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Boeing 707

Boeing 707

Overview


The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body
Narrow-body aircraft
A narrow-body aircraft is an airliner with a fuselage aircraft cabin width typically of 3 to 4 metres , and airline seat arranged 2 to 6 abreast along a single aisle...

 commercial passenger jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 developed by Boeing
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

 in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on October 26, 1958. Boeing delivered a total of 1,011 Boeing 707s including a smaller, faster model of the aircraft that was marketed as the Boeing 720
Boeing 720
The Boeing 720 is a four-engine narrow-body short- to medium-range passenger jet airliner. Developed by Boeing in the late 1950s from the Boeing 707, the 720 has a shorter fuselage and less range...

.

Although it was not the first commercial
De Havilland Comet
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at the Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom headquarters, it first flew in 1949 and was a landmark in aeronautical design...

 jet
Jet aircraft
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally fly much faster than propeller-powered aircraft and at higher altitudes – as high as . At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller-powered aircraft...

 in service, the 707 was among the first to be commercially successful.
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Encyclopedia


The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body
Narrow-body aircraft
A narrow-body aircraft is an airliner with a fuselage aircraft cabin width typically of 3 to 4 metres , and airline seat arranged 2 to 6 abreast along a single aisle...

 commercial passenger jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 developed by Boeing
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

 in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on October 26, 1958. Boeing delivered a total of 1,011 Boeing 707s including a smaller, faster model of the aircraft that was marketed as the Boeing 720
Boeing 720
The Boeing 720 is a four-engine narrow-body short- to medium-range passenger jet airliner. Developed by Boeing in the late 1950s from the Boeing 707, the 720 has a shorter fuselage and less range...

.

Although it was not the first commercial
De Havilland Comet
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at the Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom headquarters, it first flew in 1949 and was a landmark in aeronautical design...

 jet
Jet aircraft
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally fly much faster than propeller-powered aircraft and at higher altitudes – as high as . At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller-powered aircraft...

 in service, the 707 was among the first to be commercially successful. Dominating passenger air transport
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

 in the 1960s, and remaining common throughout the 1970s, the 707 is generally credited with ushering in the Jet Age
Jet age
The Jet Age is a period of history defined by the social change brought about by the advent of large aircraft powered by turbine engines. These aircraft are able to fly much higher, faster, and farther than older piston-powered propliners, making transcontinental and inter-continental travel...

. It established Boeing as one of the largest makers of passenger aircraft, and led to the later series of aircraft with "7x7" designations.

Model 367-80 origins


Boeing, during and immediately after World War II, was known for its military aircraft. The company had produced innovative and important bombers, from the B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress, to the jet-powered B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress. The company's civil aviation department lagged far behind Douglas and other competitors, the only noteworthy airliners being the Boeing 314 Clipper and 307 Stratoliner. During 1949–1950, Boeing embarked on serious studies for a new jet transport, realizing that any design must have the potential to fulfill both the military and civil markets. At the time, aerial refueling
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

 was increasingly becoming a standard operational technique, with over 800 KC-97 Stratotankers being on order. With the advent of the jet age, a new tanker was required to meets the USAF's fleet of jet-powered bombers; this was where Boeing's new design would potentially win military orders.

Boeing studied numerous wing and engine configurations for its new transport/tanker, some of which were based on the B-47 and C-97, before settling on Model 367-80
Boeing 367-80
The Boeing 367-80, or "Dash 80" as it was called within Boeing, is an American prototype jet transport built to demonstrate the advantages of jet aircraft for passenger transport over piston-engine airliners....

. The "Dash 80" took less than two years from project launch in 1952 to rollout on May 14, 1954, then first flew on July 15, 1954. It was powered by the Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engine, which was the civilian version of the J57 used on many military aircraft of the day, including the F-100
F-100 Super Sabre
The North American F-100 Super Sabre was a supersonic jet fighter aircraft that served with the United States Air Force from 1954 to 1971 and with the Air National Guard until 1979. The first of the Century Series collection of USAF jet fighters, it was the first USAF fighter capable of...

 fighter and the B-52 bomber.

The prototype was conceived as a proof of concept aircraft for both military and civilian use: The United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 was the first customer for the design, using it as the KC-135 Stratotanker
KC-135 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling military aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratotanker...

 midair refueling platform. It was far from certain that the passenger 707 would be profitable. At the time, Boeing was making nearly all of its money from military contracts: Its last passenger transport, the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, had netted the company a $15 million loss before it was purchased by the Air Force as the KC-97 Stratotanker
KC-97 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-97 Stratotanker was a United States strategic tanker aircraft based on the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter. It was succeeded by the Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker.-Design and development:...

. In a demonstration flight over Lake Washington outside of Seattle, on August 7, 1955, test pilot Tex Johnston performed a barrel-roll in the 367-80 prototype.

The 132 inches (3,352.8 mm) fuselage of the Dash 80 was wide enough only to fit four-abreast (two-plus-two) seating (in the manner of the Stratocruiser). Answering customers demands and under Douglas competition, Boeing soon realized that this would not provide a viable payload, so decided to widen the fuselage to 144 in (3,657.6 mm), the same as the KC-135 Stratotanker, which would allow five-abreast seating—and the shared use of the KC-135's tooling. However, Douglas Aircraft
Douglas Aircraft Company
The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer, based in Long Beach, California. It was founded in 1921 by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. and later merged with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967 to form McDonnell Douglas...

 had launched its DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

 with a fuselage width of 147 in (3,733.8 mm). The airlines liked the extra space and six-abreast seating, and so Boeing was obliged to increase the 707's cabin width again to compete, this time to 148 in (3,759.2 mm). This meant that little of the tooling that was made for the Dash 80 was usable for the 707. The extra cost meant the 707 did not become profitable until some years after it would have if these modifications had not been necessary.


Production and testing


The first flight of the first production 707-120 took place on December 20, 1957, and FAA certification followed on September 18, 1958. A number of changes were incorporated into the production models from the prototype. A Krueger flap
Krueger flaps
Krueger flaps are lift enhancement devices that may be fitted to the leading edge of an aircraft wing. Unlike slats or drooped leading edges, the main wing upper surface and its nose is not changed...

 was installed along the leading edge between the inner and outer engines on early 707-120 and -320 models.

The 707 was introduced into service during the 4 year hiatus while the Comets were withdrawn from service giving Boeing a near monopoly in the sales of jet passenger transport allowing them a dominant commercial position. Albeit, with the 707 having an increased passenger capacity, range and speed.

Further developments


The initial standard model was the 707-120 with JT3C turbojet engines. Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

 ordered a shorter body version called the 707-138, which was a -120 that had six fuselage frames removed, three in front of the wings, and three aft. The frames in the 707 were each 20 inches (500 mm) apart, so this resulted in a net shortening of 10 ft (3 m) to 134 ft (40.8 m), 6 inches (41 m). Because the maximum takeoff weight remained the same 247,000 lb (112 t) as that of the -120, the 138 was able to fly the longer routes that Qantas needed. Braniff International Airways
Braniff International Airways
Braniff International Airways was an American airline that operated from 1928 until 1982, primarily in the midwestern and southwestern U.S., South America, Panama, and in its later years also Asia and Europe...

 ordered the higher-thrust version with Pratt & Whitney JT4A engines, the 707-220. The final major derivative was the 707-320, which featured an extended-span wing and JT4A engines, while the 707-420 was the same as the -320 but with Rolls-Royce Conway
Rolls-Royce Conway
The Rolls-Royce RB.80 Conway was the first by-pass engine in the world to enter service. Development started at Rolls-Royce in the 1940s, but it was used only briefly in the late 1950s and early 1960s before other turbofan designs were introduced that replaced it. The Conway powered versions of...

 turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines. British certification requirements relating to engine-out go-arounds also forced Boeing to increase the height of the tail fin
Vertical stabilizer
The vertical stabilizers, vertical stabilisers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip. It is analogical to a skeg on boats and ships.On aircraft, vertical stabilizers generally point upwards...

 on all 707 variants, as well as add a ventral fin, which was retrofitted on earlier -120 and -220 aircraft. These modifications also aided in the mitigation of dutch roll
Dutch roll
Dutch roll is a type of aircraft motion, consisting of an out-of-phase combination of "tail-wagging" and rocking from side to side. This yaw-roll coupling is one of the basic flight dynamic modes...

 by providing more yaw stability.

Though initially fitted with turbojet engines, the dominant engine for the Boeing 707 family was the Pratt & Whitney JT3D
Pratt & Whitney JT3D
|-See also:-External links:*...

, a turbofan variant of the JT3C with lower fuel consumption as well as higher thrust. JT3D-engined 707s and 720s were denoted with a "B" suffix. While many 707-120Bs and 720Bs were conversions of existing JT3C-powered machines, 707-320Bs were available only as newly-built aircraft, as they had a stronger structure to support a maximum take-off weight increased by 19000 lb (8,618.3 kg), along with minor modifications to the wing. The 707-320B series enabled non-stop westbound flights from Europe to the US west coast.

The final 707 variant was the 707-320C, (C for "Convertible"), which was fitted with a large fuselage door for cargo applications. This aircraft also had a significantly revised wing featuring three-section leading-edge flaps. This provided an additional improvement to takeoff and landing performance, and also allowed the ventral fin to be removed (although the taller fin was retained). 707-320Bs built after 1963 used the same wing as the -320C and were known as 707-320B Advanced aircraft.

Production of the passenger 707 ended in 1978. In total, 1,010 707s were built for civil use, though many of these found their way to military service. The purpose-built military variants remained in production until 1991.

Traces of the 707 are still found in the 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

, which uses a modified version of the 707's fuselage, as well as the same external nose and cockpit configuration as the those of 707. These were also used on the previous Boeing 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

, while the Boeing 757
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

 also used the 707 fuselage cross-section. The Chinese government sponsored development of the Shanghai Y-10 during the 1970s, which was a near-carbon-copy of the 707; however, this did not enter production.

Design


Wings


The 707 wings are swept back at 35 degrees and, like all swept-wing aircraft, displayed an undesirable "Dutch roll
Dutch roll
Dutch roll is a type of aircraft motion, consisting of an out-of-phase combination of "tail-wagging" and rocking from side to side. This yaw-roll coupling is one of the basic flight dynamic modes...

" flying characteristic that manifested itself as an alternating yawing and rolling motion. Boeing already had considerable experience with this on the B-47
B-47 Stratojet
The Boeing Model 450 B-47 Stratojet was a long-range, six-engined, jet-powered medium bomber built to fly at high subsonic speeds and at high altitudes. It was primarily designed to drop nuclear bombs on the Soviet Union...

 and B-52, and had developed the yaw damper
Yaw damper
A yaw damper is a device used on many aircraft to damp the rolling and yawing oscillations due to Dutch roll mode. It involves yaw rate sensors and a processor that provides a signal to an actuator connected to the rudder...

 system on the B-47 that would be applied to later swept wing
Swept wing
A swept wing is a wing planform favored for high subsonic jet speeds first investigated by Germany during the Second World War. Since the introduction of the MiG-15 and North American F-86 which demonstrated a decisive superiority over the slower first generation of straight-wing jet fighters...

 configurations like the 707. However, many new 707 pilots had no experience with this phenomenon, as they were transitioning from straight-wing propeller-driven aircraft such as the Douglas DC-7
Douglas DC-7
The Douglas DC-7 is an American transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1953 to 1958. It was the last major piston engine powered transport made by Douglas, coming just a few years before the advent of jet aircraft such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8.-Design and...

 and Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
The Lockheed Constellation was a propeller-driven airliner powered by four 18-cylinder radial Wright R-3350 engines. It was built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. A total of 856 aircraft were produced in numerous models, all distinguished by a...

.

On one customer acceptance flight, where the yaw damper was turned off to familiarize the new pilots with flying techniques, a trainee pilot's actions violently exacerbated the Dutch Roll motion and caused three of the four engines to be torn from the wings. The plane, a brand new 707-227, N7071, destined for Braniff, crash-landed on a river bed north of Seattle at Arlington, Washington
Arlington, Washington
Arlington is a city in northern Snohomish County, Washington, United States, bordered by the city of Marysville to the south. The population was 17,926 at the 2010 census.-History:...

, killing four of the eight occupants.

In his autobiography, test pilot
Test pilot
A test pilot is an aviator who flies new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, known as flight test techniques or FTTs, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated....

 Tex Johnston
Alvin M. Johnston
Alvin M. "Tex" Johnston was a American jet-age test pilot for Bell Aircraft and the Boeing Company.-Early years:...

 described a Dutch Roll incident he experienced as a passenger on an early commercial 707 flight. As the aircraft's movements did not cease and most of the passengers became ill, he suspected a misrigging of the directional autopilot (yaw damper). He went to the cockpit and found the crew unable to understand and resolve the situation. He introduced himself and relieved the ashen-faced captain who immediately left the cockpit feeling ill. Johnston disconnected the faulting autopilot and manually stabilized the plane "with two slight control movements".

Engines


The 707s used engine-driven turbocompressors
Gas compressor
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas...

 to supply high-pressure air for pressurization
Cabin pressurization
Cabin pressurization is the pumping of compressed air into an aircraft cabin to maintain a safe and comfortable environment for crew and passengers when flying at altitude.-Need for cabin pressurization:...

. The engines could not supply sufficient bleed air
Bleed air
Bleed air in gas turbine engines is compressed air taken from within the engine, after the compressor stage and before the fuel is injected in the burners. While in theory bleed air could be drawn in any gas turbine engine, its usage is generally restricted to jet engines used in aircraft...

 for this purpose without a serious loss of thrust. On many commercial 707s, the outer port (#1) engine mount is distinctly different from the other three, as this is the only engine not fitted with a turbocompressor. With engines 2 through 4 being fitted with TCs, they provide the triple redundancy required of the aircraft's cabin pressurization and air-conditioning system.

The P&W JT3D-3B engines are readily identifiable by the large gray secondary air inlet doors in the nose cowl. These doors are fully open (sucked in at the rear) during takeoff to provide additional air. When the engines are throttled back to cruise, the doors are shut.

Upgraded engines


Pratt & Whitney, in a joint venture with Seven Q Seven (SQS) and Omega Air, has developed the JT8D-219 as a re-engine powerplant for Boeing 707-based aircraft, calling their modified configuration a 707RE. Northrop Grumman has selected the -219 to re-engine the United States Air Force's fleet of 19 E-8 Joint STARS
E-8 Joint STARS
The Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System is a battle management and command and control aircraft of the United States Air Force...

 aircraft, which will allow the J-STARS more time on station due to the engine's greater fuel efficiency. NATO also plans to re-engine their fleet of E-3 Sentry
E-3 Sentry
The Boeing E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system developed by Boeing as the prime contractor. Derived from the Boeing 707, it provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications, and is used by the United States Air Force , NATO, Royal Air Force , French Air Force...

 AWACS aircraft. The -219 is publicized as being half the cost of the competing 707 re-engine powerplant, the CFM International CFM56
CFM International CFM56
The CFM International CFM56 series is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by CFM International , with a thrust range of . CFMI is a 50–50 joint-owned company of SNECMA, France and GE Aviation , USA. Both companies are responsible for producing components and each has its own...

, and is 40 dB quieter than JT3D engines that are being replaced.

Operational history


The first commercial orders for the 707 came on October 13, 1955, when Pan Am
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

 committed to 20 707s and 25 Douglas DC-8s, a dramatic increase in passenger capacity over its existing fleet of propeller aircraft. The competition between the 707 and Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

 was fierce. Several major airlines committed only to the DC-8, as Douglas Aircraft was a more established maker of passenger aircraft at the time. To stay competitive, Boeing made a late and costly decision to redesign and enlarge the 707's wing to help increase range and payload. The new version was numbered 707-320.

Pan Am
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

 was the first airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

 to operate the 707; the aircraft's first commercial flight was from New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 to Paris on October 26, 1958 with a fuel stop in Gander, Newfoundland
Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador
Gander is a Canadian town located in the northeastern part of the island of Newfoundland in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, approximately south of Gander Bay, south of Twillingate and east of Grand Falls-Windsor...

. In December, National Airlines
National Airlines (NA)
National Airlines was an airline founded in 1934 and was headquartered on the grounds of Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States near Miami.- History :...

 operated the first U.S. domestic jet airline flights between New York/Idlewild
John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport is an international airport located in the borough of Queens in New York City, about southeast of Lower Manhattan. It is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States, handling more international traffic than any other airport in North...

 and Miami
Miami, Florida
Miami is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625...

, using 707s leased from Pan Am; American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 was the first domestic airline to fly its own jets, on January 25, 1959. TWA started domestic 707-131 flights in March and Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

 started 707-124 flights in June; airlines that had ordered only the DC-8, such as United
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

, Delta
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, and Eastern
Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline that existed from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida.-History:...

, were left without jets until September and lost market share on transcontinental flights. Qantas was the first non US airline to use the 707s, starting in 1959.

The 707 quickly became the most popular jetliner of its time. Its popularity led to rapid developments in airport terminals, runways, airline catering, baggage handling, reservations systems, and other air transport infrastructure. The advent of the 707 also led to the upgrading of air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other...

 systems to prevent interference with military jet operations.

As the 1960s drew to a close, the exponential growth in air travel led to the 707's being a victim of its own success. The 707 was now too small to handle the increased passenger densities on the routes for which it was designed. Stretching the fuselage was not a viable option because the installation of larger, more powerful engines would in turn need a larger undercarriage, which was not feasible given the design's limited ground clearance. Boeing's answer to the problem was the first twin-aisle airliner—the Boeing 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

. The 707's first-generation engine technology was also rapidly becoming obsolete in the areas of noise and fuel economy.
In 1982, during the Falklands War
Falklands War
The Falklands War , also called the Falklands Conflict or Falklands Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the disputed Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands...

 the Argentine Air Force
Argentine Air Force
The Argentine Air Force is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. , it had 14,606 military and 6,854 civilian staff.-History:...

 extensively used civilian 707s for long-range maritime patrol
Maritime patrol
Maritime patrol is the task of monitoring areas of water. Generally conducted by military and law enforcement agencies, maritime patrol is usually aimed at identifying human activities....

, with some of them being intercepted and shepherded away by Royal Navy Sea Harriers, it also led to the conversion of British Nimrods to carry Sidewinder
AIM-9 Sidewinder
The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried mostly by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. The missile entered service with United States Air Force in the early 1950s, and variants and upgrades remain in active service with many air forces...

 air-to-air missiles after a casual encounter.

Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines was an American airline that existed from 1925 until it was bought out by and merged with American Airlines in 2001. It was a major domestic airline in the United States and the main U.S.-based competitor of Pan American World Airways on intercontinental routes from 1946...

 flew the last scheduled 707 flight for passengers by a US carrier on October 30, 1983, although 707s remained in scheduled service by airlines from other nations for much longer. For example, Middle East Airlines (MEA)
Middle East Airlines
Middle East Airlines – Air Liban S.A.L. , more commonly known as Middle East Airlines , is the national flag-carrier airline of Lebanon, with its head office in Beirut, near Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport...

 of Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 flew 707s and 720s in front-line passenger service until the end of the 1990s. Since LADE
Lade
Lade may refer to:People* Brendon Lade , Australian rules footballer* Sir John Lade , baronet and Regency horse-breeder* Heinrich Eduard von Lade , German banker and amateur astronomer...

 of Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 took its 707-320B from regular service in 2007, Saha Air Lines of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 is the last airline to keep 707s in scheduled passenger service.

Operations of the 707 were threatened by the enactment of international noise regulations in 1985. Shannon Engineering of Seattle, Washington developed a hush kit with funding from Tracor, Inc, of Austin, Texas. By the late 1980s, 172 Boeing 707s had been equipped with the Quiet 707 package. Boeing acknowledged that more 707s were in service then than before the hush kit was available. Most remaining 707s are in freighter form, or as Business Jets.

Variants


Although certificated as Series 100s, 200s, 300s, etc., the different 707 variants are more commonly known as Series 120s, 220s, 320s, and so on, where the "20" part of the designation is Boeing's "customer number" for its development aircraft.

707-020


The original designation for what ultimately became the Boeing 720
Boeing 720
The Boeing 720 is a four-engine narrow-body short- to medium-range passenger jet airliner. Developed by Boeing in the late 1950s from the Boeing 707, the 720 has a shorter fuselage and less range...

. Launch customer United Air Lines was a Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

 customer and preferred not to be seen as buying the competing 707 hence the 720 designation. American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 always referred to its 720s as 707s.

707-120


The 707-120 was the first production 707 variant, with a longer, wider fuselage, and greater wingspan than the Dash-80. A full set of rectangular cabin windows was included, which was capable of seating 179 passengers. It was designed for transcontinental routes and often required a refuelling stop on the North Atlantic route. It had four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 turbojets, civil versions of the military J57, initially producing 13,000 lb (57.8 kN) with water injection. Maximum takeoff weight was 247,000 lb and first flight was on December 20, 1957. Major orders were the launch order for 20 707-121 aircraft by Pan American
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

 and an American Airlines order for 30 707-123 aircraft. The first revenue flight was on October 26, 1958. 56 were built, plus 7 short body -138s.

The 707-138 was based on the -120 but had a ten foot reduction in fuselage length, 5 feet (3 frames) removed ahead and behind the wing, giving increased range. Maximum take off weight was the same 247,000 lb as the standard version. It was a variant for Qantas and had Boeing customer number 38 for Qantas. A total of 7 -138s were built, first carrying passengers in July 1959.
The 707-120B had JT3D-1
Pratt & Whitney JT3D
|-See also:-External links:*...

 turbofan engines, which were quieter, more powerful, and more fuel-efficient, producing 17000 lbf (75.6 kN) each, with the later JT3D-3 version giving 18000 lbf (80.1 kN). (This thrust did not require water injection, eliminating both the system and the 5000-6000 lb weight of the water itself.) The -120B had the wing modifications introduced on the 720 and a longer tailplane; a total of 72 were built, 31 for American and 41 for TWA, plus 6 short body -138Bs for Qantas. American had its 23 surviving -123s converted to 123Bs but TWA did not convert its 15 -131s. The only other conversions were Pan American's 5 surviving -121s and one surviving -139, the 3 aircraft delivered to the USAF as -153s and the 7 short body Qantas -138s. The first flight of the -120B was on 22 June 1960 and American carried the first passengers in March 1961. Maximum weight was 258,000 lb (117,025 kg) for both the long and short body versions.

707-220


The 707-220 was designed for hot and high
Hot and high
In aviation, hot and high is a condition of low air density due to high ambient temperature and high airport elevation. Air density decreases with increasing temperature and altitude. Lower air density reduces the amount of lift generated by the wings or the rotors of an aircraft, which may hamper...

 operations with more powerful 15,800 lb (70.80 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT4A-3 turbojets. Five of these were produced, but only four were ultimately delivered with one being lost during a test flight. All were for Braniff International Airways and carried the model number 707-227; the first entered service in December 1959. This version was made obsolete by the arrival of the turbofan-powered 707-120B.

707-320


The 707-320 Intercontinental is a stretched version of the turbojet-powered 707-120, initially powered by JT4A-3 or JT4A-5 turbojets producing 15,800 lb (70.1 kN) each (most eventually got 17,500 lb (78.4 kN) JT4A-11s). The interior allowed for up to 189 passengers due to an 80 inches (2,032 mm) fuselage stretch ahead of the wing (from 138 in 10 in (42.32 m) to 145 ft 6 in), with extensions to both the tail and horizontal stabilizer extending the aircraft's length further. while a longer wing carried more fuel, increasing range by 1600 miles (2,574.9 km) and allowing the aircraft to operate as true transoceanic aircraft. The wing modifications included outboard and inboard inserts, as well as a kink in the trailing edge to add area inboard. Takeoff weight was increased to 302000 lb (136,984.9 kg) initially, and to 312000 lb (141,520.8 kg) with the higher-rated JT4A's and centre section tanks. First flight was on January 11, 1958; 69 turbojet 707-320s were produced, the first passengers being carried (by Pan Am) in August 1959. No -320 Intercontinental models were re-engined with fan engines in civil use, but around year 2000 the Israeli Air Force re-engined two ex-Sabena -320 based military tankers.

707-420


The 707-420 was identical to the -320 but fitted with Rolls Royce
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

 Conway 508 turbofans (or by-pass turbojets as they were known at the time). First announced customer was Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

. BOAC
Boac
Boac may refer to:* Boac, Marinduque, a municipality in the Southern Philippines* Boac , an American rapper* British Overseas Airways Corporation, a former British state-owned airline...

's controversial order was announced six months later but the British carrier got the first service-ready aircraft off the production line. The British Air Registration Board refused to give the aircraft a certificate of airworthiness in the form presented, citing insufficient lateral control, excessive rudder forces and the ability to over rotate on take off, stalling the wing on the ground (a fault of the de Havilland Comet 1). Boeing responded by adding 40 inches to the vertical tail, applying full instead of partial rudder boost and fitting an underfin to prevent over rotation. These modifications became standard on all 707 variants and were retrofitted to all previously built aircraft. Only 37 -420s were built, for BOAC, Lufthansa, Air-India, El Al and Varig; Lufthansa was the first to carry passengers, in March 1960.

707-320B


The 707-320B saw the application of the JT3D turbofan to the Intercontinental but with aerodynamic refinements. The wing was modified from the -320 by adding a second inboard kink, a dog-toothed leading edge, and curved low drag wingtips instead of the earlier blunt ones. These new wingtips increased overall wingspan by three feet. Takeoff gross weight was increased to 328000 lb (148,778.3 kg). The 175 707-320B aircraft were all new-build; no original -320 models were converted to fan engines in civilian use. First service was June 1962, with Pan Am.

The 707-320B Advanced is an improved version of the -320B, adding the three-section leading-edge flaps already seen on the -320C. These reduced takeoff and landing speeds and altered the lift distribution of the wing, allowing the ventral fin found on earlier 707s to be deleted. From 1965 -320Bs had the uprated -320C undercarriage allowing the same 335000 lb (151,953.4 kg) MTOW. These were often identified as 707-320BA-H.

707-320C


The 707-320C has a convertible passenger–freight configuration, which became the most widely produced variant of the 707. The 707-320C added a strengthened floor and a new cargo door to the -320B model. The wing was fitted with three section leading edge flaps which allowed the deletion of the underfin. Three hundred thirty-five of these variants were built, including a small number with JT3D-7 engines (19000 lb takeoff thrust) and a takeoff gross weight of 335000 lb (151,953.4 kg). Ironically, most -320Cs were delivered as passenger aircraft, airlines hoping that the cargo door would increase second hand values. The addition of two additional emergency exits, one on either side aft of the wing raised the maximum passenger capacity to a theoretical 219. Only a few aircraft were delivered as pure freighters. One of the final orders was by the Iranian Government for 14 707-3J9C aircraft capable of VIP transportation, communication, and in-flight refuelling tasks.

Other variants


The 707-700 was a test aircraft used to study the feasibility of using CFM International
CFM International
CFM International is a joint venture between GE Aviation, a division of General Electric of the United States and Snecma, a division of Safran of France...

's CFM56 powerplants on a 707 airframe and possibly retrofitting them to existing aircraft. After a testing in 1979, N707QT, the last commercial 707 airframe, was refitted to 707-320C configuration and delivered to the Moroccan Air Force as a tanker aircraft. (This purchase was considered a "civilian" order and not a military one.) Boeing abandoned the program, since they felt it would be a threat to the Boeing 757
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

 program. The information gathered in the test led to the eventual retrofitting program of CFM56 engines to the USAF C-135/KC-135R models, and some military versions of the 707 also used the CFM56. It is ironic that the Douglas DC-8 "Super 70" series by Cammacorp did develop commercially, extending the life of DC-8 airframes in a stricter noise regulatory environment, so there are today more DC-8s in commercial service than there are 707s.

Military





The militaries of the United States and other countries have used the civilian 707 aircraft in a variety of roles, and under different designations. (Note the 707 and U.S. Air Force's KC-135
KC-135 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling military aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratotanker...

 were developed in parallel from the Boeing 367-80 prototype.)

The Boeing E-3 Sentry is a U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 military airborne warning and control system
Airborne Warning And Control System
Airborne Warning and Control System, or AWACS, may refer to:* E-3 Sentry, the aircraft developed under the USAF's "Airborne Warning and Control System" program...

 (AWACS) aircraft based on the Boeing 707 that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications.

The VC-137C variant of the Stratoliner was a special-purpose design meant to serve as Air Force One
Air Force One
Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign of any United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. In common parlance the term refers to those Air Force aircraft whose primary mission is to transport the president; however, any U.S. Air Force aircraft...

, the secure transport for the President of The United States of America
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

. These models were in operational use from 1962 to 1990. The two aircraft remain on display: SAM 26000
VC-137C SAM 26000
SAM 26000 was the first of two Boeing VC-137C United States Air Force aircraft specifically configured and maintained for use by the President of the United States. It used the callsign Air Force One when the President was on board, SAM 26000 otherwise.A VC-137C serial number 62-6000, SAM 26000 was...

 is at the National Museum of the United States Air Force
National Museum of the United States Air Force
The National Museum of the United States Air Force is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base northeast of Dayton, Ohio. The NMUSAF is the world's largest and oldest military aviation museum with more than 360 aircraft and missiles on display...

 near Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
Dayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...

 and SAM 27000
VC-137C SAM 27000
SAM 27000 was the second of two Boeing VC-137C United States Air Force aircraft that were specifically configured and maintained for the use of the President of the United States. It used the call sign Air Force One when the President was on board, and at other times it used the call sign SAM 27000...

 is at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the presidential library and final resting place of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. Designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates, the library is located in Simi Valley, California, about northwest of...

 in Simi Valley, California
Simi Valley, California
-2010:The 2010 United States Census reported that Simi Valley had a population of 124,237. The population density was 2,940.8 people per square mile...

.

The Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
The Canadian Forces , officially the Canadian Armed Forces , are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."...

 also operated Boeing 707 with designation CC-137 Husky (707-347C) from 1972 to 1997.

717


Boeing 717 was the company designation for C-135 Stratolifter and KC-135 Stratotanker derivatives of the 367-80. The designation was later re-used in renaming the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 to Boeing 717
Boeing 717
The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market. The airliner was designed and marketed by McDonnell Douglas as the MD-95, a third-generation derivative of the DC-9. Capable of seating of up to 117 passengers, the 717 has maximum range of...

 after the company was merged with Boeing.

Operators


In the 1980s, the USAF acquired around 250 used 707s to provide parts for the KC-135E Stratotanker
KC-135 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling military aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratotanker...

 program.

Although 707s are no longer employed by major airlines, as of March 2011, 43 aircraft were in use mainly with air cargo operators and air forces in Africa, Middle East, and South America. Commercial operators of the Boeing 707 include Saha Airline, BETA Cargo
BETA Cargo
BETA Cargo is a cargo airline based in Brazil. It operates international cargo charters in the Americas. Its main base is Guarulhos International Airport, São Paulo.-Incidents and accidents:...

, Enterprise World Airways, Libyan Airlines, Mid Express Tchad
Mid Express Tchad
-Fleet:The Mid Express Tchad fleet includes the following aircraft :*1 Boeing 707-300-References:...

, Hewa Bora Airways
Hewa Bora Airways
Hewa Bora Airways was an airline based in Barumbu, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was one of Congo's largest airlines and operates regional and domestic services. Its main base was N'djili Airport. "Hewa Bora" is Swahili for "Fresh Air". The company was on the European Commission's...

, and some other users with mostly stored aircraft. The Romanian Government uses a 707-320C as a Presidential Aircraft, being operated by Romavia
Romavia
Romavia, also known as Romanian Aviation Company, is an airline based in Bucharest, Romania. As a state-owned company controlled by the Romanian Ministry of National Defense, it has offered VIP state and ministerial flights, as well as chartered and scheduled passenger and cargo services out of its...

. American actor John Travolta
John Travolta
John Joseph Travolta is an American actor, dancer and singer. Travolta first became known in the 1970s, after appearing on the television series Welcome Back, Kotter and starring in the box office successes Saturday Night Fever and Grease...

 owns, and is qualified to fly as second in command, an ex-Qantas 707-138B, registration N707JT.

The list of customer codes used by Boeing to identify specific options and livery specified by customers was started with the 707, and has been maintained through all Boeing's models. In essence the same system as used on the earlier Boeing 377, the code consisted of two digits affixed to the model number to identify the specific aircraft version. For example, Pan American Airlines was assigned code "21". Thus, a 707-320B sold to Pan Am had the model number 707-321B. The number remained constant as further aircraft were purchased; thus, when Pan American purchased the 747-100 it had the model number 747-121.

Deliveries

 1993   1991   1989   1987   1985   1983   1981   1979   1977   1974   1972   1970   1968   1966   1964   1962   1960   1958  Sabena Flight 548
Sabena Flight 548
Sabena Flight 548, registration OO-SJB, was a Boeing 707 aircraft that crashed en route to Brussels, Belgium, from New York City on February 15, 1961, killing the entire United States Figure Skating team on its way to the 1961 World Championships in Prague, Czechoslovakia.The flight, which...

, 707-320, crashed while on approach to Brussels Airport
Brussels Airport
Brussels Airport is an international airport northeast of Brussels, Belgium. The airport is partially in Zaventem and partially in the Diegem area of Machelen, both located in the Flemish Region of Belgium.Brussels Airport currently consists of 54 contact gates, and a total of 109 gates...

, Belgium. A total of 73 people were killed, including the United States Figure Skating team.
  • On March 1, 1962, American Airlines Flight 1
    American Airlines Flight 1
    American Airlines Flight 1 was a domestic, scheduled passenger flight from New York International Airport , New York to Los Angeles International Airport, California that crashed shortly after take-off on 1 March 1962. All 87 passengers and eight crew died in the crash...

    , a 707-123B, crashed into Jamaica Bay
    Jamaica Bay
    Jamaica Bay is located on the southwestern tip of Long Island in the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, New York City, and the town of Hempstead, New York/hamlet of Inwood...

     after taking off from Idlewild Airport
    John F. Kennedy International Airport
    John F. Kennedy International Airport is an international airport located in the borough of Queens in New York City, about southeast of Lower Manhattan. It is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States, handling more international traffic than any other airport in North...

     (now JFK Airport) while heading for Los Angeles International Airport
    Los Angeles International Airport
    Los Angeles International Airport is the primary airport serving the Greater Los Angeles Area, the second-most populated metropolitan area in the United States. It is most often referred to by its IATA airport code LAX, with the letters pronounced individually...

    . All 95 people on board died.
  • On May 22, 1962, Continental Airlines Flight 11
    Continental Airlines Flight 11
    Continental Airlines Flight 11, registration N70775, was a Boeing 707 aircraft which exploded in the vicinity of Centerville, Iowa, while en route from O'Hare Airport, Chicago, Illinois, to Kansas City, Missouri, on May 22, 1962...

    , 707-124, was destroyed by a bomb while en route from Chicago, Illinois, to Kansas City, Missouri. Everyone on board was killed.
  • On June 3, 1962, Air France Flight 007, a 707-300, crashed while attempting to takeoff from Paris's Orly Airport. The crash killed 130 people aboard; two stewardesses survived. It was, at the time, the worst single-plane disaster.
  • On June 22, 1962, Air France Flight 117
    Air France Flight 117
    Air France Flight 117 was a multi-leg international scheduled flight from Paris-Orly Airport via Lisbon, the Azores and Guadeloupe to Santiago, Chile, which crashed 22 June 1962. The Boeing 707 aircraft involved in the accident was just four months old....

    , a 707, crashed into a hill while attempting to land at Pointe-à-Pitre
    Pointe-à-Pitre
    Pointe-à-Pitre is the largest city of Guadeloupe, an overseas région and département of France located in the Lesser Antilles, of which it is a sous-préfecture, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Pointe-à-Pitre....

    , Guadeloupe
    Guadeloupe
    Guadeloupe is an archipelago located in the Leeward Islands, in the Lesser Antilles, with a land area of 1,628 square kilometres and a population of 400,000. It is the first overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. As with the other overseas departments, Guadeloupe...

     in the eastern Caribbean Sea
    Caribbean Sea
    The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and southwest, to the north by the Greater Antilles, and to the east by the Lesser Antilles....

    . All 113 aboard were killed in the crash.
  • On November 27, 1962, a Varig
    Varig
    VARIG was the first airline founded in Brazil, in 1927. From 1965 until 1990 it was Brazil's leading and almost only international airline...

     Flight 810, 707-441 registration PP-VJB, flying from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Lima
    Jorge Chávez International Airport
    Jorge Chávez International Airport , known as Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez in Spanish, is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in Callao, 11 kilometers from the Historic Centre of Lima and 17 km from Miraflores. Callao is the port city now fully...

     after initiating an overshoot procedure at the suggestion of the control tower because it was too high, proceeded to start another approach when it crashed into La Cruz peak, 8 miles away from Lima Airport. Possibly there was a misinterpretation of navigation instruments. All 97 passengers and crew aboard died.
  • On December 8, 1963, Pan Am Flight 214
    Pan Am Flight 214
    Pan Am Flight 214, a Boeing 707-121 registered as , was en route from Baltimore to Philadelphia on December 8, 1963, when it crashed near Elkton, Maryland after being hit by lightning, killing all 81 on board.-Flight history:...

    , a 707-121, crashed outside Elkton, Maryland
    Elkton, Maryland
    The town of Elkton is the county seat of Cecil County, Maryland, United States. The population was 11,893 as of the 2000 census and 14,842 according to current July 2008 census estimates. It is the county seat of Cecil County...

     during a severe electrical storm, with a loss of all 81 passengers and crew. The Boeing 707-121, registered as N709PA, was on the final leg of a San Juan–Baltimore–Philadelphia flight.
  • On September 17, 1965, Pan Am Flight 292
    Pan Am Flight 292
    Pan Am Flight 292 was a Boeing 707-120B that flew into Chances Peak on the island of Montserrat on 17 September 1965 while on a flight from Fort-de-France - Le Lamentin Airport in Martinique to Coolidge International Airport in Antigua and Barbuda...

    , 707-120B, crashed into the side of a mountain in a storm on the island of Montserrat killing all 30 passengers and crew on board.
  • On January 24, 1966, Air India Flight 101
    Air India Flight 101
    Air India Flight 101 was a scheduled Air India passenger flight that crashed into Mont Blanc in France on the morning of 24 January 1966.-Accident:...

    , a 707-437, crashed into Glacier des Bossons
    Glacier des Bossons
    The Bossons Glacier is one of the glaciers found in the Chamonix valley of Haute-Savoie département, south-eastern France. It is on the north-eastern side of the valley, close to the Aiguille du Midi.-See also:*List of glaciers...

     on the SW face of Mont Blanc
    Mont Blanc
    Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco , meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps, Western Europe and the European Union. It rises above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence...

     in the French Alps. All 106 passengers and 11 crew were killed.
  • On March 6, 1966, BOAC Flight 911
    BOAC flight 911
    BOAC Flight 911 was a round-the-world flight operated by British Overseas Airways Corporation.On 5 March 1966, the Boeing 707-436 operating this flight was commanded by Captain Bernard Dobson, 45, from Dorset, an experienced 707 pilot who had been flying these aircraft since November 1960.The...

    , a 707-436 en route from Tokyo to Hong Kong, encountered clear air turbulence
    Clear Air Turbulence
    Clear Air Turbulence is an album by British jazz-rock fusion band Ian Gillan Band, released in 1977 with cover by Chris Foss. The album was reissued in 1989 by Virgin Records on CD.- Track listing :...

     close to Mount Fuji
    Mount Fuji
    is the highest mountain in Japan at . An active stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–08, Mount Fuji lies about south-west of Tokyo, and can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is frequently depicted in art and...

    ; the sudden violent gusting caused the vertical stabilizer to detach from the aircraft, following which the aircraft entered an uncontrolled dive. The 707 progressively broke up as a result of aerodynamic over-stressing of the airframe, then struck the ground near the foot of the mountain. All those on board died.
  • On April 8, 1968, BOAC Flight 712
    BOAC Flight 712
    BOAC Flight 712 for Monday 8 April 1968 was a British Overseas Airways Corporation service operated by a Boeing 707-465 from London Heathrow Airport bound for Sydney via Kloten, Zürich and Singapore, which suffered an engine failure at takeoff that quickly led to a major fire. The engine fell...

    , a 707-465, suffered engine failure on takeoff from London Heathrow Airport
    London Heathrow Airport
    London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe...

     followed by an engine fire. The plane made an emergency landing back at the airport, but an explosion in the port wing caused the plane to catch fire. Four passengers and a flight attendant were killed and 122 escaped.
  • On April 20, 1968, South African Airways Flight 228
    South African Airways Flight 228
    South African Airways Flight 228 was a scheduled flight from Jan Smuts International Airport in Johannesburg, South Africa to London Heathrow International Airport that flew into the ground soon after take-off after a scheduled stopover in Windhoek, South West Africa . Five passengers survived...

    , a 707, crashed shortly after takeoff from Windhoek, Namibia. The crew used a flap retraction sequence from the 707-B series on newly-delivered 707-C, which retracted the flaps in larger increments for that stage of the flight, leading to a loss of lift at 600 ft (182.9 m) above ground level. The inquiry blamed the crew for not observing their flight instruments when they had no visual reference.
  • On December, 12 1968, Pan Am Flight 217
    Pan Am Flight 217
    Pan Am Flight 217 was a Boeing 707, registration N494PA, 'Clipper Malay' which took off from New York-John F. Kennedy International Airport on a flight to Caracas-Simon Bolivar International Airport on December 12, 1968...

    , a 707, en route to Caracas, Venezuela, crashed into the Caribbean Sea. All 51 passengers and crew on board died. City lights may have caused an optical illusion that affected the pilots.
  • On January 22, 1973, a Kano Nigeria Air 707-3D3C crashed while attempting to land at Kano International Airport in Nigeria. 176 of the 202 passengers and crew on board were killed.
  • On June 9, 1973, a Varig
    Varig
    VARIG was the first airline founded in Brazil, in 1927. From 1965 until 1990 it was Brazil's leading and almost only international airline...

     cargo 707-327C registration PP-VJL flying from Campinas-Viracopos to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão while making an instrument approach to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão had technical problems with the spoilers which eventually caused the aircraft to pitch down, descended fast, struck approach lights and ditch. All 6 occupants died.
  • On July 11, 1973, Varig Flight 820
    Varig Flight 820
    Varig Flight 820 was a scheduled airline service from Galeão Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Orly Airport, Paris, France. On 11 July 1973, the Boeing 707 made an emergency landing in a field in the Orly commune due to smoke in the cabin...

    , 707 registered PP-VJZ, on scheduled airline service from Galeão Airport, Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

    , Brazil to Orly Airport, Paris, France made an emergency landing in a field in the Orly community due to smoke in the cabin. The fire, smoke and crash resulted in 123 deaths, with 11 survivors (10 crew, one passenger).
  • On July 22, 1973, Pan Am Flight 816
    Pan Am Flight 816
    Pan Am flight 816 was an international flight from Auckland, New Zealand, to Los Angeles, United States, via Tahiti, French Polynesia....

    , a 707-321C, crashed shortly after takeoff at Papeete
    Papeete
    -Sights:* Interactive Google map of Papeete, to discover the 30 major tourist attractions in Papeete downtown.*The waterfront esplanade*Bougainville Park -Sights:* Interactive Google map of Papeete, to discover the 30 major tourist attractions in Papeete downtown.*The waterfront...

    , Tahiti
    Tahiti
    Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. It is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous...

     resulting in 78 deaths.
  • On November 3, 1973, Pan Am Flight 160, a 707-321C, crashed on approach to Boston-Logan. Smoke in the cockpit caused the pilots to lose control. Three people were killed in the hull-loss accident.
  • On April 22, 1974, Pan Am Flight 812
    Pan Am Flight 812
    Pan Am Flight 812, a Boeing 707-321B, was a scheduled international flight from Hong Kong to Sydney, Australia with an intermediate stop at Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. On April 22, 1974 it crashed into a rough mountainous terrain while preparing for a runway 09 approach to Denpasar after a 4 hour 20...

    , a 707-321B, crashed into a mountain while preparing for landing after a 4 hour 20 minutes flight from Hong Kong
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

     to Denpasar
    Denpasar
    Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. It has a rapidly expanding population of 788,445 in 2010, up from 533,252 in the previous decade. It is located at .-History:...

    , Bali
    Bali
    Bali is an Indonesian island located in the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east...

    , Indonesia
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

    . All 107 people on board were killed.
  • On August 3, 1975, a chartered 707-321C crashed into a mountain while preparing to land at Agadir-Inezgane Airport
    Al Massira Airport
    Agadir – Al Massira Airport is an international airport serving Agadir, a major city in southwest Morocco. Agadir is the capital of the province of Agadir and the region of Souss-Massa-Draâ....

    . All 188 passengers and crew on board were killed. The 1975 Agadir Morocco Air Disaster
    1975 Agadir Morocco Air Disaster
    The Agadir air disaster was a chartered Boeing 707 passenger flight on 3 August which crashed into a mountain on approach to Agadir Inezgane Airport, Morroco. All 188 passengers and crew on board were killed...

     has the highest death toll of any crash involving a 707.
  • On May 14, 1977, Dan-Air 707 registered G-BEBP was on approach to land at Lusaka International Airport
    Lusaka International Airport
    Kenneth Kaunda International Airport is an international airport in Lusaka, Zambia, and was the hub of Zambian Airways. Formerly Lusaka International Airport, now called Kenneth Kaunda International Airport. The airport was renamed in honour of the first president of the Republic of Zambia Dr...

    , Zambia
    Zambia
    Zambia , officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west....

    . The right horizontal stabilizer and elevator separated from the fuselage in flight and the aircraft crashed 3.6 km short of the runway, killing all 6 occupants.
  • On April 20, 1978, Korean Air Lines Flight 902, a 707, was hit by a missile fired from a Soviet
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

     Sukhoi Su-15
    Sukhoi Su-15
    The Sukhoi Su-15 was a twin-engined supersonic interceptor developed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s to replace the Sukhoi Su-11, which was becoming obsolete as the United States and Britain introduced newer and more capable strategic bombers...

     interceptor after it had entered Soviet airspace. This caused a rapid decompression of the fuselage which killed two passengers. The 707 made an emergency landing on a frozen lake near Murmansk
    Murmansk
    Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland...

    , USSR
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

    .
  • On January 30, 1979, a Varig
    Varig
    VARIG was the first airline founded in Brazil, in 1927. From 1965 until 1990 it was Brazil's leading and almost only international airline...

     cargo 707-323C, registration PP-VLU
    PP-VLU
    PP-VLU was a Varig cargo Boeing 707-323C which took off on 30 January 1979 from Tokyo - Narita to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão via Los Angeles. After an exhibition in Tokyo, 153 of Manabu Mabe's paintings were on board the aircraft. The aircraft went missing over the Pacific Ocean some 30 minutes from...

     crashed while flying from Tokyo to Rio de Janeiro. Causes are unknown since the wreck was never found.
  • On July 26, 1979: a Lufthansa
    Lufthansa
    Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

     cargo 707-330C registration D-ABUY operating flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Frankfurt
    Frankfurt Airport
    Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

     via Dakar
    Léopold Sédar Senghor International Airport
    Léopold Sédar Senghor International Airport is an international airport serving Dakar, the capital of Senegal. The airport is situated near the town of Yoff, north of Dakar...

     collided with a mountain 5 minutes after take-off from Galeão. The crew of 3 died.
  • On October 13, 1983, a Bolivian cargo 707 crashed in Santa Cruz, Bolivia
    Santa Cruz de la Sierra
    Santa Cruz de la Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia and the largest city in the country...

     killing 91 (of whom 88 were killed on the ground when the aircraft crashed into a practice football game).
  • On January 3, 1987, Varig Flight 797
    Varig Flight 797
    Varig Flight 797 was a flight from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. On 3 January 1987 the Boeing 707-379C used for the route crashed on the terrain, killing all 12 crew members and 38 of 39 passengers....

    , a 707-379C, crashed when making a return to Abidjan
    Abidjan
    Abidjan is the economic and former official capital of Côte d'Ivoire, while the current capital is Yamoussoukro. it was the largest city in the nation and the third-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, and Kinshasa but before Montreal...

    , Côte d'Ivoire
    Côte d'Ivoire
    The Republic of Côte d'Ivoire or Ivory Coast is a country in West Africa. It has an area of , and borders the countries Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana; its southern boundary is along the Gulf of Guinea. The country's population was 15,366,672 in 1998 and was estimated to be...

     after one of its engines failed. One person survived out of the 51 people onboard.
  • On November 29, 1987, Korean Air Flight 858
    Korean Air Flight 858
    Korean Air Flight 858 was a scheduled international passenger flight between Baghdad, Iraq, and Seoul, South Korea that exploded in mid-air on 29 November 1987 after two North Korean agents planted a bomb in the passenger cabin...

    , a 707-3B5C, exploded over the Andaman Sea
    Andaman Sea
    The Andaman Sea or Burma Sea is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Burma, west of Thailand and east of the Andaman Islands, India; it is part of the Indian Ocean....

    , in the Indian Ocean
    Indian Ocean
    The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

     in a terrorist attack with a bomb placed by North Korean agents. All 115 people on board died.
  • On February 8, 1989, Independent Air Flight 1851
    Independent Air Flight 1851
    In 1989, Independent Air Flight 1851, a Boeing 707-331B on an American charter flight from Bergamo, Italy to Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, struck Pico Alto on approach to Santa Maria Airport in the Azores for a scheduled stopover...

    , a Boeing 707, crashed into a hill on approach to Santa Maria
    Santa Maria Island
    Santa Maria , Portuguese for Saint Mary, is an island located in the eastern group of the Azores archipelago and the southernmost island in the Azores...

    , Azores
    Azores
    The Archipelago of the Azores is composed of nine volcanic islands situated in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, and is located about west from Lisbon and about east from the east coast of North America. The islands, and their economic exclusion zone, form the Autonomous Region of the...

    . All 144 people on board were killed. Wreckage remains at the site to this day.
  • On 21 March 1989, Transbrasil
    Transbrasil
    TransBrasil is a defunct Brazilian airline which ceased operations in December 2001. During most of its history, Transbrasil was owned by local entrepeneur Omar Fontana. Its aircraft usually featured a colorful livery, remarkably with a rainbow on the tail fin. Transbrasil base was Brasilia...

     Flight 801, a cargo 707-349C registration PT-TCS, flying from Manaus
    Eduardo Gomes International Airport
    Brigadeiro Eduardo Gomes-Manaus International Airport , is the main airport serving Manaus, Brazil. It is named after the Brazilian politician and military figure Air Marshall Eduardo Gomes ....

     to São Paulo-Guarulhos crashed at the district of Vila Barros in Guarulhos, shortly before touch-down at runway 09R. That day, at 12:00 the runway was going to be closed for maintenance and the crew decided to speed up procedures to touch-down before closure (it was already 11:54). In a hurry, one of the crew members, by mistake, activated the air-dynamic brakes and the aircraft lost too much speed to have enough aerodynamic support (Stall). As a consequence the aircraft crashed at approximately 2 km from the airport. There were 25 fatalities which of these three were crew members and 22 were civilians on the accident site. As well as the 22 fatalities, there were also over 100 injured on the ground.
  • On January 25, 1990, Avianca Flight 52
    Avianca Flight 52
    Avianca Flight 52 was a regularly scheduled flight from Bogotá to New York via Medellín, Colombia. On Thursday, January 25, 1990, the aircraft performing this flight, a Boeing 707-321B registered as , crashed into the village of Cove Neck, Long Island, New York after running out of fuel...

    , a 707-321B, crashed after running out of fuel
    Fuel Starvation
    Fuel starvation and fuel exhaustion are problems that can affect internal combustion engines fuelled by either diesel, kerosene, petroleum or any other combustible liquid or gas. If no fuel is available for an engine to burn, it cannot function...

     in Long Island, New York
    Long Island
    Long Island is an island located in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which are boroughs of New York City , and two of which are mainly suburban...

    . The 707 was delayed numerous times because of heavy fog
    Fog
    Fog is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. While fog is a type of stratus cloud, the term "fog" is typically distinguished from the more generic term "cloud" in that fog is low-lying, and the moisture in the fog is often generated...

     in New York. A total of 73 people died.
  • On October 29, 1991, a 707 of the Royal Australian Air Force
    Royal Australian Air Force
    The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

     stalled and crashed into the sea off East Sale, Victoria
    RAAF Base East Sale
    RAAF Base East Sale is one of the main training establishments of the Royal Australian Air Force, including where Australian Air Force Cadets have their annual General Service Training. It is home to the Roulettes aerobatic team. It is also now the home of the RAAF's Officers' Training School ...

    . All five crew on board died.
  • On October 23, 1996, a 707 belonging to the Argentinian Air Force crashed on takeoff roll after failing to achieve required takeoff speed (V2) at Buenos Aires International Airport (EZE).
  • On September 21, 2000, the 707 belonging to the Government of Togo
    Togo
    Togo, officially the Togolese Republic , is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, on which the capital Lomé is located. Togo covers an area of approximately with a population of approximately...

     coming from Valencia Airport
    Valencia Airport
    Valencia Airport in Manises , also known as Manises Airport, is the 8th busiest Spanish airport in terms of passengers and second in the region after Alicante. It is situated west of the city of Valencia. The airport has flight connections to about 15 European countries and 4.9 million passengers...

    , Spain en route to Lomé-Tokoin Airport, Togo, experienced a cockpit fire approximately 200 km/125 miles from Niamey
    Niamey
    -Population:While Niamey's population has grown steadily since independence, the droughts of the early 1970s and 1980s, along with the economic crisis of the early 1980s, have propelled an exodus of rural inhabitants to Niger's largest city...

    , Niger
    Niger
    Niger , officially named the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. It borders Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east...

    , and crash landed at Hamani Diori Airport, Niger. None of the 10 people aboard was killed but the aircraft was destroyed by subsequent fire.
  • On July 4, 2002, a 707-123B on a Gomair flight from N'Djamena Airport, Chad
    Chad
    Chad , officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west...

     to Brazzaville-Maya Maya Airport
    Maya-Maya Airport
    Maya-Maya Airport is an airport located in Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of the Congo.In 2004, the airport served 447,699 passengers.-Airlines and destinations:-Accidents and incidents:...

    , Rep. of Congo
    Republic of the Congo
    The Republic of the Congo , sometimes known locally as Congo-Brazzaville, is a state in Central Africa. It is bordered by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo , the Angolan exclave province of Cabinda, and the Gulf of Guinea.The region was dominated by...

     carrying a mixed load of cargo and passengers crashed. It experienced technical problems and diverted to Bangui
    Bangui
    -Law and government:Bangui is an autonomous commune of the Central African Republic. With an area of 67 km², it is by far the smallest high-level administrative division of the CAR in area but the highest in population...

    , Central African Republic
    Central African Republic
    The Central African Republic , is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It borders Chad in the north, Sudan in the north east, South Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo in the south, and Cameroon in the west. The CAR covers a land area of about ,...

    . On landing approach it descended too quickly and made ground-contact in a suburb. It subsequently bounced and broke up. Of the 30 people on board, 28 died in the accident.
  • On October 23, 2004, a BETA Cargo 707 on a cargo flight from Manaus-Eduardo Gomes International Airport, Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

     to São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, Brazil aborted takeoff from Manaus due to a "loud noise". The aircraft afterwards started tilting to the right. It appeared the landing gear ruptured the right wing. The 37-year old aircraft (registration PP-BSE) was written-off.
  • On March 19, 2005, a Cargo Plus Aviation
    Cargo Plus Aviation
    Cargo Plus Aviation was a cargo airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It operated ad hoc flights to Asia, Africa and eastern Europe.- Services :...

    -owned 707-300 freighter on a wet-lease to Ethiopian Airlines
    Ethiopian Airlines
    Ethiopian Airlines , formerly Ethiopian Air Lines, often referred to as simply Ethiopian, is an airline headquartered on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It serves as the country's flag carrier, and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia...

     crashed into Lake Victoria
    Lake Victoria
    Lake Victoria is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was named for Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, by John Hanning Speke, the first European to discover this lake....

     on approach to Runway 35 at Entebbe
    Entebbe
    Entebbe is a major town in Central Uganda. Located on a Lake Victoria peninsula, the town was at one time, the seat of government for the Protectorate of Uganda, prior to Independence in 1962...

    , Uganda
    Uganda
    Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...

     on the lake's northern shore. The 31-year-old 707 freighter was on approach to Runway 35 during its second attempt to land. Its right wing clipped an outcrop on approach and it began to break up. The accident happened in heavy rain. The aircraft broke up, but the crew of five survived.
  • On 20 April 2005, Saha Air Lines Flight 171, a 707-3J9C, registration EP-SHE, flying from Kish Island, crashed on landing at Mehrabad Airport, Tehran following an unstabilized approach with a higher than recommended airspeed. Gear and/or a tyre failed after touchdown and the flight overran the far end of the runway. Of the 12 crew and 157 passengers, three passengers were killed, reportedly falling into the river after evacuation.
  • On 21 October 2009, Azza Transport Flight 2241
    Azza Transport Flight 2241
    Azza Transport Flight 2241 was a scheduled cargo flight from Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, to Khartoum, Sudan, which crashed on 21 October 2009.-Aircraft:...

    , a 707-320, crashed shortly after takeoff from Sharjah International Airport
    Sharjah International Airport
    Sharjah International Airport is located in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.Sharjah Airport is the second largest Middle East Airfreight Hub in terms of cargo tonnage, according to official 2009 statistics from Airports Council International...

    , United Arab Emirates
    United Arab Emirates
    The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

    . The flight was carrying cargo only and all six crew members were killed.

    • On 18 May 2011, a Boeing 707 tanker operated by Omega Aerial Refueling Services crashed on take-off from Naval Air Station Point Mugu
      Naval Air Station Point Mugu
      Naval Base Ventura County Point Mugu or NBVC Point Mugu is a military airbase located in Point Mugu, Ventura County, California, United States. Due to realignment actions which occurred in 2000, the base is now part of Naval Base Ventura County , a consolidated organization that also includes...

      , California
      California
      California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

      , United States and was burnt out. All three crew survived.

    Aircraft on display




    • VH-XBA Model 707-138B (No. 29) one of the first 707s exported, and the first civilian jet registered in Australia (to airline Qantas
      Qantas
      Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

       in 1959), is on display at the Qantas Founders Outback Museum
      Qantas Founders Outback Museum
      The Qantas Founders Outback Museum is a transport museum at Longreach, Queensland, Australia. The museum is home to a decommissioned Qantas Boeing 747-200, which can be observed by the general public. It also holds the airline's first jet, a Boeing 707-138....

       in Longreach, Queensland, Australia.
    • 4X-BYD Model 707-131(F), (No. 34) ex-Israel Air Force
      Israeli Air Force
      The Israeli Air Force is the air force of the State of Israel and the aerial arm of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence...

       and TWA
      Trans World Airlines
      Trans World Airlines was an American airline that existed from 1925 until it was bought out by and merged with American Airlines in 2001. It was a major domestic airline in the United States and the main U.S.-based competitor of Pan American World Airways on intercontinental routes from 1946...

       aircraft is on display at the Israeli Air Force Museum near Hatzerim
      Hatzerim
      Hatzerim is a kibbutz located 8 kilometers west of Beersheba in the Negev desert in Israel. It is named after the Bible , mentionning a site nearby: "the Avvites who lived in farmyards as far as Gaza".-History:...

      , Israel
      Israel
      The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

      .
    • 4X-JYW Model 707-328 (msn. 173617, no. 110)) Former Air France
      Air France
      Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

       (F-BHSE) aircraft sold to the Israel Air Force, aircraft on display at the Israel Air Force Museum, Beersheba - Hatzerim (LLHB).
    • D-AFHG Model 707-430 (msn. 17720, no. 115) Former Lufthansa
      Lufthansa
      Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

       airliner on display at Hamburg Airport (HAM/EDDH).
    • N130KR Model 707-458 (msn. 18071, no. 216) Former El Al (4X-ATB) aircraft restored in 1960s Lufthansa markings with fictitious registration D-ABOC at Berlin - Tegel (TXL/EDDT).
    • CC-CCG Model 707-330B (msn. 18642, no. 233) This ex-Lufthansa and LAN Chile is undergoing restoration at Santiago - Los Cerillos, Chile (ULC/SCTI) and will be repainted in the Chilean airline's 1960s scheme.
    • F-BLCD Model 707-328B (no. 471) is on display at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris, France.
    • EP-IRJ Model 707-321B (msn. 18958, no. 475) Former Iran Air
      Iran Air
      Iran Air , formally Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran is the flag carrier airline of Iran, operating services to 60 destinations, 35 international and 25 domestic. The cargo fleet operates services to 20 scheduled and 5 charter destinations...

       aircraft originally delivered to Pan American as N416PA is currently the Air Restaurant at Mehrabad Airport, Tehran.
    • A20-627 Model 707-338C (msn. 19627, no. 707) Flew with the RAAF
      Royal Australian Air Force
      The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

      . Originally delivered to Qantas
      Qantas
      Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

       as VH-EAG. Forward fuselage preserved at the RAAF Museum
      RAAF Museum
      RAAF Museum is the official museum of the Royal Australian Air Force, the second oldest air force in the world, located at RAAF Williams Point Cook. The museum displays aircraft of significance to the RAAF from its inception as the Australian Flying Corps to the present...

      , Point Cook, VIC, Australia.
    • 1419 Model 707-328C (no. 763) ex-SAAF
      South African Air Force
      The South African Air Force is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria. It is the world's second oldest independent air force, and its motto is Per Aspera Ad Astra...

       aircraft is on display at the South African Air Force Museum - Swartkop Air Force Base
      AFB Swartkop
      AFB Swartkop is an air force base in South Africa. It is managed as part of AFB Waterkloof and houses one of the three branches of the South African Air Force Museum...

      , Pretoria
      Pretoria
      Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital.Pretoria is...

      .
    • 1419 - 83-8033 Model 707-328C (msn. 19917, no. 763) of the South African Air Force
      South African Air Force
      The South African Air Force is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria. It is the world's second oldest independent air force, and its motto is Per Aspera Ad Astra...

      . Originally delivered to Air France
      Air France
      Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

       as F-BLCL. Complete airframe preserved at the SAAF Museum, Swartkop, South Africa.
    • N893PA Model 707-321B (msn. 20030, no. 791) Former CAAC
      Civil Aviation Administration of China
      The Civil Aviation Administration of China , formerly the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China , is the aviation authority under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. It oversees civil aviation and investigates aviation accidents and incidents...

       aircraft originally delivered to Pan American is preserved at Tianjin, China.
    • HZ-HM2 Model 707-386C (msn. 21081, no. 903) Saudi Air Force VIP aircraft painted in the current Saudia color scheme. Del. 1975, reg. HZ-HM1. Entire aircraft preserved at Saudi Air Force Museum, Riyadh
      Riyadh
      Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

      , Saudi Arabia.

    Specifications

    720 (707-020) 707-120B 707-320B
    Cockpit crew Three
    Passengers 140 110 (2 class)
    179 (1 class)
    147 (2 class)
    202 (1 class)
    Length 136 ft 2 in (41.25 m) 145 ft 1 in (44.07 m) 152 ft 11 in (46.61 m)
    Wingspan 130 ft 10 in (39.90 m) 145 ft 9 in (44.42 m)
    Tail height 41 ft 7 in (12.65 m) 42 ft 5 in (12.93 m)
    Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) 222,000 lb
    Pound (mass)
    The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the Imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement...

     (100,800 kg)
    257,000 lb (116,570 kg) 333,600 lb (151,320 kg)
    Empty weight 103,145 lb (46,785 kg) 122,533 lb (55,580 kg) 146,400 lb (66,406 kg)
    Runway needed at MTOW 8,300 ft (2,515 m) 11,000 ft (3,330 m) 10,840 ft (3,280 m)
    Fuel Capacity 16,060 US gal (60,900 l) 17,330 US gal (65,590 l) 23,820 US gal (90,160 l)
    Landing run 5,750 ft (1,740 m) 6,200 ft (1,875 m) 5,950 ft (1,813 m)
    Operating range (Max Payload) 3,680 nmi (6,820 km) 3,735 nmi (6,920 km)
    Range at MTOW (max fuel) 3800 nmi (7,040 km) 4,700 nmi (8,704 km) 5,750 nmi (10,650 km)
    Cruising speed 540 kn (1000 km/h) 525 kn (972 km/h)
    Fuselage width 12 ft 4 in (3.76 m)
    Powerplants (4 x) Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7:
    12,000 lbf
    Pound-force
    The pound force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.- Definitions :...

     (53.3 kN)
    Pratt & Whitney JT3D-1
    Pratt & Whitney JT3D
    |-See also:-External links:*...

    :
    17,000 lbf (75.6 kN)
    PW JT3D-3
    Pratt & Whitney JT3D
    |-See also:-External links:*...

    :
    18,000 lbf (80 kN)
    PW JT3D-7
    Pratt & Whitney JT3D
    |-See also:-External links:*...

    :
    19,000 lbf (84.4 kN)

    Sources:

    Notable appearances in media


    The 707 is mentioned in the songs "Boeing Boeing 707" by Roger Miller
    Roger Miller
    Roger Dean Miller was an American singer, songwriter, musician and actor, best known for his honky tonk-influenced novelty songs...

    ; "Jet Airliner" performed by the Steve Miller Band
    Steve Miller Band
    The Steve Miller Band is an American rock band formed in 1967 in San Francisco, California. The band is managed by Steve Miller on guitar and lead vocals, and is known for a string of mid-1970s hit singles that are staples of the classic rock radio format.-History:In 1965, Steve Miller and...

     and written by Paul Pena
    Paul Pena
    Paul Pena was an American singer, songwriter and guitarist of Cape Verdean descent.His music from the first half of his career touched on Delta blues, jazz, morna, flamenco, folk and rock and roll...

    ; and "Early Morning Rain
    Early Morning Rain
    "Early Morning Rain" is a song composed and recorded by Canadian singer-songwriter Gordon Lightfoot. The song appears on his debut album Lightfoot! and in a re-recorded version on the 1975 compilation Gord's Gold...

    ", written by Gordon Lightfoot
    Gordon Lightfoot
    Gordon Meredith Lightfoot, Jr. is a Canadian singer-songwriter who achieved international success in folk, folk-rock, and country music, and has been credited for helping define the folk-pop sound of the 1960s and 1970s...

     and popularized by artists such as Elvis Presley
    Elvis Presley
    Elvis Aaron Presley was one of the most popular American singers of the 20th century. A cultural icon, he is widely known by the single name Elvis. He is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King"....

    , Bob Dylan
    Bob Dylan
    Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter, musician, poet, film director and painter. He has been a major and profoundly influential figure in popular music and culture for five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when he was an informal chronicler and a seemingly...

    , and Peter, Paul and Mary
    Peter, Paul and Mary
    Peter, Paul and Mary were an American folk-singing trio whose nearly 50-year career began with their rise to become a paradigm for 1960s folk music. The trio was composed of Peter Yarrow, Paul Stookey and Mary Travers...

    .

    The aircraft has had major roles in the Airport and Airplane
    Airplane!
    Airplane! is a 1980 American satirical comedy film directed and written by David Zucker, Jim Abrahams, and Jerry Zucker and released by Paramount Pictures...

    films, and has been alluded to in both television and theatrical movies. In 2011, the American television series "Pan Am"
    Pan Am (TV series)
    Pan Am is an American period drama television series created by writer Jack Orman. Named for the iconic Pan American World Airways, the series focuses on the pilots and stewardesses of the airline as it operated in the early 1960s at the beginning of the commercial jet age.Sony licensed the rights...

     takes place in the early and mid-1960s and features interior sets and exterior CGI
    Computer-generated imagery
    Computer-generated imagery is the application of the field of computer graphics or, more specifically, 3D computer graphics to special effects in art, video games, films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media...

     representations of the 707 on the ground and in flight; it was Pan Am's frontline airliner during that time. Additional footage of John Travolta
    John Travolta
    John Joseph Travolta is an American actor, dancer and singer. Travolta first became known in the 1970s, after appearing on the television series Welcome Back, Kotter and starring in the box office successes Saturday Night Fever and Grease...

    's Boeing 707 in Pan Am livery has also been used in the TV series.

    See also


    External links