Bohemia

Bohemia

Overview
{{Other uses}} [[File:CZ-cleneni-Cechy-wl.png|thumb|right|Bohemia ''(green)'' in relation to the current [[regions of the Czech Republic]]]] [[File:Flag of Bohemia.svg|thumb|right|[[Flag of Bohemia|Historical flag of Bohemia]]]] [[File:Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg|thumb|right|170px|Coat of arms of Bohemia]] '''Bohemia''' ({{lang-cs|Čechy}}; {{Audio-de|Böhmen|De-Böhmen.ogg}}; {{lang-pl|Czechy}}; {{lang-fr|Bohême}}; {{lang-la|Bohemia}}) is a [[Historical regions of Central Europe|historical region in central Europe]], occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional [[Czech Lands]].
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Timeline

1158   Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia.

1212   Golden Bull of Sicily is certified as an hereditary royal title in Bohemia for the Přemyslid dynasty.

1278   Ladislaus IV of Hungary and Rudolph I of Germany defeat Premysl Ottokar II of Bohemia in the Battle of Marchfield near Dürnkrut in (then) Moravia.

1526   Battle of Mohács: The Ottoman Turks led by Suleiman the Magnificent defeat and kill the last Jagiellonian king of Hungary and Bohemia.

1609   Bohemia is granted freedom of religion.

1741   Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.

1939   World War II: German troops occupy the remaining part of Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia ceases to exist.

 
Encyclopedia
{{Other uses}} [[File:CZ-cleneni-Cechy-wl.png|thumb|right|Bohemia ''(green)'' in relation to the current [[regions of the Czech Republic]]]] [[File:Flag of Bohemia.svg|thumb|right|[[Flag of Bohemia|Historical flag of Bohemia]]]] [[File:Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg|thumb|right|170px|Coat of arms of Bohemia]] '''Bohemia''' ({{lang-cs|Čechy}}; {{Audio-de|Böhmen|De-Böhmen.ogg}}; {{lang-pl|Czechy}}; {{lang-fr|Bohême}}; {{lang-la|Bohemia}}) is a [[Historical regions of Central Europe|historical region in central Europe]], occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional [[Czech Lands]]. It is located in the contemporary [[Czech Republic]] with its capital in [[Prague]]. In a broader meaning, it often refers to the entire Czech territory, including [[Moravia]] and [[Czech Silesia]], especially in historical contexts, such as the [[Kingdom of Bohemia]]. Bohemia has an area of 52,065 km² and today is home to approximately 6 million of the Czech Republic's 10.3 million inhabitants. It is bordered by [[Germany]] to the west, [[Poland]] to the northeast, the Czech historical region of [[Moravia]] to the east, and [[Austria]] to the south. Bohemia's borders are marked with mountain ranges such as the [[Bohemian Forest]], the [[Ore Mountains (Central Europe)|Ore Mountains]], and the [[Krkonoše]] (Giant Mountains), the highest within the [[Sudeten mountain]] range. ==Etymology== In the 2nd century BC, the [[Ancient Rome|Romans]] were competing for dominance in northern Italy, with various peoples including the [[Boii]]. The Romans defeated the Boii at the [[Battle of Placentia (194 BC)]] and the [[Battle of Mutina 193 BC|Battle of Mutina (193 BCE)]]. After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps. Roman authors refer to the area they invaded as '''Boihaemum''', the earliest mention being in [[Tacitus]]' ''[[Germania (book)|Germania]]'' 28 (written at the end of the 1st century AD). The name appears to include the tribal name ''Boi-'' plus the [[Germanic languages|Germanic]] element *''xaim-'' "home" (whence Gothic ''haims'', German ''Heim'', English ''home''). This Boihaemum included parts of southern Bohemia as well as parts of [[Bavaria]] (whose name also seems to derive from the tribal name Boii) and Austria. ==History== {{See|History of the Czech lands|History of Czechoslovakia}} [[File:Böhmen Mähren Österreich Schlesien.jpg|thumb|right|Historical map with Bohemia proper outlined in pink, [[Moravia]] in yellow, and [[Austrian Silesia]] in orange.]] ===Ancient Bohemia=== In the late 2nd century BC, many of the [[Boii]] tribe, after defeat at Roman hands, fled north across the Alps from northern Italy into an area called '''Boihaemum''' by the Romans, which included the southern part of present-day Bohemia. The western half was conquered and settled from the 1st century BC by Germanic (probably [[Suebi]]c) peoples including the [[Marcomanni]]; the elite of some Boii then migrated west to modern Switzerland and southeastern Gaul. Those Boii that remained in the eastern part were eventually absorbed by the Marcomanni. Part of the Marcomanni, renamed the Bavarians (Baiuvarii), later migrated to the southwest. Although the leading tribes changed, there was a large degree of continuity in the actual population, and at no time was there a wholesale depopulation or change in ethnic stock. After the Bavarian emigration, Bohemia was partially repopulated around the 6th century, as part of the territory often crossed during the [[Migration Period]] by [[Germanic tribes|Germanic]] and major [[Slavic peoples|Slavic]] tribes, precursors of today's [[Czech people|Czechs]], though the exact amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves. The first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic [[Lombards]] left Bohemia (c. 568 CE). Later immigrants came from the Black Sea region, as shown by [[Iranian languages|Iranian]] [[Toponymy|place names]] as "Dudleb" (today in [[Prachens]] region, South Bohemia) and "Charvat" ([[White Croats|Choroathos]]). Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by [[Samo]]'s tribal confederation. His death marked the end of the old "Slavonic" confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after [[Carantania]] in [[Carinthia (province)|Carinthia]]. Other sources (''[[Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii]]'', Bavaria, 800-850) divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Marharaii, Beheimare (Bohemani) and Fraganeo. (The suffix ''-ani'' or ''-ni'' means "people of-"). The great tribes of ''Dudleb'', ''Lemuz'' and ''Charvat'' are missing from this list, which shows a linguistic and cultural shift from [[Sarmatian]] in favor of [[Slavic languages|Slavonic]] dialects, a common occurrence in nomadic immigrations. Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century. The 9th century was crucial for the future of Bohemia. The manorial system sharply declined, as it did in Bavaria. The influence of the central ''Fraganeo-Czechs'' grew, as a result of the important cultic centre in their territory. They were Slavic-speaking and thus contributed to the transformation of diverse neighbouring populations into a new nation named and led by them with a united ''slavic'' ethnic consciousness. ===Přemysl dynasty=== {{main|History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Middle Ages)}} [[File:Wappen Königreich Böhmen.png|thumb|left|The Coat of arms of the Bohemian King and Kingdom.]] Initially, Bohemia was a part of [[Greater Moravia]]. The latter, which had been weakened by years of internal conflict and constant warfare, ultimately succumbed and fragmented due to the continual incursions of the invading nomadic [[Magyars]]. However, Bohemia's initial incorporation into the Moravian Empire resulted in the extensive Christianization of the population. A native monarchy arose to the throne, and Bohemia came under the rule of the [[Přemyslid dynasty]], which would rule the Czech lands for the next several hundred years. The Přemyslids secured their frontiers from the remnant Asian interlocurs, after the collapse of the Moravian state, by entering into a state of semi-vassalage to the Frankish rulers. This alliance was facilitated by Bohemia's conversion to [[Christianity]], in the 9th century. Continuing close relations were developed with the East [[Franks|Frankish]] kingdom, which devolved from the [[Carolingians|Carolingian]] Empire, into East Francia, eventually becoming the [[Holy Roman Empire]]. After a decisive victory of the Holy Roman Empire and Bohemia over invading Magyars in the 955 [[Battle of Lechfeld]], [[Boleslav I of Bohemia|Boleslaus I]] of Bohemia was granted the [[March of Moravia]] by German emperor [[Otto the Great]]. Bohemia would remain a largely autonomous state under the Holy Roman Empire for several decades. The jurisdiction of the [[Holy Roman Empire]] was definitively reasserted when [[Jaromir, Duke of Bohemia|Jaromír of Bohemia]] was granted fief of the Kingdom of Bohemia by Emperor [[Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor|King Henry II]] of the Holy Roman Empire, with the promise that he hold it as a vassal once he re-occupied Prague with a German army in 1004, ending the rule of [[Boleslaw I of Poland]]. The first to use the title of "[[Monarch|King]] of Bohemia" were the Přemyslid dukes [[Vratislav II of Bohemia|Vratislav II]] (1085) and [[Vladislav II of Bohemia|Vladislav II]] (1158), but their heirs would return to the title of [[duke]]. The title of king became hereditary under [[Ottokar I of Bohemia|Ottokar I]] (1198). His grandson [[Ottokar II of Bohemia|Ottokar II]] (king from 1253–1278) conquered a short-lived empire which contained modern [[Austria]] and [[Slovenia]]. The mid-13th century saw the beginning of substantial German immigration as the court sought to replace losses from the brief [[Mongol invasion of Europe]] in 1241. Germans settled primarily along the northern, western, and southern borders of Bohemia, although many lived in towns throughout the kingdom. {{-}} ===Luxembourg dynasty=== The [[House of Luxembourg]] accepted the invitation to the Bohemian throne with the crowning of [[John I of Bohemia]] in 1310. His son, [[Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor|Charles IV]] became King of Bohemia in 1346. He founded [[Charles University in Prague]], central Europe's first university, two years later. His reign brought Bohemia to its peak both politically and in total area, resulting in his being the first King of Bohemia to also be elected as [[Holy Roman Emperor]]. Under his rule the [[Bohemian crown]] controlled such diverse lands as [[Moravia]], [[Silesia]], [[Upper Lusatia]] and [[Lower Lusatia]], [[Brandenburg]], an area around [[Nuremberg]] called New Bohemia, [[Luxembourg]], and several small towns scattered around Germany. ===Hussite Bohemia=== During the ecumenical [[Council of Constance]] in 1415, [[Jan Hus]], the [[Rector#Academic rectors|rector]] of Charles University and a prominent reformer and religious thinker, was sentenced to be burnt at the stake as a [[Heresy|heretic]]. The verdict was passed despite the fact that Hus was granted formal protection by Emperor [[Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor|Sigismund of Luxembourg]] prior to the journey. Hus was invited to attend the council to defend himself and the Czech positions in the religious court, but with the emperor's approval, he was executed on July 6, 1415. The execution of Hus, as well as five consecutive papal [[crusades]] against followers of Hus, forced the Bohemians to defend themselves. Their defense and rebellion against Roman Catholics became known as the [[Hussite Wars]]. The uprising against imperial forces was led by a former mercenary, [[Jan Žižka]] of Trocnov. As the leader of the Hussite armies, he used innovative tactics and weapons, such as howitzers, pistols, and fortified wagons, which were revolutionary for the time, and established Žižka as a great general who never lost a battle. After Žižka's death, [[Prokop the Great]] took over the command for the army, and under his lead the Hussites were victorious for another ten years, to the sheer terror of Europe. The Hussite cause gradually splintered into two main factions, the moderate [[Utraquism|Utraquists]] and the more fanatic [[Taborite]]s. The [[Utraquists]] began to lay the groundwork for an agreement with the Catholic Church and found the more radical views of the Taborites distasteful. Additionally, with general war weariness and yearning for order, the Utraquists were able to eventually defeat the Taborites in the [[Battle of Lipany]] in 1434. Sigismund said after the battle that "only the Bohemians could defeat the Bohemians." Despite an apparent victory for the Catholics, the Bohemian Utraquists were still strong enough to negotiate [[freedom of religion]] in 1436. This happened in the so-called Basel Compacts, declaring peace and freedom between Catholics and Utraquists. It would only last for a short period of time, as [[Pope Pius II]] declared the Basel Compacts to be invalid in 1462. In 1458, [[George of Podebrady]] was elected to ascend to the Bohemian throne. He is remembered for his attempt to set up a pan-European "Christian League", which would form all the states of Europe into a community based on religion. In the process of negotiating, he appointed [[Leo of Rozmital]] to tour the European courts and to conduct the talks. However, the negotiations were not completed, because George's position was substantially damaged over time by his deteriorating relationship with the Pope. ===Habsburg Monarchy=== [[File:Europe As A Queen Sebastian Munster 1570.jpg|thumb|200px|Bohemia as the heart of ''[[Europa regina]]'', 1570]] After the death of King [[Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia]] in the [[Battle of Mohács]] in 1526, Archduke [[Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand]] of [[Austria]] became King of Bohemia and the country became a constituent state of the [[Habsburg Monarchy]]. Bohemia enjoyed religious freedom between 1436 and 1620, and became one of the most liberal countries of the Christian world during that period. In 1609, Holy Roman Emperor [[Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor|Rudolph II]] who made Prague again the capital of the [[Holy Roman Empire|Empire]] at the time, himself a Roman Catholic, was moved by the Bohemian nobility to publish ''Maiestas Rudolphina'', which confirmed the older ''Confessio Bohemica'' of 1575. After Emperor [[Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand II]] began oppressing the rights of Protestants in Bohemia, the resulting [[Bohemian Revolt]] led to outbreak of the [[Thirty Years' War]] in 1618. Elector [[Frederick V, Elector Palatine|Frederick V]] of the [[Electoral Palatinate|Palatinate]], a Protestant, was elected by the Bohemian nobility to replace Ferdinand on the Bohemian throne, and was known as the [[Winter King]]. Frederick's wife, the popular [[Elizabeth of Bohemia|Elizabeth Stuart]] and subsequently Elizabeth of Bohemia, known as the Winter Queen or Queen of Hearts, was the daughter of King [[James I of England]]. However, after Frederick's defeat in the [[Battle of White Mountain]] in 1620, 27 Bohemian estates leaders together with [[Jan Jesenius]], rector of the [[Charles University]] of Prague were executed on the Prague's Old Town Square on 21 June 1621 and the rest were exiled from the country; their lands were then given to Catholic loyalists (mostly of Bavarian and Saxon origin), this ended the pro-reformation movement in Bohemia and also ended the role of Prague as ruling city of the [[Holy Roman Empire]]. Until the so-called "renewed constitution" of 1627, the German language was established as a second official language in the Czech lands. The Czech language remained the first language in the kingdom. Both German and Latin were widely spoken among the ruling classes, although German became increasingly dominant, while Czech was spoken in much of the countryside. The formal independence of Bohemia was further jeopardized when the Bohemian Diet approved administrative reform in 1749. It included the indivisibility of the [[Habsburg_Monarchy#Rulers_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy.2C_1526.E2.80.931918|Habsburg Empire]] and the centralization of rule; this essentially meant the merging of the Royal Bohemian Chancellery with the Austrian Chancellery. At the end of the 18th century, the [[Czech National Revival]] movement, in cooperation with part of the Bohemian aristocracy, started a campaign for restoration of the kingdom's historic rights, whereby the Czech language was to replace German as the language of administration. The [[enlightened absolutism]] of [[Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor|Joseph II]] and [[Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor|Leopold II]], who introduced minor language concessions, showed promise for the Czech movement, but many of these reforms were later rescinded. During the [[Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas|Revolution of 1848]], many Czech nationalists called for autonomy for Bohemia from Habsburg Austria, but the revolutionaries were defeated. The old Bohemian Diet, one of the last remnants of the independence, was dissolved, although the Czech language experienced a rebirth as [[romantic nationalism]] developed among the Czechs. In 1861, a new elected Bohemian Diet was established. The renewal of the old Bohemian Crown (Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, and Duchy of Silesia) became the official political program of both Czech liberal politicians and the majority of Bohemian aristocracy ("state rights program"), while parties representing the German minority and small part of the aristocracy proclaimed their loyalty to the centralistic Constitution (so-called "Verfassungstreue"). After the defeat of Austria in the [[Austro-Prussian War]] in 1866, Hungarian politicians achieved the [[Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867]], ostensibly creating equality between the Austrian and Hungarian halves of the empire. An attempt by the Czechs to create a tripartite monarchy (Austria-Hungary-Bohemia) failed in 1871. However, the "state rights program" remained the official platform of all Czech political parties (except for social democrats) until 1918. ===Twentieth century=== [[File:Czechoslovakia01.png|thumb|250px|right|Bohemia (westernmost area) within Czechoslovakia between 1928–38]] After [[World War I]], Bohemia (as the biggest and most populated land) became the core of the newly-formed country of [[Czechoslovakia]], which combined Bohemia, [[Moravia]], [[Austrian Silesia]], [[Upper Hungary]] (present-day [[Slovakia]]) and [[Carpathian Ruthenia]] into one state. Under its first president, [[Tomáš Masaryk]], Czechoslovakia became a liberal democratic republic but serious issues emerged regarding the Czech majority's relationship with the native German and Hungarian minorities. [[File:Karlovy Vary Czech Rep.jpg|thumb|left|The Bohemian town of [[Karlovy Vary]]]] Following the [[Munich Agreement]] in 1938, the border regions of Bohemia historically inhabited predominantly by ethnic Germans (the [[Sudetenland]]) were annexed to [[Nazi Germany]]; this was the only time in Bohemian history that its territory was politically divided. The remnants of Bohemia and Moravia were then annexed by Germany in 1939, while the Slovak lands became the separate [[Slovak Republic (1939-1945)|Slovak Republic]], a puppet state of [[Nazi Germany]]. From 1939 to 1945 Bohemia, (without the Sudetenland), together with Moravia formed the German [[Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia]] (''Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren''). Any open opposition to German occupation was brutally suppressed by the Nazi authorities and many Czech patriots were executed as a result. After [[World War II]] ended in 1945, the vast majority of remaining Germans were [[Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II|ethnically cleansed]] by force by the order of the re-established Czechoslovak central government, based on Potsdam Agreement, and their property was confiscated by the Czech authorities. This severely depopulated the area and from this moment on locales were only referred to in their Czech equivalents regardless of their previous demographic makeup. After World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established. In 1946, the Communist Party {{Citation needed|date=March 2008}} strongly subsidized by the Soviet Union (due to an agreement amongst the Allies, Patton's armies reluctantly did not enter Prague and the city had to liberate itself before being officially liberated by the Soviet Red Army) won elections. In February 1948 the Communists ousted the remaining democratic ministers from the government in a coup d'état and installed a pro-Soviet authoritarian state. Beginning in 1949, Bohemia ceased to be an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia, as the country was divided into administrative regions. Between 1949 and 1989 Czechoslovakia (from 1960 officially called Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic) became a Soviet satellite even though there was not a Soviet army present (interestingly enough, surrounding countries including Eastern Austria were occupied by the Red Army) until Czechoslovak Communist Party started to reform and democratize itself in 1968. This "[[Prague Spring]]" process was stopped abruptly by an invasion of 'brotherly' armies of Warsaw Pact in August 1968. In 1989, [[Agnes of Bohemia]] became the first saint from a Central European country to be canonized by [[Pope John Paul II]] before the "[[Velvet Revolution]]" later that year. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 (the "[[Dissolution of Czechoslovakia|Velvet Divorce]]"), the territory of Bohemia became part of the new [[Czech Republic]]. The Czech constitution from 1992 refers to the "citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia" and proclaims continuity with the statehood of the [[Bohemian Crown]]. Bohemia is not currently an administrative unit of the Czech Republic. Instead, it is divided into the Prague, [[Central Bohemian Region|Central Bohemian]], [[Pilsen Region|Plzeň]], [[Carlsbad Region|Karlovy Vary]], [[Ústí nad Labem Region|Ústí nad Labem]], [[Liberec Region|Liberec]], and [[Hradec Králové Region|Hradec Králové]] [[Regions of the Czech Republic|Regions]], as well as parts of the [[Pardubice Region|Pardubice]], [[Vysočina Region|Vysočina]], [[South Bohemian Region|South Bohemian]] and [[South Moravian Region]]s. ==See also== {{Portal|Austria-Hungary}} {{Commons category|Bohemia}} * [[History of the Czech lands]] * [[Crown of Bohemia]] * [[List of rulers of Bohemia]] * [[Sudetenland]] * [[German Bohemia]] * [[Bohemianism]] * [[Lech, Czech and Rus]] ==External links== * [http://www.czech.cz/en/culture/regions-attractivity-and-diversity/bohemia/ Bohemia]
{{Czech lands}} {{coord missing|Czech Republic}}