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Bristol Cathedral

Bristol Cathedral

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Encyclopedia
The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity is the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

 cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

 in the city of Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, and is commonly known as Bristol Cathedral. Founded in 1140, it became the seat of the bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

 and cathedral of the new Diocese of Bristol
Diocese of Bristol
The Diocese of Bristol is a Church of England diocese in the Province of Canterbury, England. It is based in the city of Bristol and covers South Gloucestershire and parts of north Wiltshire to Swindon...

 in 1542.

Located on College Green
College Green, Bristol
College Green is a public open space in Bristol, England. The Green takes the form of a segment of a circle with its apex pointing east, and covers...

, across which its architecture can be seen to advantage, the cathedral presents a harmonious view of tall Gothic windows and pinnacled skyline that belies the fact that it was constructed over a period of more than 700 years.

The cathedral has much of interest including unique architectural features, unusual memorials and an historic organ
Organ (music)
The organ , is a keyboard instrument of one or more divisions, each played with its own keyboard operated either with the hands or with the feet. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument in the Western musical tradition, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria who is credited with...

.

History of the building


Bristol Cathedral was founded as St Augustine's Abbey in 1140 by Robert Fitzharding
Robert Fitzharding
Robert Fitzharding was an Englishman from Bristol who rose to the feudal barony of Berkeley and founded the family which still holds Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, the castle whose construction he started...

, a wealthy local landowner and royal official. As the name suggests, the monastic precinct housed Augustinian
Augustinians
The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

 canons. The original abbey church, of which only fragments remain, was constructed between 1140 and 1148 in the Romanesque
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

 style, known in England as Norman
Norman architecture
About|Romanesque architecture, primarily English|other buildings in Normandy|Architecture of Normandy.File:Durham Cathedral. Nave by James Valentine c.1890.jpg|thumb|200px|The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the...

. Further stone buildings were erected on the site between 1148 and 1164. Three fine examples of this phase survive, the chapterhouse and the abbey gatehouse
The Great Gatehouse
-External links:**...

, now the diocesan office, together with a second Romanesque gateway, which originally led into the abbot's quarters. T.H.B. Burrough describes the former as the finest Norman chapter house still standing today.

Under Abbot David (1216–1234) there was a new phase of building, notably the construction in around 1220 of a chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, abutting the northern side of the choir. This building, which still stands, was to become known as the "Elder Lady Chapel". The architect, referred to in a letter as 'L', is thought to have been Adam Lock, master mason of Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in Wells, Somerset, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, who lives at the adjacent Bishop's Palace....

. The stonework of the eastern window of this chapel is by William the Geometer, of about 1280.

Under Abbot Edward Knowle, a major rebuilding of the Abbey church began. Between 1298 and 1332 the eastern part of the abbey church was rebuilt in the English Decorated Gothic style.

Rebuilding appears to have ceased for about a hundred years, then, in the mid 15th century, the transept and central tower were constructed.

Abbot John Newland, (1481–1515), began the rebuilding of the nave, but it was incomplete at the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland; appropriated their...

 in 1539. The partly built nave was demolished and the remaining eastern part of the church closed until it reopened as a cathedral under the secular clergy. In an edict dated June 1542, Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 and Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build a favourable case for Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon which resulted in the separation of the English Church from...

 raised the building to rank of cathedral of a new Diocese of Bristol
Diocese of Bristol
The Diocese of Bristol is a Church of England diocese in the Province of Canterbury, England. It is based in the city of Bristol and covers South Gloucestershire and parts of north Wiltshire to Swindon...

. The new diocese was carved out of the neighbouring dioceses and Paul Bush
Paul Bush (bishop)
Paul Bush was an English Augustinian and first bishop of Bristol of the new diocese.-Life:He was born in Somerset, and studied at the University of Oxford, taking his degree of B.A. about 1517, by which time he was known as a poet. He subsequently read divinity, studying among the Bonhommes whose...

, (d. 1558) a former royal household chaplain, was created the first Bishop of Bristol. The new cathedral was dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity,

With the 19th century's Gothic Revival signalling renewed interest in Britain's ancient architectural heritage, a new nave, harmonious in style with the eastern end, was added between 1868 and 1877 by George Edmund Street
George Edmund Street
George Edmund Street was an English architect, born at Woodford in Essex.- Life :Street was the third son of Thomas Street, solicitor, by his second wife, Mary Anne Millington. George went to school at Mitcham in about 1830, and later to the Camberwell collegiate school, which he left in 1839...

. The opening ceremony was on 23 October 1877. However the west front with its twin towers, designed by John Loughborough Pearson
John Loughborough Pearson
John Loughborough Pearson was a Gothic Revival architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals. Pearson revived and practised largely the art of vaulting, and acquired in it a proficiency unrivalled in his generation.-Early life and education:Pearson was born in Brussels, Belgium on 5...

, was only completed in 1888.

The bells have a variety of dates and include two from 1726, one from 1740 and two from 1789 all made by the Bilbie family
Bilbie family
The Bilbie family were bell founders and clockmakers based initially in Chew Stoke, Somerset and later at Cullompton, Devon in south-west England from the late 17th century to the early 19th century....

.

A hall-church



Bristol Cathedral is a grade I listed building. Tim Tatton-Brown writes of the 14th century eastern arm as "one of the most interesting and splendid structures in this country."

The eastern end of Bristol Cathedral is highly unusual for a number of reasons. Firstly, it was conceived as a "hall church
Hall church
A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof. The term was first coined in the mid-19th century by the pioneering German art historian Wilhelm Lübke....

", meaning that the aisles are the same height as the choir. While a feature of German Gothic architecture, this is rare in Britain, and Bristol cathedral is the most significant example. In the 19th century, Street designed the nave along the same lines.

The effect of this elevation means that there are no clerestory
Clerestory
Clerestory is an architectural term that historically denoted an upper level of a Roman basilica or of the nave of a Romanesque or Gothic church, the walls of which rise above the rooflines of the lower aisles and are pierced with windows. In modern usage, clerestory refers to any high windows...

 windows to light the central space, as is usual in English Medieval churches. All the internal light must come from the aisle windows which are accordingly very large. In the choir, the very large window of the Lady chapel is made to fill the entire upper part of the wall, so that it bathes the vault in daylight, particularly in the morning.

Because of the lack of a clerestory, the vault is comparatively low, being only about half the height of that at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

. The interior of the cathedral appears wide and spacious.

Vaulting


The second remarkable feature of Bristol Cathedral is the vaulting of its various medieval spaces. The work that was carried out under Abbot Knowle is unique in this regard, with not one, but three unique vaults.

In vaulting a roof space using stone ribs and panels of infill, the bearing ribs all spring from columns along the walls. There is commonly a rib called the ridge rib which runs along the apex of the vault. There may be intermediate or "tierceron" ribs, which have their origin at the columns. In Decorated Gothic there are occasionally short "lierne" ribs connecting the bearing and tierceron ribs at angles, forming stellar patterns. This is the feature that appears at Bristol, at a very early date, and quite unlike the way that "lierne" ribs are used elsewhere. In this case, there is no ridge rib, and the lierne ribs are arranged to enclose a series of panels that extend the whole way along the centre of the choir roof, interacting with the large east window by reflecting the light from the smoothly-arching surfaces. From the nave can be seen the intricate tracery of the east window echoed in the rich lierne pattern of the tower vault, which is scarcely higher than the choir, and therefore clearly visible. The two aisles of the choir both also have vaults of unique character.

The famous architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner
Nikolaus Pevsner
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner, CBE, FBA was a German-born British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture...

 wrote of Bristol that "from the point of view of spatial imagination" it is not only superior to anything else in England or Europe but "proves incontrovertibly that English design surpasses that of all other countries" at that date.

Street's nave


Street's design followed the form of the Gothic choir. On a plan or elevation it is not apparent that the work is of a different era. But Street, wisely, left the glory of Bristol's medieval work unrivalled. He designed an interior that respected the delicate proportions of the ribs and mouldings of the earlier work, but did not imitate their patterns. Street's nave is vaulted with a conservative vault with tierceron ribs, rising at the same pitch as the choir, and visually leading the eye to it in a way that is very satisfactory.

Pearson's fittings


During the 16th century, the space for cathedral services must have been very cramped. This necessitated a radical rearrangement of the cathedral's furnishings. Once the nave was completed, the arrangement of the choir could also be returned to something like its Pre-Reformation form. Pearson was responsible for this rearrangement, and the designing of new fittings, including the chancel screen.

The cathedral has two unusual and often-reproduced monuments, the Berkeley memorials. These are set into niches in the wall, and each is surrounded by a canopy of inverted cusped arches. Pearson's screen, completed in 1905, echoes these memorials in its three wide arches with flamboyant cusps.

Street and Pearson's west front




This facade is probably more Spanish than English in its overall composition, being somewhat like that of Burgos Cathedral
Burgos Cathedral
The Burgos Cathedral is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic cathedral in Burgos, Spain. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and is famous for its vast size and unique architecture. Its construction began in 1221, and was in use nine years later, although work continued on and off for two hundred years...

, but without its spires. It is rather wide for its height, and has only one, very large, richly decorated portal. Unlike English Gothic cathedrals, Bristol has a rose window above the central doorway, in the French or Spanish Style. The details, however, are clearly English, owing much to the Early English Gothic
English Gothic architecture
English Gothic is the name of the architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520.-Introduction:As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches, vaulted roofs, buttresses, large windows, and spires...

 at Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral
Wells Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in Wells, Somerset, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, who lives at the adjacent Bishop's Palace....

 and the Decorated Gothic at York Minster
York Minster
York Minster is a Gothic cathedral in York, England and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe alongside Cologne Cathedral. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the second-highest office of the Church of England, and is the cathedral for the Diocese of York; it is run by...

.

Chapter house


The late Norman chapter house
Chapter house
A chapter house or chapterhouse is a building or room attached to a cathedral or collegiate church in which meetings are held. They can also be found in medieval monasteries....

, situated south of the transept, contains some of the first uses of pointed arches in England. It also has a rich sculptural decoration, with a variety of Romanesque abstract motifs. In both of these aspects there are close similarities with the abbey gatehouse
The Great Gatehouse
-External links:**...

, supporting the view that the two structures were built around the same time in the 12th century, as put forward by George Edmund Street in the 19th century.

The approach to the chapter house is through a rib-vaulted
Rib vault
The intersection of two or three barrel vaults produces a rib vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns; compare groin vault, an older form of vault construction...

 ante-room 3 bays wide, whose pointed arches provide a solution to that room's rectangular shape. Carved pointed arches also appear in the decoration of the chapter house itself. Here they arise from the intersections of the interlaced semicircular arcading
Arcade (architecture)
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counterthrusting the next, supported by columns or piers or a covered walk enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians....

, which runs continuously around the walls. The chapter house has a quadripartite ribbed vault 7.5 m (25 ft) high. The ribs, walls and columns display a complex interplay of carved patterns: chevron, spiral, nailhead, lozenge and zigzag.

The chapter house has 40 sedilia
Sedilia
Sedilia , in ecclesiastical architecture, is the term used to describe stone seats, usually to be found on the south side of an altar, often in the chancel, for the use of the officiating priests...

 lining its walls, and may have originally provided seating for more when it was the meeting room for the abbey community. In 1714 it was refurbished to become a library, and its floor was raised by about 1 m (3 ft). Its east end was damaged in the Bristol Riots
Bristol Riots
The Bristol riots refer to a number of significant riots in the city of Bristol in England.- Bristol Bridge riot, 1793 :The Bristol Bridge Riot of 30 September 1793 began as a protest at renewal of an act levying of tolls on Bristol Bridge, which included the proposal to demolish several houses...

 of 1831, requiring considerable restoration, and at that time or later the library furnishings were removed. In 1832, when the floor was lowered again, a Saxon
Saxons
The Saxons were a confederation of Germanic tribes originating on the North German plain. The Saxons earliest known area of settlement is Northern Albingia, an area approximately that of modern Holstein...

 stone panel depicting the Harrowing of Hell
Harrowing of Hell
The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles' Creed and the Athanasian Creed that states that Jesus Christ "descended into Hell"...

 was found underneath.

Architectural specifications


Most of the medieval stonework, particularly the Elder Lady Chapel, is made from limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 taken from quarries around Dundry
Dundry
Dundry is a village and civil parish, situated on Dundry Hill in the northern part of the Mendip Hills, between Bristol and the Chew Valley Lake, in the English county of Somerset. The parish includes the hamlets of Maiden Head and East Dundry...

 and Felton with Bath stone
Bath Stone
Bath Stone is an Oolitic Limestone comprising granular fragments of calcium carbonate. Originally obtained from the Combe Down and Bathampton Down Mines under Combe Down, Somerset, England, its warm, honey colouring gives the World Heritage City of Bath, England its distinctive appearance...

 being used in other areas. The two-bay Elder Lady Chapel, which includes some Purbeck marble
Purbeck Marble
Purbeck Marble is a fossiliferous limestone quarried in the Isle of Purbeck, a peninsula in south-east Dorset, England.It is one of many kinds of Purbeck Limestone, deposited in the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous periods....

, lies to the north of the five-bay aisled chancel
Chancel
In church architecture, the chancel is the space around the altar in the sanctuary at the liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building...

 and presbytery
Presbytery (architecture)
The presbytery is the name for an area in a church building which is reserved for the clergy.In the oldest church it is separated by short walls, by small columns and pilasters in the Renaissance ones; it can also be raised, being reachable by a few steps, usually with railings....

. The Eastern Lady Chapel has two bays, the sacristy
Sacristy
A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments and other church furnishings, sacred vessels, and parish records.The sacristy is usually located inside the church, but in some cases it is an annex or separate building...

 one-bay and the Berkeley Chapel two bays. The exterior has deep buttresses with finial
Finial
The finial is an architectural device, typically carved in stone and employed decoratively to emphasize the apex of a gable or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. Smaller finials can be used as a decorative ornament on the ends of curtain rods...

s to weathered tops and crenellated parapet
Parapet
A parapet is a wall-like barrier at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony or other structure. Where extending above a roof, it may simply be the portion of an exterior wall that continues above the line of the roof surface, or may be a continuation of a vertical feature beneath the roof such as a...

s with crocket
Crocket
A crocket is a hook-shaped decorative element common in Gothic architecture. It is in the form of a stylised carving of curled leaves, buds or flowers which is used at regular intervals to decorate the sloping edges of spires, finials, pinnacles, and wimpergs....

ed pinnacle
Pinnacle
A pinnacle is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. The pinnacle looks like a small spire...

s.

The west front has two large flanking three-stage towers. On the rear outer corners of the towers are octagonal stair turrets with panels on the belfry
Bell tower
A bell tower is a tower which contains one or more bells, or which is designed to hold bells, even if it has none. In the European tradition, such a tower most commonly serves as part of a church and contains church bells. When attached to a city hall or other civic building, especially in...

 stage. Between the towers is a deep entrance arch of six orders with Purbeck marble colonnettes and enriched mouldings to the arch. The tympanum of the arch is an empty niche.
The dimensions of Bristol Cathedral:
Total length, external 300 ft 91.4 m
Total Length, internal 284 ft 87 m
Length of nave 125 ft 38 m
Width, including aisles 69 ft 21 m
Length of transept 115 ft 35 m
Width of transept 29 ft 9 m
Height to vault in nave 52 ft 16 m
Height to vault in choir 50 ft 15 m
Area 22,556 ft² 2096 m²

Decoration and monuments



The south transept contains the important late Saxon stone panel of the Harrowing of Hell.

The high altar stone reredos
Reredos
thumb|300px|right|An altar and reredos from [[St. Josaphat's Roman Catholic Church|St. Josaphat Catholic Church]] in [[Detroit]], [[Michigan]]. This would be called a [[retable]] in many other languages and countries....

 are by John Loughborough Pearson
John Loughborough Pearson
John Loughborough Pearson was a Gothic Revival architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals. Pearson revived and practised largely the art of vaulting, and acquired in it a proficiency unrivalled in his generation.-Early life and education:Pearson was born in Brussels, Belgium on 5...

 of 1899. The three rows of choir stalls are mostly from the late 19th century with Flamboyant traceried ends. There are also 28 misericords dating from 1515–1526, installed by Robert Elyot, Abbot of St. Augustine’s, with carvings largely based on Aesop's fables
Aesop's Fables
Aesop's Fables or the Aesopica are a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and story-teller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 BCE. The fables remain a popular choice for moral education of children today...

. In the Berkeley chapel is a very rare candelabrum of 1450 from the Temple church
Temple Church, Bristol
Temple Church is a ruined church building in central Bristol, England, which was founded in the mid 12th century by Robert of Gloucester and the Knights Templar....

 in Bristol.

The monuments within the cathedral include recumbent figures of:
  • Abbot Walter Newbery (d.1473)
  • Abbot William Hunt (d.1481)
  • Abbot John Newland (d.1515)
  • Lord Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley
    Maurice Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley , sometimes termed The Magnanimous, was an English baron and rebel....

     (d.1326)
  • Thomas Berkeley
    Thomas Berkeley
    Sir Thomas Berkeley was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1604 to 1611.Berkeley was the son of Henry Berkeley, 7th Baron Berkeley. He matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford on 27 June 1590, aged 14. In 1598 he was a student of Gray's Inn. He was knighted KB at the...

     (d.1243)


The chest tomb to Bishop Bush (d.1558) includes six fluted Ionic
Ionians
The Ionians were one of the four major tribes into which the Classical Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to have been divided...

 columns with an entablature canopy.
Further early monuments include:
  • a perpendicular reredos
    Reredos
    thumb|300px|right|An altar and reredos from [[St. Josaphat's Roman Catholic Church|St. Josaphat Catholic Church]] in [[Detroit]], [[Michigan]]. This would be called a [[retable]] in many other languages and countries....

     to Robert Codrinton (d.1618)
  • a marble wall tablet to Phillip Freke (d.1729)
  • the chest tomb of Maurice Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley the Valiant was an English peer born in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England to Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley and Lady Margaret Mortimer.-Marriage and children:...

     (d.1368)
  • an oval slate wall tablet to Ronsland Searchfield (d.1622)
  • the dresser tomb of Henry Newton
    Henry Newton
    Henry Newton may refer to:* Sir Henry Newton, baronet , after a change of surname Sir Henry Puckering, 3rd Baronet* Henry Newton , Member of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1758 to 1760...

    (d.1599)
  • the coffin lid of Abbot David (d.1234)
  • a dresser tomb of Dame Joan and Sir John Young (d.1606) by Samuel Baldwin
  • a dresser tomb to Sir Charles Vaughan
    Charles Richard Vaughan
    Sir Charles Richard Vaughan, GCH, PC, was a British diplomat.Vaughan born at Leicester, the son of James Vaughan, a physician, and his wife, Hester née Smalley. His brothers were Sir Henry Halford , who dropped the family name; Sir John Vaughan , a Baron of the Exchequer; and Peter Vaughan, Warden...

  • memorial tablet to Richard Hakluyt
    Richard Hakluyt
    Richard Hakluyt was an English writer. He is principally remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America and The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and...

     (d. 1616)


More recent monuments from the early 18th century to 20th century include:
  • Mrs Morgan (d.1767) by John Bacon to the design of James Stuart
    James Stuart (1713-1788)
    James "Athenian" Stuart was an English archaeologist, architect and artist best known for his central role in pioneering Neoclassicism.-Early life:...

  • a bust by Bailey to Robert Southey
    Robert Southey
    Robert Southey was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 to his death in 1843...

     (d.1843)
  • an obelisk by J Paine to William Powell (d.1769)
  • a monument by to William Brane Elwyn (d.1841)
  • Elizabeth Charlotte Stanhope (d.1816) by Richard Westmacott
    Richard Westmacott
    Sir Richard Westmacott, Jr., RA was a British sculptor.-Life and career:He studied under his father, Richard Westmacott the Elder, before going to Rome in 1793 to study under Antonio Canova...

  • Emma Crawfuird (d.1823) by Francis Legatt Chantrey
    Francis Legatt Chantrey
    Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey was an English sculptor of the Georgian era. He left the Chantrey Bequest or Chantrey Fund for the purchase of works of art for the nation, which was available from 1878 after the death of his widow.-Life:Francis Leggatt Chantrey was born at Norton near Sheffield ,...

  • an effigy to Dean Francis Pigou
    Pigou
    Pigou is an English surname of Hugenot derivation.The Pigou family originated from Amiens in France. The name was related to pique or pike, and the Pigou arms consist of three pike heads. Two sons of Lawrence Pigou of Amiens – Jacques and John - fled from persecution in France and settled with...

     (d.1916) by NA Trent

Other burials


  • Alfred Ainger
    Alfred Ainger
    Alfred Ainger was an English biographer and critic.The son of an architect in London he was educated at University College School, King's College London and Trinity College, Cambridge, from where he subsequently entered the Church, and, after holding various minor preferments, became Master of the...

  • Joseph Butler
    Joseph Butler
    Joseph Butler was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. He was born in Wantage in the English county of Berkshire . He is known, among other things, for his critique of Thomas Hobbes's egoism and John Locke's theory of personal identity...

  • Walford Davies
  • Maurice de Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley
    Sir Maurice de Berkeley "the Resolute" , 8th Baron de Berkeley, was an English soldier and rebel, residing at Berkeley Castle in the English county of Gloucestershire....

  • Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley
    Maurice Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley , sometimes termed The Magnanimous, was an English baron and rebel....

  • Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley
    Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley the Valiant was an English peer born in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England to Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley and Lady Margaret Mortimer.-Marriage and children:...

  • Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley
    Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley
    Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley , aka The Wise, was an English baron, soldier and diplomat.Thomas was born in 1245 at Berkeley Castle in the English county of Gloucestershire, the son of Sir Maurice de Berkeley and Isabel FitzRoy...

  • Paul Bush (bishop)
    Paul Bush (bishop)
    Paul Bush was an English Augustinian and first bishop of Bristol of the new diocese.-Life:He was born in Somerset, and studied at the University of Oxford, taking his degree of B.A. about 1517, by which time he was known as a poet. He subsequently read divinity, studying among the Bonhommes whose...

    , first Bishop of Bristol (1542–1554) of the new diocese

  • Rowland Searchfield
    Rowland Searchfield
    Rowland Searchfield was an English academic and bishop.-Life:He was born in 1564 or 1565, and entered Merchant Taylors' School in 1575. He matriculated as fellow at St John's College, Oxford, on 6 July 1582, aged 17. He graduated B.A. on 11 October 1586, M.A. on 2 June 1590, and B.D...

    , English academic and Bishop of Bristol (1619–1622)
  • Thomas Westfield
    Thomas Westfield
    Thomas Westfield was an English churchman, Bishop of Bristol and member of the Westminster Assembly.-Life:He was born in the parish of St. Mary's, Ely, in 1573, and went the free school there. under Master Spight.' He proceeded to Jesus College, Cambridge, where he was elected a scholar, and...

    , Bishop of Bristol (1642–1644)
  • Thomas Howell (Bishop of Bristol)
    Thomas Howell (Bishop of Bristol)
    -Life:Howell was born in Llangamarch, Brecknockshire, Wales. Son of Thomas Howell, by a daughter of James David Powell, was born at Bryn, in the parish of Llangammarche, Breckonshire 1588, His father rector perpetual of Llangammarche and also of Abernant in Carmarthenshire. He was the older brother...

     (1644–1645)
  • Gilbert Ironside the elder
    Gilbert Ironside the elder
    Gilbert Ironside was bishop of Bristol. He is referred to as the elder to distinguish himfrom his son, Gilbert Ironside the younger.-Life:...

    , Bishop of Bristol (1661–1671)
  • William Bradshaw (bishop)
    William Bradshaw (bishop)
    William Bradshaw was an English churchman, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford and bishop of Bristol.-Life:He was born at Abergavenny in Monmouthshire on 10 April 1671. He was educated at New College, Oxford, taking his degree of B.A. 14 April 1697, and proceeding M.A. 14 January 1700...

    , Bishop of Bristol (1724–1732)
  • John Conybeare
    John Conybeare
    John Conybeare DD was Bishop of Bristol and one of the most notable theologians of the 18th century.Conybeare was born at Pinhoe, where his father was vicar, and educated at Blundell's School and Exeter College, Oxford. He was elected a Probationary Fellow of Exeter College in 1710, took his B.A...

    , Bishop of Bristol (1750–1755)
  • Robert Gray (bishop of Bristol)
    Robert Gray (bishop of Bristol)
    -Life:Born 11 March 1762, he was the son of Robert Gray, a London silversmith. Having entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, he graduated B.A. 1784, M. A, 1787, B.D. 1799, and D.D. 1802...

     (1827–1834), buried in graveyard attached to the cathedral


Organ


The organ
Organ (music)
The organ , is a keyboard instrument of one or more divisions, each played with its own keyboard operated either with the hands or with the feet. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument in the Western musical tradition, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria who is credited with...

 was originally built in 1685 by Renatus Harris
Renatus Harris
Renatus Harris was a master organ maker in England in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.During the period of the Commonwealth, in the mid seventeenth century, Puritans controlled the country and organ music was banned in churches. Many organ makers left England for the continent,...

 at a cost of £500. This has been removed and repaired many times; however some of the original work, including the case and pipes, is incorporated into the present instrument, which was built by J. W. Walkers and sons in 1907, to be found above the Stalls on the North side of the Choir. It was further restored in 1989.

Prior to the building of the main organ, the cathedral had a chair organ, which was built by Robert Taunton in 1662.

Organists



  • 1542 Thomas Denny
  • 1588 Elway Bevan
  • 1599 Edward Gibbons
  • 1638 Arthur Phillips
  • 1639 Thomas Deane
  • 1680 Paul Heath
  • 1724 Nathaniel Priest
  • 1734 James Morley

  • 1756 George Coombes
  • 1759 Edward Higgins
  • 1765 George Coombes
  • 1769 Edward Rooke
  • 1773 Samuel Mineard
  • 1778 Richard Langdon
  • 1781 Rice Wasbrough
  • 1825 John Davies Corfe

  • 1876 George Riseley
  • 1899 Percy Carter Buck
  • 1901 Hubert Hunt
  • 1946 Alwyn Surplice
  • 1949 Clifford Harker
  • 1983 Malcolm Archer
    Malcolm Archer
    Malcolm Archer is an English organist, conductor and composer. He combines this work with a recital career. Archer was formerly Organist and Director of Music at St Paul's Cathedral, and is now Director of Chapel Music at Winchester College....

  • 1990 Christopher Brayne
  • 1998 Mark Lee


Assistant organists

  • John Barrett 1858-1860
  • George Riseley 1862-1876
  • Albert Edward New
  • J.H. Fulford 1888-1892
  • Arthur S. Warrell 1902
  • Geoffrey Leonard Mendham 1920–1941
  • Lionel Pike
  • John Jenkins
  • Martin Schellenberg
  • Tony Pinel
  • Claire Hobbs
  • Ian Ball 1991–1994
  • David Hobourn 1994-2001
  • Paul Walton 2001 –

Media


Bristol Cathedral was used as a location in the 1978
1978 in film
The year 1978 in film involved some significant events.-Events:* February 1 - Bob Dylan's film Renaldo and Clara, a documentary of the "Rolling Thunder Revue" tour premieres in Los Angeles, California....

 film The Medusa Touch
The Medusa Touch (film)
The Medusa Touch is a 1978 British supernatural thriller film directed by Jack Gold. It starred Richard Burton, Lino Ventura, Lee Remick and Harry Andrews, with cameos by Alan Badel, Derek Jacobi, Gordon Jackson, Jeremy Brett and Michael Hordern...

under the guise of a fictional London place of worship called Minster Cathedral. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077921/

Other cathedrals in Bristol


Bristol is also home to a Roman Catholic cathedral, Clifton Cathedral
Clifton Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of SS. Peter and Paul is the Roman Catholic cathedral in the English city of Bristol. Located in the Clifton area of the city, it is the seat of the Diocese of Clifton and is known as Clifton Cathedral....

. The Anglican parish church of St. Mary Redcliffe is so grand as to be occasionally mistaken for a cathedral by visitors.

Further Reading

  • John Cannon and Beth Williamson eds, The Medieval Art, Architecture and History of Bristol Cathedral: An Enigma Explored, Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2011 ISBN 9781843836803

See also


  • List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom
  • Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England
    Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England
    The medieval cathedrals of England, dating from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings which together constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity. Though diversified in style, they...

  • English Gothic architecture
    English Gothic architecture
    English Gothic is the name of the architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520.-Introduction:As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches, vaulted roofs, buttresses, large windows, and spires...

  • Church of England
    Church of England
    The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

  • Grade I listed buildings in Bristol
    Grade I listed buildings in Bristol
    There are 100 Grade I listed buildings in Bristol, England according to Bristol City Council. The register includes many structures which for convenience are grouped together in the list below....

  • Churches in Bristol
    Churches in Bristol
    The English city of Bristol has a number of churches.The churches listed are Anglican except when otherwise noted.- External links :*...


External links