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Brahmana

Brahmana

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The Brāhmaṇas also called Nagari , is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal...

: ) are part of the Hindu śruti
Sruti
' , often spelled shruti or shruthi, is a term that describes the sacred texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism and is one of the three main sources of dharma and therefore is also influential within Hindu Law...

 literature. They are commentaries on the four Vedas
Vedas
The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

, detailing the proper performance of rituals.

Each Vedic shakha
Shakha
A shakha , is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a ...

 (school) had its own Brahmana, and it is not known how many of these texts existed during the Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
Mahājanapadas , literally "great realms", were ancient Indian kingdoms or countries...

 period.
A total of 19 Brahmanas are extant at least in their entirety: two associated with the Rigveda
Rigveda
The Rigveda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns...

, six with the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
The Yajurveda, a tatpurusha compound of "sacrificial formula', + ) is the third of the four canonical texts of Hinduism, the Vedas. By some, it is estimated to have been composed between 1400 and 1000 BC, the Yajurveda 'Samhita', or 'compilation', contains the liturgy needed to perform the...

,
ten with the Samaveda
Samaveda
The Sama veda , is second of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. Its earliest parts are believed to date from 1700 BC and it ranks next in sanctity and liturgical importance to the Rigveda...

 and one with the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
The Atharvaveda is a sacred text of Hinduism and one of the four Vedas, often called the "fourth Veda"....

. Additionally, there are a handful of fragmentarily preserved texts. They vary greatly in length; the edition of the Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
The Shatapatha Brahmana is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda. It survives in two recensions, Madhyandina and Kanva , with the former having the eponymous 100 adhyayas,7624 kandikas in 14 books, and the latter 104 adhyayas,6806 kandikas in 17...

 fills five volumes of the Sacred Books of the East
Sacred Books of the East
The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910...

, while the Vamsa Brahmana can be printed on a single page.

The Brahmanas are glosses on the mythology, philosophy and rituals of the Vedas. Whereas the Rig Veda expressed uncertainty and was not dogmatic, the Brahmanas express confidence in the infallible power of the mantras. The Brahmanas hold the view that, if expressed correctly, the texts will not fail. They were composed during a period of urbanisation and considerable social change.During the first millennium bce the people who composed the Veda gradually abandoned their nomadic lifestyle and began to build. During this time the rituals became more complex, giving rise to developments in mathematics, geometry, animal anatomy and grammar.

The Brahmanas were seminal in the development of later Indian thought and scholarship, including Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy is divided into six schools of thought, or , which accept the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures. Three other schools do not accept the Vedas as authoritative...

, predecessors of Vedanta
Vedanta
Vedānta was originally a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known also as the Upanishads. The name is a morphophonological form of Veda-anta = "Veda-end" = "the appendix to the Vedic hymns." It is also speculated that "Vedānta" means "the purpose or goal...

, law, astronomy, geometry, linguistics (Pāṇini), the concept of Karma
Karma
Karma in Indian religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect originating in ancient India and treated in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh philosophies....

, or the stages in life such as brahmacarya, grihastha
Grihastha
Grihasthya refers to the second phase of an individual's life in the Vedic ashram system. It is often called 'the householders life' revolving as it does around the duties of maintaining a household and leading a family-centred life.-Usage:...

 and eventually, sannyasi. Some Brahmanas contain sections that are Aranyaka
Aranyaka
The Aranyakas are part of the Hindu śruti, the four Vedas; they were composed in late Vedic Sanskrit typical of the Brahmanas and early Upanishads; indeed, they frequently form part of either the Brahmanas or the Upanishads....

s or Upanishad
Upanishad
The Upanishads are philosophical texts considered to be an early source of Hindu religion. More than 200 are known, of which the first dozen or so, the oldest and most important, are variously referred to as the principal, main or old Upanishads...

s in their own right.

The language of the Brahmanas is a separate stage of Vedic Sanskrit
Vedic Sanskrit
Vedic Sanskrit is an old Indo-Aryan language. It is an archaic form of Sanskrit, an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian. It is closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language...

, younger than the text of the samhitas (the mantra
Mantra
A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation"...

 text of the Vedas proper) but for the most part older than the text of the Sutra
Sutra
Sūtra is an aphorism or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. Literally it means a thread or line that holds things together and is derived from the verbal root siv-, meaning to sew , as does the medical term...

s. It dates to 900- 700 BC. with some of the younger Brahmanas (such as the Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
The Shatapatha Brahmana is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda. It survives in two recensions, Madhyandina and Kanva , with the former having the eponymous 100 adhyayas,7624 kandikas in 14 books, and the latter 104 adhyayas,6806 kandikas in 17...

) , dating to about the 6th century BC.
Historically, this corresponds to the emergence of great kingdoms or Mahajanapadas out of the earlier tribal kingdoms during the later Vedic period.

List of Brahmanas


Each Brahmana is associated with one of the four Vedas, and within the tradition of that Veda with a particular shakha
Shakha
A shakha , is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a ...

 or school:

Rigveda
Rigveda
The Rigveda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns...

  • Shakala shakha
    • Aitareya Brahmana
      Aitareya Brahmana
      The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana of the Shakala shakha of the Rigveda, an ancient Indian collection of sacred hymns. This work, according to the tradition is ascribed to Mahidasa Aitareya.-Contents:...

      , rarely also known as Ashvalayana Brahmana (AB)
  • Bashkala shakha
    • Kaushitaki Brahmana (also called Brahmana) (KB, ŚānkhB)

Krishna Yajurveda

  • In the Krishna Yajurveda, the Brahmana texts are integrated in the samhitas.
    • Maitrayani Samhita (MS) and an Aranyaka (= accented Maitrayaniya Upanishad
      Maitrayaniya Upanishad
      The Maitrayaniya Upanishad or the Maitri Upanishad belongs to the Maitri or Maitrayaniya shakha of the , though some texts assign it to the . It figures as number 24 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads under the name of the Upanishad, which is included there as a Upanishad, associated with...

      )
    • (Caraka) Katha Samhita (KS); the Katha school has an additional fragmentary Brahmana (KathB) and Aranyaka (KathA)
    • Kapisthalakatha Samhita (KpS), and a few fragments of its Brahmana
    • Taittiriya Samhita (TS). The Taittiriya school has an additional Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) and Aranyaka (TA) as well as the late Vedic Vadhula Anvakhyana (Br.)

Shukla Yajurveda

  • Madhyandina Shakha
    • Shatapatha Brahmana
      Shatapatha Brahmana
      The Shatapatha Brahmana is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda. It survives in two recensions, Madhyandina and Kanva , with the former having the eponymous 100 adhyayas,7624 kandikas in 14 books, and the latter 104 adhyayas,6806 kandikas in 17...

      , Madhyadina recension (SBM)
  • Kanva Shakha
    • Shatapatha Brahmana, Kanva recension (SBK)

Samaveda
Samaveda
The Sama veda , is second of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. Its earliest parts are believed to date from 1700 BC and it ranks next in sanctity and liturgical importance to the Rigveda...

  • Kauthuma and Ranayaniya shakhas
    • Tandya Mahabrahmana
      Panchavimsha Brahmana
      The Tandya Mahabrahmana , also known as the Panchavimsha Brahmana from its consisting of twenty-five prapathakas...

       or (PB) is the principal Brahmana of both the Kauthuma and Ranayaniya shakhas.
    • Sadvimsha Brahmana is considered as an appendix to the Panchavimsha Brahmana and its twenty-sixth prapathaka.
    • Samavidhana Brahmana comprises 3 prapathakas.
    • Arsheya Brahmana is an index to the hymns of Samaveda.
    • Devatadhyaya or Daivata Brahmana comprises 3 khandas, having 26, 11 and 25 kandikas respectively.
    • Chandogya Brahmana is divided in to ten prapathakas (chapters). Its first two prapathakas (chapters) form the Mantra Brahmana (MB) and each of them is divided into eight khandas (sections). Prapathakas 3–10 form the Chandogya Upanishad
      Chandogya Upanishad
      The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the "primary" Upanishads. Together with the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana and the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad it ranks among the oldest Upanishads, dating to the Vedic Brahmana period....

      .
    • Samhitopanishad Brahmana has a single prapathaka (chapter) divided in to five khandas (sections).
    • Vamsa Brahmana consists of one short chapter, detailing successions of teachers and disciples.
  • Jaiminiya shakha
    • Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB) is the principal Brahmana of the Jaiminiya shakha, divided into three kandas (sections).
    • Jaiminiya Arsheya Brahmana is also an index to the hymns of Samaveda, belonging to the Jaiminiya shakha.
    • Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana
      Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana
      The Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana or the Talavakara Upanishad Brahmana is a Vedic text associated with the Jaiminiya or the Talavakara shakha of the Samaveda. It is considered as an Aranyaka. A part of this text forms the Kena Upanishad...

       (JUB) also known as Talavakara Upanishad Brahmana.

Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
The Atharvaveda is a sacred text of Hinduism and one of the four Vedas, often called the "fourth Veda"....

  • Shaunaka and Paippalada Shakhas
    • Gopatha Brahmana
      Gopatha Brahmana
      The Gopatha Brahmana is the only Brahmana, a genre of the prose texts describing the Vedic rituals, associated with the Atharvaveda. The text is associated with both the Shaunaka and the Paippalada recensions of the Atharvaveda. This text and the short Brahmanas of the Samaveda are the latest...


it's the vedic books to study about aryans

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