been divided. Part of the New York metropolitan area, it is located in central Suffolk County and is the only town in the county that stretches from the North Shore to the South Shore of Long...

.

Operation


Brookhaven, which originally was owned by the Atomic Energy Commission
United States Atomic Energy Commission
The United States Atomic Energy Commission was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S...

, is now owned by the Commission's successor, the United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

, which subcontracts the actual research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle Memorial Institute is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Battelle is a charitable trust organized as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State of Ohio and is exempt from taxation under Section 501 of the...

. It was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), from 1947 until 1998 when Associated lost the contract in the wake of a scandal when tritium
Tritium
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of protium contains one proton and no neutrons...

 leaked into the Long Island Central Pine Barrens
Long Island Central Pine Barrens
The Long Island Central Pine Barrens is a large area of publicly protected pine barrens in Suffolk County, New York, on Long Island, covering more than ....

 groundwater on which it sits.

Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York forecast office of the National Weather Service
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service , once known as the Weather Bureau, is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States government...

.

BNL is staffed by approximately 3,000 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. Discoveries made at the lab have won seven Nobel Prizes.

The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and postal code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5265 acres (21 km²) area.

Major programs


Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, its mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:
  • Nuclear and high-energy physics
  • Physics and chemistry of materials
  • Environmental and energy research
  • Nonproliferation
  • Neuroscience
    Neuroscience
    Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics,...

    s and medical imaging
    Medical imaging
    Medical imaging is the technique and process used to create images of the human body for clinical purposes or medical science...

  • Structural biology
    Structural biology
    Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function...


Major facilities


  • Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is one of two existing heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider in the world. It is located at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York and operated by an international team of researchers...

     (RHIC), which was designed to research quark-gluon plasma
    Quark-gluon plasma
    A quark–gluon plasma or quark soup is a phase of quantum chromodynamics which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density. This phase consists of asymptotically free quarks and gluons, which are several of the basic building blocks of matter...

    . Until 2008 it was the world's most powerful particle accelerator
    Particle accelerator
    A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams. An ordinary CRT television set is a simple form of accelerator. There are two basic types: electrostatic and oscillating field accelerators.In...

    .
  • Center for Functional Nanomaterials
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials
    -Overview :The Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Laboratory provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions...

     (CFN), it is used for the study of nanoscale materials.
  • National Synchrotron Light Source
    National Synchrotron Light Source
    The National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York is a national user research facility funded by the U.S. Department of Energy...

     (NSLS), the lab's most popular machine which is said to have attracted more researchers in the world than any other facility. It was involved in the work that won the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature,...

    .
  • Alternating Gradient Synchrotron
    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron
    The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron is a particle accelerator located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Long Island, New York, USA....

    , a particle accelerator
    Particle accelerator
    A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams. An ordinary CRT television set is a simple form of accelerator. There are two basic types: electrostatic and oscillating field accelerators.In...

     that was used in three of the lab's Nobel prizes
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

    .
  • Accelerator Test Facility
    Accelerator Test Facility
    1) The Accelerator Test Facility is a user facility within Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, USA. Commencing operation in 1989, the BNL-ATF carries out research and development on advanced accelerator physics and studies the interactions of high power electromagnetic radiation and high...

    , generates, accelerates and monitors particle beam
    Particle beam
    A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles which may be directed by magnets and focused by electrostatic lenses, although they may also be self-focusing ....

    s.
  • Tandem Van de Graaff
    Tandem Van de Graaff
    The Tandem Van de Graaff at Brookhaven National Laboratory was built in 1970 and was at the time the world's largest electrostatic accelerator facility. It can provide researchers with beams of more than 40 different types of ions that have been completely stripped of their electrons, ranging from...

    , once the world's largest electrostatic accelerator.
  • New York Blue Gene supercomputer
    New York Blue Gene supercomputer
    New York Blue Gene supercomputer, also known as NewYorkBlue, is a 18 rack Blue Gene/L and a 2 rack Blue Gene/P massively parallel supercomputer based on the IBM system-on-chip technology. It is located in the New York Center for Computational Sciences...

    , an 18 rack Blue Gene
    Blue Gene
    Blue Gene is a computer architecture project to produce several supercomputers, designed to reach operating speeds in the PFLOPS range, and currently reaching sustained speeds of nearly 500 TFLOPS . It is a cooperative project among IBM Blue Gene is a computer architecture project to produce...

    /L and a 2 rack Blue Gene/P massively parallel supercomputer that involves a cooperative effort between Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University. It is the world’s 5th fastest supercomputer and the worlds 2nd most powerful for open access research as of 2008.

New synchrotron


The lab is building NSLS-II, which in 2015 will replace the NSLS
National Synchrotron Light Source
The National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York is a national user research facility funded by the U.S. Department of Energy...

 after more than 30 years of operation.

Off site contributions


It is a contributing partner to ATLAS experiment
ATLAS experiment
ATLAS is one of the six particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider , a new particle accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Switzerland...

, one of the four detectors to be located at a new powerful nuclear accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. It is expected to address some of the most fundamental questions of physics, advancing the understanding of the deepest laws of nature....

 (LHC). It is currently operating near Geneva, Switzerland.

Brookhaven is also responsible for the design of the SNS accumulator ring in partnership with Spallation Neutron Source
Spallation Neutron Source
The Spallation Neutron Source is an accelerator-based neutron source facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development...

 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville. Oak Ridge's population was 27,387 at the 2000 census...

.

Public access


The lab is open to the public on Sundays during the summer for tours and special programs. The public access program is referred to as 'Summer Sundays' and takes place from mid-July to mid-August, and features a science show and a tour of the facilities. The laboratory also hosts science fairs, science bowls, and robotics competitions for local schools. The Lab estimates that each year it enhances the science education of roughly 24,000 kindergarten to 12th grade LI students, more than 100 undergraduates, and 550 teachers from across the United States.

Nobel Prize in Physics

  • 1957 – Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee
    Tsung-Dao Lee
    Tsung-Dao Lee is a Chinese born-American physicist, well known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars....

     – parity laws
  • 1976 – Samuel C. C. Ting
    Samuel C. C. Ting
    Samuel Chao Chung Ting is an American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1976, with Burton Richter, for discovering the subatomic J/ψ particle...

     – Psi particle
  • 1980 – James Cronin
    James Cronin
    James Watson Cronin is an American nuclear physicist.Cronin was born in Chicago, Illinois and attended Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. Cronin and co-researcher Val Logsdon Fitch were awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics for a 1964 experiment that proved that certain subatomic...

     and Val Logsdon Fitch
    Val Logsdon Fitch
    Val Logsdon Fitch is an American nuclear physicist. A native of Merriman, Nebraska, he graduated from Gordon High School and attended Chadron State College for three years before being drafted into the U.S. army in 1943...

     – CP-violation
  • 1988 – Leon M. Lederman
    Leon M. Lederman
    Leon Max Lederman is an American experimental physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work with neutrinos. He is Director Emeritus of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, USA...

    , Melvin Schwartz
    Melvin Schwartz
    Melvin Schwartz was an American physicist. He shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics with Leon M. Lederman and Jack Steinberger for their development of the neutrino beam method and their demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.He grew up in...

    , Jack Steinberger
    Jack Steinberger
    Jack Steinberger is a German-American physicist currently residing near Geneva, Switzerland. He co-discovered the muon neutrino, along with Leon Lederman and Melvin Schwartz, for which they were given the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics.-Life:...

     – Muon neutrino
    Muon neutrino
    The muon neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge. Together with the muon it forms the second generation of leptons, hence its name muon neutrino. It was first hypothesized in the early 1940s by several people, and was discovered in 1962 by...

  • 2002 – Raymond Davis, Jr. – Neutrino
    Neutrino
    A neutrino is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with a half-integer spin, chirality and a disputed but small non-zero mass. It is able to pass through ordinary matter almost unaffected...


Nobel Prize in Chemistry

  • 2003 – Roderick MacKinnon
    Roderick MacKinnon
    Roderick MacKinnon is a professor of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics at Rockefeller University who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Peter Agre in 2003 for his work on the structure and operation of ion channels....

     – Ion channel
    Ion channel
    Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help establish and control the small voltage gradient across the plasma membrane of cells by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. They are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells...


  • 2009 – Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas A. Steitz
    Thomas A. Steitz
    -Publications:* Steitz, T. A., et al. , nsls newsletter, .* Steitz, T. A., et al. , NSLS Activity Report .-External links:* , from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy...

     – Ribosome
    Ribosome
    A ribosome is a component of cells that assembles the twenty specific amino acid molecules to form the particular protein molecule determined by the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule....


External links