Borate mineral

Borate mineral

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The borate minerals are mineral
Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not...

s which contain a borate
Borate
Borates are chemical compounds which contain oxoanions of boron in oxidation state +3. The simplest borate ion, BO33−, has a trigonal planar structure. Other borates are made up of trigonal BO3 or tetrahedral BO4 structural units, sharing oxygen atoms...

 anion group. The borate (BO3) units may be polymerised similar to the SiO4 unit of the silicate mineral class. This results in B2O5, B3O6, B2O4 anions as well as more complex structures which include hydroxide
Hydroxide
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carrying a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, as a ligand, a nucleophile, and a...

 or halogen
Halogen
The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC Style of the periodic table, comprising fluorine , chlorine , bromine , iodine , and astatine...

 anions. The [B(O,OH)4]- anion exists too.
Many borate minerals, such as borax
Borax
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. It is usually a white powder consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water.Borax has a wide variety of uses...

, colemanite
Colemanite
Colemanite is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments. Colemanite is a secondary mineral that forms by alteration of borax and ulexite....

, and ulexite
Ulexite
Ulexite , sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes, by internal reflection...

, are salts: soft, readily soluble, and found in evaporite
Evaporite
Evaporite is a name for a water-soluble mineral sediment that result from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution. There are two types of evaporate deposits, marine which can also be described as ocean deposits, and non-marine which are found in standing bodies of...

 contexts. However, some, such as boracite
Boracite
Boracite is a magnesium borate mineral with formula: Mg3B7O13Cl. It occurs as blue green, colorless, gray, yellow to white crystals in the orthorhombic - pyramidal crystal system. Boracite also shows pseudo-isometric cubical and octahedral forms. These are thought to be the result of transition...

, are hard and resistant to weathering, more similar to the silicates.

There are over 100 different borate minerals. Borate minerals include:
  • Kernite
    Kernite
    Kernite, also known as rasorite is a hydrated sodium borate hydroxide mineral with formula Na2B4O62·3H2O. It is a colorless to white mineral crystallizing in the monoclinic crystal system typically occurring as prismatic to acicular crystals or granular masses. It is relatively soft with Mohs...

     Na2B4O6(OH)3·3(H2O)
  • Borax
    Borax
    Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. It is usually a white powder consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water.Borax has a wide variety of uses...

     Na2B4O5(OH)4·8(H2O)
  • Ulexite
    Ulexite
    Ulexite , sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes, by internal reflection...

     NaCaB5O6(OH)6·5(H2O)
  • Colemanite
    Colemanite
    Colemanite is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments. Colemanite is a secondary mineral that forms by alteration of borax and ulexite....

     CaB3O4(OH)3·(H2O)
  • Boracite
    Boracite
    Boracite is a magnesium borate mineral with formula: Mg3B7O13Cl. It occurs as blue green, colorless, gray, yellow to white crystals in the orthorhombic - pyramidal crystal system. Boracite also shows pseudo-isometric cubical and octahedral forms. These are thought to be the result of transition...

     Mg3B7O13Cl

Nickel–Strunz Classification -06- Borates


IMA
International Mineralogical Association
The International Mineralogical Association is an international group of 38 national societies. The goal is to promote the science of mineralogy and to standardize the nomenclature of the 4000 plus known mineral species...

-CNMNC proposes a new hierarchical scheme (Mills et al., 2009). This list uses it to modify the Classification of Nickel–Strunz
Strunz classification
Nickel–Strunz classification is a scheme for categorizing minerals based upon their chemical composition, introduced by German mineralogist Karl Hugo Strunz in his 1941 Mineralogische Tabellen. The 4th edition was edited by Christel Tennyson too . It was followed by A.S...

 (10 ed, pending publication).
  • Abbreviations:
    • "*" - discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "?" - questionable/doubtful (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "REE" - Rare-earth element
      Rare earth element
      As defined by IUPAC, rare earth elements or rare earth metals are a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium...

       (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu)
    • "PGE" - Platinum-group element
      Platinum group
      The platinum group metals is a term used sometimes to collectively refer to six metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.These elements are all transition metals, lying in the d-block .The six...

       (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt)
    • 03.C Aluminofluorides, 06 Borates, 08 Vanadates (04.H V[5,6] Vanadates), 09 Silicates:
      • Neso: insular (from Greek
        Greek language
        Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

         νησος nēsos, island)
      • Soro: grouping (from Greek
        Greek language
        Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

         σωροῦ sōros, heap, mound (especially of corn))
      • Cyclo: ring
      • Ino: chain (from Greek
        Greek language
        Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

         ις [genitive: ινος inos], fibre)
      • Phyllo: sheet (from Greek
        Greek language
        Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

         φύλλον phyllon, leaf)
      • Tekto: three-dimensional framework
  • Nickel–Strunz code scheme: NN.XY.##x
    • NN: Nickel–Strunz mineral class number
    • X: Nickel–Strunz mineral division letter
    • Y: Nickel–Strunz mineral family letter
    • ##x: Nickel–Strunz mineral/group number, x add-on letter

Class: borates

  • 06. Alfredstelznerite
  • 06.A Monoborates
    • 06.AA BO3, without additional anions; 1(D): 05 Sassolite
      Sassolite
      Sassolite is a borate mineral, and is the mineral form of boric acid. It occurs in volcanic fumaroles and hot springs, as well as in bedded sedimentary evaporite deposits....

      ; 15 Nordenskioldine, 15 Tusionite
      Tusionite
      Tusionite is a rare colorless to transparent to translucent yellow brown trigonal borate mineral with chemical formula: MnSn2. The mineral is composed of 18.86% manganese, 40.76% tin, 7.42% boron, and 32.96% oxygen...

      ; 35 Jimboite, 35 Kotoite; 40 Takedaite
    • 06.AB BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.: 05 Hambergite, 10 Berborite
      Berborite
      Berborite is a beryllium borate mineral with the chemical formula Be2·. It is colorless and leaves a white streak. Its crystals are hexagonal to pyramidal. It is transparent and has vitreous luster. It is not radioactive...

      , 15 Jeremejevite
      Jeremejevite
      Jeremejevite is a rare aluminium borate mineral with variable fluoride and hydroxide ions.It was first described in 1883 for an occurrence on Mt. Soktui, Nerschinsk district, Adun-Chilon Mountains, Siberia...

      ; 20 Warwickite
      Warwickite
      Warwickite is an iron magnesium titanium borate mineral with formula: 3Ti2 or MgO. It occurs as brown to black prismatic orthorhombic crystals which are vitreous and transparent. It has a Mohs hardness of 3 to 4 and a specific gravity of 3.36.-Occurrence:It occurs metasomatized limestone skarns and...

      , 20 Yuanfuliite; 25 Karlite
      Karlite
      Karlite is a silky white to light green orthorhombic borate mineral, not to be confused with tremolite-actinolite. It has a general formula of Mg734Cl...

      ; 30 Azoproite, 30 Bonaccordite
      Bonaccordite
      Bonaccordite is a rare mineral discovered in 1974. Its chemical formula is Ni2FeBO5 and it is a mineral of the ludwigite group. It usually crystallizes in long, cylindrical prisms that form within another source. It is named after the area of Bon Accord, where it was first found. There have also...

      , 30 Fredrikssonite, 30 Ludwigite
      Ludwigite
      Ludwigite is a magnesium-iron borate mineral: Mg2FeBO5.Ludwigite typically occurs in magnesian iron skarn and other high temperature contact metamorphic deposits. It occurs in association with magnetite, forsterite, clinohumite and the borates vonsenite and szaibelyite...

      , 30 Vonsenite; 35 Pinakiolite; 40 Blatterite, 40 Orthopinakiolite, 40 Takeuchiite, 40 Chestermanite; 45 Hulsite, 45 Magnesiohulsite, 45 Aluminomagnesiohulsite; 50 Hydroxylborite, 50 Fluoborite
      Fluoborite
      Fluoborite has a chemical formula of Mg33. Its name comes from its main chemical components, FLUOrine and BORon. Fluoborite's crystal system is hexagonal, meaning it has 1 six-fold axis of rotation. It also has a mirror plane perpendicular to the c-axis. Fluoborite is uniaxial, just like all other...

      ; 55 Shabynite, 55 Wightmanite; 60 Gaudefroyite, 65 Sakhaite, 70 Harkerite; 75 IMA2008-060, 75 Pertsevite; 80 Jacquesdietrichite, 85 Painite
      Painite
      Painite is a very rare Borate mineral. It was first found in Myanmar by British mineralogist and gem dealer Arthur C.D. Pain in the 1950s. When it was confirmed as a new mineral species, the mineral was named after him....

    • 06.AC B(O,OH)4, without and with additional anions; 1(T), 1(T)+OH, etc.: 05 Sinhalite, 10 Pseudosinhalite; 15 Behierite, 15 Schiavinatoite; 20 Frolovite, 25 Hexahydroborite, 30 Henmilite, 35 Bandylite, 40 Teepleite, 45 Moydite-(Y), 50 Carboborite, 55 Sulfoborite, 60 Luneburgite, 65 Seamanite
      Seamanite
      Seamanite is a very rare manganese boron phosphate, Mn3B6, first discovered in Michigan under the name "koenigite". The only known occurrences have been Iron and Marquette Counties in Michigan, where it forms brown to pink prismatic crystals. It has been found associated with shigaite.It is named...

      , 70 Cahnite
      Cahnite
      Cahnite is a brittle white or colorless mineral that has perfect cleavage and is usually transparent. It usually forms tetragonal-shaped crystals and it has a hardness of 3 mohs. Cahnite was discovered in the year 1921. It was named Cahnite to honor Lazard Cahn, who was a mineral collector and...

  • 06.H Unclassified Borates
    • 06.HA Unclassified borates: 05 Chelkarite, 10 Braitschite-(Ce), 15 Satimolite, 20 Iquiqueite, 25 Wardsmithite, 30 Korzhinskite, 35 Halurgite, 40 Ekaterinite, 45 Vitimite, 50 Canavesite
      Canavesite
      Canavesite, Mg2∙5H2O, is a rare carboborate mineral from the abandoned Brosso mine in Italy. Canavesite is a secondary mineral that occurs due to the weathering of ludwigite-magnetite skarn on the surface of mine walls. The physical properties consist of a milky-white rosette-like aggregates of...

      , 55 Qilianshanite

Subclass: nesoborates


  • 06.BA Neso-diborates with double triangles B2(O,OH)5; 2(2D); 2(2D) + OH, etc.: 05 Suanite; 10 Clinokurchatovite, 10 Kurchatovite; 15 Sussexite
    Sussexite
    Sussexite is a manganese borate mineral MnBO2. Crystals are monoclinic prismatic and typically fibrous in occurrence. Colour is white, pink, yellowish white with a pearly lustre...

    , 15 Szaibelyite; 20 Wiserite
  • 06.BB Neso-diborates with double tetrahedra B2O(OH)6; 2(2T): 05 Pinnoite, 10 Pentahydroborite
  • 06.CA Neso-triborates: 10 Ameghinite
    Ameghinite
    Ameghinite is a mineral found in Argentina. It is a soft mineral with a Mohs hardness of 2-3. Ameghinite has a Monoclinic crystal system....

    , 15 Inderite, 20 Kurnakovite
    Kurnakovite
    Kurnakovite is a hydrated borate mineral with the chemical composition MgB3O35·5. It is a member of the inderite group and is a triclinic dimorph of the monoclinic inderite.-Discovery and occurrence:...

    , 25 Inderborite, 30 Meyerhofferite
    Meyerhofferite
    Meyerhofferite is a hydrated borate mineral, with the chemical formula Ca2B6O610·2, CaB3O35·H2O or Ca22·4. It occurs principally as an alteration product of inyoite, another borate mineral....

    , 35 Inyoite
    Inyoite
    Inyoite, named after Inyo County, California, where it was discovered in 1914, is a colourless monoclinic mineral. It turns white on dehydration. Its chemical formula is Ca·4 or CaB3O35·4....

    , 40 Solongoite, 45 Peprossiite-(Ce), 50 Nifontovite, 55 Olshanskyite
  • 06.DA Neso-tetraborates: 10 Borax
    Borax
    Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. It is usually a white powder consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water.Borax has a wide variety of uses...

    , 15 Tincalconite
    Tincalconite
    Tincalconite is a hydrous sodium borate mineral closely related to borax, and is a secondary mineral that forms as a dehydration product of borax. Its formula is Na2B4O7·5H2O or Na2[B4O54]·3H2O.Tincalconite typically occurs as a fine grained white powder...

    , 20 Hungchaoite; 25 Fedorovskite, 25 Roweite; 30 Hydrochlorborite, 35 Uralborite; 40 Numanoite, 40 Borcarite
  • 06.EA Neso-pentaborates: 05 Sborgite
    Sborgite
    Sborgite is a sodium borate mineral with formula Na[B5O64]·3H2O. The formula can be written as the oxide formulation, Na2O.5B2O3.10H2O. Sometimes called sodium pentaborate pentahydrate it contains the pentaborate anion, −....

    ; 10 Ramanite-(Rb), 10 Ramanite-(Cs), 10 Santite
    Santite
    Santite is a mineral found in Tuscany, Italy. It is named for Georgi Santi, a former director of an Italian museum.- External links :* from mindat.org* from...

    ; 15 Ammonioborite, 25 Ulexite
    Ulexite
    Ulexite , sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers. The natural fibers of ulexite conduct light along their long axes, by internal reflection...

  • 06.FA Neso-hexaborates: 05 Aksaite
    Aksaite
    Aksaite is a mineral found in Kazakhstan.-Etymology and History:Aksaite is named after the place it was discovered, Ak-say . It was found in the year 1963 in Chelkar Salt Dome, Ak-say Valley, Kazakhstan....

    , 10 Mcallisterite, 15 Admontite
    Admontite
    Admontite is a magnesium borate mineral with formula MgB6O10·7H2O.Occurrence - In a gypsum deposit.Association - Gypsum, anhydrite, hexahydrite, l¨oweite, eugsterite, pyrite, quartz.It is named after Admont, Austria. Its Mohs scale rating is 2 to 3....

    , 20 Rivadavite, 25 Teruggite
    Teruggite
    Teruggite is a mineral with the chemical formula Ca4MgAs2B12O2212·12. It is colorless. Its crystals are monoclinic prismatic. It is transparent. It is not radioactive. It has vitreous luster. Teruggite is rated 2.5 on the Mohs Scale of hardness....


Subclass: inoborates


  • 06.BC Ino-diborates with triangles and/or tetrahedra: 10 Calciborite
    Calciborite
    Calciborite is a mineral discovered in 1955 in Russia.It was first described in 1955 in the Novofrolovskoye copper deposit, near Krasnoturinsk, Turinsk district, Northern Ural Mountains, Russia. It occurs in a skarn deposit formed in limestone adjacent to a quartz diorite intrusive. It occurs...

    , 10 Aldzhanite*; 15 Vimsite; 20 Sibirskite, 20 Parasibirskite
  • 06.CB Ino-triborates: 10 Colemanite
    Colemanite
    Colemanite is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments. Colemanite is a secondary mineral that forms by alteration of borax and ulexite....

    , 15 Hydroboracite
    Hydroboracite
    Hydroboracite is a hydrated borate mineral , whose chemical composition is CaMgB6O86·3 . It was discovered in 1834 in Atyrau Province, Kazakhstan. Hydroboracite is a minor borate ore mineral.-References:**...

    , 20 Howlite
    Howlite
    Howlite, a calcium borosilicate hydroxide , is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits. Howlite was discovered near Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1868 by Henry How , a Canadian chemist, geologist, and mineralogist. How was alerted to the unknown mineral by miners in a gypsum quarry, who found it...

    , 25 Jarandolite
  • 06.DB Ino-tetraborates: 05 Kernite
    Kernite
    Kernite, also known as rasorite is a hydrated sodium borate hydroxide mineral with formula Na2B4O62·3H2O. It is a colorless to white mineral crystallizing in the monoclinic crystal system typically occurring as prismatic to acicular crystals or granular masses. It is relatively soft with Mohs...

  • 06.EB Ino-pentaborates: 05 Larderellite, 10 Ezcurrite, 15 Probertite, 20 Tertschite, 25 Priceite
  • 06.FB Ino-hexaborates: 05 Aristarainite, 10 Kaliborite

Subclass: phylloborates


  • 06.CC Phyllo-triborates: 05 Johachidolite
  • 06.EC Phyllo-pentaborates: 05 Biringuccite, 05 Nasinite; 10 Gowerite; 15 Veatchite
    Veatchite
    Veatchite is an unusual strontium borate, with the chemical formula Sr2B11O165 · H2O . There are two known polymorphs, Veatchite-A and Veatchite-p....

    , 15 Veatchite-A, 15 Veatchite-p; 20 Volkovskite, 25 Tuzlaite, 30 Heidornite, 35 Brianroulstonite
  • 06.FC Phyllo-hexaborates: 05 Nobleite
    Nobleite
    Nobleite is a rare borate mineral with the chemical formula CaB6O92·3. It was discovered in 1961, in Death Valley, California, and is named for Levi F. Noble, a USGS geologist, in honor of his contributions to the geology of the Death Valley region....

    , 05 Tunellite, 05 Balavinskite?; 10 Strontioborite; 15 Ginorite, 15 Strontioginorite; 20 Fabianite
    Fabianite
    Fabianite is a borate mineral with the chemical formula CaB3O5. It is colorless and leaves a white streak. Its crystals are monoclinic prismatic. It is transparent and fluorescent. It has vitreous luster. It is not radioactive. Fabianite is rated 6 on the Mohs Scale. It was named for Hans-Joachim...

  • 06.GB Phyllo-nonborates, etc.: 05 Studenitsite
    Studenitsite
    Studenitsite is a rare borate mineral with chemical formula of NaCa2[B9O144]·2H2O.Studenitsite has a vitreous luster, a Mohs hardness of 6 and color of light-dirty yellow. It is a monoclinic mineral and belongs to the space group P2/c. The basic unit of the crystal structure[B9O144]5-layers has a ...

    , 10 Penobsquisite, 15 Preobrazhenskite, 20 Walkerite

Subclass: tektoborates


  • 06.BD Tektodiborates with tetrahedra: 05 Santarosaite
  • 06.DD Tekto-tetraborates: 05 Diomignite
  • 06.ED Tekto-pentaborates: 05 IMA2007-047, 05 Tyretskite, 05 Hilgardite
    Hilgardite
    Hilgardite is a borate mineral with the chemical formula Ca2B5O9Cl·H2O. It is transparent and has vitreous luster. It is colorless to light pink with a white streak. It is rated 5 on the Mohs Scale....

    , 05 Kurgantaite
  • 06.GA Tekto-heptaborates: 05 Boracite
    Boracite
    Boracite is a magnesium borate mineral with formula: Mg3B7O13Cl. It occurs as blue green, colorless, gray, yellow to white crystals in the orthorhombic - pyramidal crystal system. Boracite also shows pseudo-isometric cubical and octahedral forms. These are thought to be the result of transition...

    , 05 Chambersite
    Chambersite
    Chambersite is a manganese borate mineral with formula:Mn3B7O13Cl. It is a member of the borate mineral series that includes other minerals such as ericacite, Fe3B7O13Cl, and boracite Mg3B7O13Cl. When chambersite was first discovered, it was the second chemical analogue of boracite to be found in...

    , 05 Ericaite; 10 Congolite, 10 Trembathite
  • 06.GC Tekto-dodecaborates: 05 Rhodizite, 05 Londonite
  • 06.GD Mega-tektoborates: 05 Ruitenbergite, 05 Pringleite; 10 Metaborite

See also


  • Classification of minerals - Non silicates
    Classification of minerals - Non silicates
    This list gives an overview of the classification of minerals and includes mostly IMA recognized minerals and its groupings. This list complements the alphabetical list on List of minerals and List of minerals. Rocks, ores, mineral mixtures, not IMA approved minerals, not named minerals are...

  • Classification of minerals - Silicates
    Classification of minerals - Silicates
    This list gives an overview of the classification of minerals and includes mostly IMA recognized minerals and its groupings. This list complements the alphabetical list on List of minerals and List of minerals. Rocks, ores, mineral mixtures, not IMA approved minerals, not named minerals are...