Physics beyond the Standard Model refers to the
theoretical developmentsTheoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena...
needed to explain the deficiencies of the
Standard ModelThe Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of the known subatomic particles. Developed throughout the mid to late 20th century, the current formulation was finalized in the mid 1970s upon...
, such as the
origin of massIn theoretical physics, a hierarchy problem occurs when the fundamental parameters of some Lagrangian are vastly different than the parameters measured by experiment. This can happen because measured parameters are related to the fundamental parameters by a prescription known as renormalization...
, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations,
matter–antimatter asymmetryThe baryon asymmetry problem in physics refers to the apparent fact that there is an imbalance in baryonic matter and antibaryonic matter in the universe. Neither the standard model of particle physics, nor the theory of general relativity provide an obvious explanation for why this should be so;...
, and the nature of
dark matterIn astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is matter that neither emits nor scatters light or other electromagnetic radiation, and so cannot be directly detected via optical or radio astronomy...
and
dark energyIn physical cosmology, astronomy and celestial mechanics, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted theory to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding...
. Another problem lies within the
mathematical frameworkQuantum field theory provides a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of systems classically parametrized by an infinite number of dynamical degrees of freedom, that is, fields and many-body systems. It is the natural and quantitative language of particle physics and...
of the Standard Model itself – the Standard Model is inconsistent with that of
general relativityGeneral relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916. It is the current description of gravitation in modern physics...
to the point that one or both theories break down in their descriptions under certain conditions (for example within known space-time
singularitiesA gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location where the quantities that are used to measure the gravitational field become infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system...
like the
Big BangThe Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that explains the early development of the Universe. According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded rapidly. This rapid expansion caused the young Universe to cool and resulted in...
and
black holeA black hole is a region of spacetime from which nothing, not even light, can escape. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that...
event horizons).
Theories that lie beyond the Standard Model include various extensions of the standard model through
supersymmetryIn particle physics, supersymmetry is a symmetry that relates elementary particles of one spin to other particles that differ by half a unit of spin and are known as superpartners...
, such as the
Minimal Supersymmetric Standard ModelThe Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is the minimal extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry, although non-minimal extensions do exist. Supersymmetry pairs bosons with fermions; therefore every Standard Model particle has a partner that has yet to be discovered...
(MSSM) and Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), or entirely novel explanations, such as
string theoryString theory is an active research framework in particle physics that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a contender for a theory of everything , a manner of describing the known fundamental forces and matter in a mathematically complete system...
,
M-theoryIn theoretical physics, M-theory is an extension of string theory in which 11 dimensions are identified. Because the dimensionality exceeds that of superstring theories in 10 dimensions, proponents believe that the 11-dimensional theory unites all five string theories...
and extra dimensions. As these theories tend to reproduce the entirety of current phenomena, the question of which theory is the right one, or at least the "best step" towards a
Theory of EverythingA theory of everything is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle....
, can only be settled via experiments and is one of the most active areas of research in both
theoreticalTheoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena...
and
experimental physicsWithin the field of physics, experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines concerned with the observation of physical phenomena in order to gather data about the universe...
.
Problems with the Standard Model
Despite being the most successful theory of particle physics to date, the Standard Model is not perfect.
Experimental observations not explained
There are a number of experimental observations of Nature for which the Standard Model does not give an adequate explanation.
- Gravity. The standard model does not provide an explanation of gravity. Moreover it is incompatible with the most successful theory of gravity to date, general relativity
General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916. It is the current description of gravitation in modern physics...
.
- Dark matter and dark energy Cosmological observations tell us that the standard model is able to explain only about 4% of the energy present in the universe. Of the missing 96% percent about 24% should be dark matter
In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is matter that neither emits nor scatters light or other electromagnetic radiation, and so cannot be directly detected via optical or radio astronomy...
, i.e. matter that behaves just like the other matter we know, but which interacts only weakly with the standard model fields. The rest should be dark energyIn physical cosmology, astronomy and celestial mechanics, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted theory to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding...
, a constant energy density for the vacuum. Attempts to explain the dark energy in terms of vacuum energyVacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space even when the space is devoid of matter . The concept of vacuum energy has been deduced from the concept of virtual particles, which is itself derived from the energy-time uncertainty principle...
of the standard model lead to a mismatch of 120 orders of magnitude.
- Neutrino masses According to the standard model the neutrino
A neutrino is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with a half-integer spin, chirality and a disputed but small non-zero mass. It is able to pass through ordinary matter almost unaffected...
s are massless particles. However, neutrino oscillationNeutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon predicted by Bruno Pontecorvowhereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor can later be measured to have a different flavor. The probability of measuring a particular flavor for a neutrino varies periodically as it propagates...
experiments have shown that neutrinos do have mass. Mass terms for the neutrinos can be added to the standard model by hand, but these lead to new theoretical problems. (For example, the mass terms need to be extraordinarily small).
- Matter–antimatter
In particle physics, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles...
asymmetry The universe is made out of mostly matter. However, the standard model predicts that matter and anti-matter should have been created in (almost) equal amounts, which would have annihilated each other as the universe cooled.
Theoretical predictions not observed
Most of the particles predicted by the Standard Model have been observed at particle colliders. The exception is the
Higgs bosonThe Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive elementary particle that is predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. Its existence is postulated as a means of resolving inconsistencies in the Standard Model...
, which is predicted by the Standard Model's explanation of the
Higgs mechanismIn particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is the process in which gauge bosons in a gauge theory can acquire non-vanishing masses through absorption of Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking....
that describes how the weak SU(2) gauge symmetry is broken and how fundamental particles obtain mass. Experimental searches have determined that if the Standard Model is correct and the Higgs boson exists, then it most likely has a mass between and , although simple extensions to the Standard Model allow for a mass between and about . If the Higgs boson exists, experiments at the
CERNThe European Organization for Nuclear Research , known as CERN , is an international organization whose purpose is to operate the world's largest particle physics laboratory, which is situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border...
Large Hadron ColliderThe Large Hadron Collider is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. It is expected to address some of the most fundamental questions of physics, advancing the understanding of the deepest laws of nature....
should find it; if the Higgs boson is not found at the LHC, then SU(2) breaking and mass generation must involve physics beyond the Standard Model.
Theoretical problems
Some features of the standard model are added in an ad hoc way. These are not a problem per se (i.e. the theory works fine with these ad hoc features), but they imply a lack of understanding. These ad hoc features have motivated theorists to look for more fundamental theories with fewer parameters. Some of the ad hoc features are:
- Hierarchy problem
In theoretical physics, a hierarchy problem occurs when the fundamental parameters of some Lagrangian are vastly different than the parameters measured by experiment. This can happen because measured parameters are related to the fundamental parameters by a prescription known as renormalization...
The standard model introduces particle masses through a process known as spontaneous symmetry breakingSpontaneous symmetry breaking is the process by which a system described in a theoretically symmetrical way ends up in an apparently asymmetric state....
caused by the HiggsIn particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is the process in which gauge bosons in a gauge theory can acquire non-vanishing masses through absorption of Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising in spontaneous symmetry breaking....
field. Within the standard model, the mass of the Higgs gets some very large quantum corrections due to the presence of virtual particles (mostly virtual top quarkThe top quark, also known as the t quark or truth quark, is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Like all quarks, the top quark is an elementary fermion with spin-, and experiences all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and...
s). These corrections are much larger than the actual mass of the Higgs. This means that the bare mass parameter of the Higgs in the standard model must be fine tunedFine Tuning was the name of XM Satellite Radio's eclectic music channel. The program director for Fine Tuning was Ben Smith and the tag line was, "The World's Most Interesting Music"....
in such a way that almost completely cancels the quantum corrections. This level of fine tuning is deemed unnaturalNaturalness is the property that all parameters appearing in a theory take values of order 1...
by many theorists.
- Strong CP problem Theoretically it can be argued that the standard model should contain a term that breaks CP symmetry —relating matter to antimatter
In particle physics, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles...
— in the strong interactionIn particle physics, the strong interaction is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation. As with the other fundamental interactions, it is a non-contact force...
sector. Experimentally, however, no such violation has been found, implying that the coefficient of this term is very close to zero. This fine tuning is also considered unnatural.
- Number of parameters The standard model depends on 19 numerical parameters. Their values are known from experiment, but the origin of the values is unknown. Some theorists have tried to find relations between different parameters, for example, between the masses of particles in different generations.
Grand unified theories
The standard model has three gauge symmetries; the
colourIn particle physics, color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics . Color charge has analogies with the notion of electric charge of particles, but because of the mathematical complications of QCD,...
SU(3), the
weak isospinIn particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction. Weak isospin is usually given the symbol T or I with the third component written as Tz, T3, Iz or I3...
SU(2), and the
hyperchargeIn particle physics, the hypercharge Y of a particle is related to the strong interaction, and is distinct from the similarly named weak hypercharge, which has an analogous role in the electroweak interaction...
U(1) symmetry, corresponding to the three fundamental forces. Due to
renormalizationIn quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, renormalization is any of a collection of techniques used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities....
the coupling constants of each of these symmetries vary with the energy at which they are measured. Around these couplings become approximately equal. This has led to speculation that above this energy the three gauge symmetries of the standard model are unified in one single gauge symmetry with a
simple groupIn mathematics, a simple group is a nontrivial group whose only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself. A group that is not simple can be broken into two smaller groups, a normal subgroup and the quotient group, and the process can be repeated...
gauge group, and just one coupling constant. Below this energy the symmetry is
spontaneously brokenSpontaneous symmetry breaking is the process by which a system described in a theoretically symmetrical way ends up in an apparently asymmetric state....
to the standard model symmetries. Popular choices for the unifying group are the special unitary group in five dimensions SU(5) and the special orthogonal group in ten dimensions SO(10).
Theories that unify the standard model symmetries in this way are called Grand Unified Theories (or GUTS), and the energy scale at which the unified symmetry is broken is called the GUT scale. Generically, grand unified theories predict the creation of
magnetic monopoleA magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle in particle physics that is a magnet with only one magnetic pole . In more technical terms, a magnetic monopole would have a net "magnetic charge". Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably the grand unified and superstring...
s in the early universe, and instability of the
protonThe proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol or and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons. The number of protons in each atom is its atomic number....
. Neither of which have been observed, and this absence of observation puts limits on the possible GUTs.
Supersymmetry
Supersymmetry extends the Standard Model by adding an additional class of symmetries to the
LagrangianThe Lagrangian, L, of a dynamical system is a function that summarizes the dynamics of the system. It is named after Joseph Louis Lagrange. The concept of a Lagrangian was originally introduced in a reformulation of classical mechanics by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton known as...
. These symmetries exchange
fermionIn particle physics, a fermion is any particle which obeys the Fermi–Dirac statistics . Fermions contrast with bosons which obey Bose–Einstein statistics....
ic particles with
bosonIn particle physics, bosons are subatomic particles that obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Several bosons can occupy the same quantum state. The word boson derives from the name of Satyendra Nath Bose....
ic ones. Such a symmetry predicts the existence of
supersymmetric particles, abbreviated as
sparticleIn particle physics, a superpartner is a hypothetical elementary particle. Supersymmetry is one of the synergistic theories in current high-energy physics which predicts the existence of these "shadow" particles....
s, which include the sleptons, squarks,
neutralinoIn particle physics, the neutralino is a hypothetical particle predicted by supersymmetry. There are four neutralinos that are fermions and are electrically neutral, the lightest of which is typically stable...
s and
charginoIn particle physics, the chargino is a hypothetical particle which refers to the mass eigenstates of a charged superpartner, i.e. any new electrically charged fermion predicted by supersymmetry. They are linear combinations of the charged wino and charged higgsinos...
s. Each particle in the Standard Model would have a superpartner whose
spinIn quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is a fundamental characteristic property of elementary particles, composite particles , and atomic nuclei.It is worth noting that the intrinsic property of subatomic particles called spin and discussed in this article, is related in some small ways,...
differs by 1/2 from the ordinary particle. Due to the
breaking of supersymmetryIn particle physics, supersymmetry breaking is the process to obtain a seemingly non-supersymmetric physics from a supersymmetric theory which is a necessary step to reconcile supersymmetry with actual experiments. It is an example of spontaneous symmetry breaking...
, the sparticles are much heavier than their ordinary counterparts; they are so heavy that existing particle colliders would not be powerful enough to produce them. However, some physicists believe that sparticles will be detected when the
Large Hadron ColliderThe Large Hadron Collider is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. It is expected to address some of the most fundamental questions of physics, advancing the understanding of the deepest laws of nature....
at
CERNThe European Organization for Nuclear Research , known as CERN , is an international organization whose purpose is to operate the world's largest particle physics laboratory, which is situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border...
begins running.
Neutrinos
In the standard model neutrinos have exactly zero mass. This is a consequence of the standard model containing only
left handedA chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image . The spin of a particle may be used to define a handedness for that particle. A symmetry transformation between the two is called parity...
neutrinos. With no suitable right handed partner it is impossible to add a renormalizible mass term to the standard model. Measurements however indicated that neutrinos spontaneously change flavour, which implies that neutrinos have a mass. These measurements only give the relative masses of the different flavours. The best constraint on the absolute mass of the neutrinos comes from precision measurements of
tritiumTritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of protium contains one proton and no neutrons...
decay, providing an upper limit 2 eV, which makes them at least five orders of magnitude lighter than the other particles in the standard model. This means that extension of the standard model, not only need to explain how neutrinos get their mass, but also why it is so tiny.
One approach to add masses to the neutrinos is to add right-handed neutrinos and have these couple to left-handed neutrinos with a Dirac mass term. The right-handed neutrinos have to be
sterileSterile neutrinosIn scientific literature, these particles are also variously referred to as right-handed neutrinos, inert neutrinos, heavy neutrinos, or neutral heavy leptons . are a hypothetical type of neutrino that do not interact via any of the fundamental interactions of the Standard Model...
, meaning that they do not participate in any of the standard model interactions. Because they have no charges the right-handed neutrinos can act as their own anti-particles, and have a Majorana mass term. Like the other Dirac masses in the standard model, the neutrino Dirac mass is expected to be generated through the Higgs mechanism, and is therefore expected to be of a similar order of magnitude as the other masses. The Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrinos should arise through a different method and is expect to be tied to some energy scale of new physics beyond the standard model. Therefore, any process involving right-handed neutrinos will be suppressed at low energies. The correction due these suppressed processes, effectively give the left-handed neutrinos a mass that is inversely proportional to the right-handed Majorana mass, a mechanism known as the
see-sawIn theoretical physics, the seesaw mechanism is a mechanism within grand unification theory, and in particular in theories of neutrino masses and neutrino oscillation, where it can be used to explain the smallness of observed neutrino masses relative to those of quarks and leptons.There are several...
. The presence of heavy right-handed neutrinos thereby explains both the small mass of the left-handed neutrinos, and the absence of the right-handed neutrinos in observations. To get effective neutrino masses in the observed range with Dirac masses similar to the other standard model masses, the right-handed neutrino masses must be near the GUT scale, linking the right-handed neutrinos to the possibility of a grand unified theory.
The mass terms mix neutrinos of different generations. This mixing is parameterized by the PMNS matrix, which is the neutrino analogue of the CKM quark mixing matrix. Unlike the quark mixing, which is almost minimal, the mixing of the neutrinos appears to be almost maximal. This has led to various speculations of symmetries between the various generations that could explain the mixing patterns. The mixing matrix could also contain several complex phases that break CP invariance, although there has been no experimental probe of these. These phases could potentially create a surplus of leptons over anti-leptons in the early universe, a process known as
leptogenesisIn physical cosmology, leptogenesis is the generic term for hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry between leptons and antileptons in the very early universe, resulting in the dominance of leptons over antileptons...
. This asymmetry could then at a later stage be converted in an excess of baryons over anti-baryons, and explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe.
The light neutrinos cannot explain the missing dark matter, because they do not have enough mass. Moreover, simulations of
structure formationStructure formation refers to a fundamental problem in physical cosmology. The universe, as is now known from observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, began in a hot, dense, nearly uniform state approximately 13.7 Gyr ago...
show that they are too hot —i.e. their kinetic energy is large compared to their mass— while formation of structures similar to the galaxies in our universe requires
cold dark matterCold dark matter is the improvement of the big bang theory that contains the additional assumption that most of the matter in the Universe consists of material that cannot be observed by its electromagnetic radiation and whose constituent particles move slowly...
. The simulations show that neutrinos can at best explain a few percent of the missing dark matter. The heavy sterile right-handed neutrinos, are however a possible candidate for a dark matter WIMP.
String theory
Extensions, revisions, replacements, and reorganizations of the Standard Model exist in attempt to correct for these and other issues.
String theoryString theory is an active research framework in particle physics that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a contender for a theory of everything , a manner of describing the known fundamental forces and matter in a mathematically complete system...
is one such reinvention, and many theoretical physicists believe that such theories are the next theoretical step toward a true
Theory of EverythingA theory of everything is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle....
. Theories of
quantum gravityQuantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics which attempts to develop scientific models that unify quantum mechanics with general relativity...
such as
loop quantum gravityLoop quantum gravity , also known as loop gravity and quantum geometry, is a proposed quantum theory of spacetime which attempts to reconcile the theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity...
and others are believed by some to be promising candidates to the mathematical unification of quantum field theory and general relativity, requiring less drastic changes to existing theories. However a recent paper submitted to
NatureNature, first published on 4 November 1869, is ranked the world's most cited interdisciplinary scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal Citation Reports...
places stringent limits on the putative effects of quantum gravity on the speed of light, and disfavours current models of quantum gravity.
Among the numerous variants of String Theory,
M-theoryIn theoretical physics, M-theory is an extension of string theory in which 11 dimensions are identified. Because the dimensionality exceeds that of superstring theories in 10 dimensions, proponents believe that the 11-dimensional theory unites all five string theories...
, whose mathematical existence was first proposed at a String Conference in 1995, is believed by many to be a proper
"ToE"A theory of everything is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle....
candidate, notably physicists
Brian GreeneBrian Greene is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist. He has been a professor at Columbia University since 1996. Greene has worked on mirror symmetry, relating two different Calabi-Yau manifolds...
and
Stephen HawkingStephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, whose scientific books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity...
. Though a full mathematical description is not yet known, solutions to the theory exist for specific cases. Recent works have also proposed alternate string models, some of which lack the various harder-to-test features of
M-theoryIn theoretical physics, M-theory is an extension of string theory in which 11 dimensions are identified. Because the dimensionality exceeds that of superstring theories in 10 dimensions, proponents believe that the 11-dimensional theory unites all five string theories...
(e.g. the existence of Calabi–Yau manifolds, many extra dimensions, etc) including works by well-published physicists such as
Lisa RandallLisa Randall is an American theoretical physicist and a leading expert on particle physics and cosmology. She works on several of the competing models of string theory in the quest to explain the fabric of the universe. Her most well known contribution to the field is the Randall-Sundrum model,...
.
See also
- Antimatter tests of Lorentz violation
High-precision experiments could revealsmall previously unseen differences between the behaviorof matter and antimatter.This prospect is appealing to physicists because it mayshow that nature is not Lorentz symmetric.- Introduction :...
- Fundamental physical constants in the standard model
- Higgsless model
In particle physics, a Higgsless model is a model that does not involve the Higgs boson or in which the Higgs field is not dynamic. Such models must employ a different mechanism of mass generation, electroweak symmetry breaking and unitarity....
- Holographic principle
The holographic principle is a property of quantum gravity and string theories which states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon...
- Little Higgs
In particle physics, little Higgs models are based on the idea that the Higgs boson is a pseudo-Goldstone boson arising from some global symmetry breaking at a TeV energy scale...
- Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillations
Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillation refers to the quantum phenomenon of neutrino oscillations described in a framework that allows the breakdown of Lorentz invariance...
- Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is the minimal extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry, although non-minimal extensions do exist. Supersymmetry pairs bosons with fermions; therefore every Standard Model particle has a partner that has yet to be discovered...
- Peccei-Quinn theory
In particle physics, the Peccei–Quinn theory is the best known proposal for the resolution of the strong CP problem. The theory proposes that the QCD Lagrangian be extended with a CP-violating term known as the θ parameter...
- Preon
In particle physics, preons are postulated "point-like" particles, conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons. The word was coined by Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam in 1974...
- Standard-Model Extension
Standard-Model Extension is an effective field theory that contains the Standard Model, General Relativity, and all possible operators that break Lorentz symmetry.Violations of this fundamental symmetry can be studied within this general framework...
- Supergravity
In theoretical physics, supergravity is a field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity. Together, these imply that, in supergravity, the supersymmetry is a local symmetry...
- Seesaw mechanism
In theoretical physics, the seesaw mechanism is a mechanism within grand unification theory, and in particular in theories of neutrino masses and neutrino oscillation, where it can be used to explain the smallness of observed neutrino masses relative to those of quarks and leptons.There are several...
- Supersymmetry
In particle physics, supersymmetry is a symmetry that relates elementary particles of one spin to other particles that differ by half a unit of spin and are known as superpartners...
- Superfluid vacuum theory
- String theory
String theory is an active research framework in particle physics that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a contender for a theory of everything , a manner of describing the known fundamental forces and matter in a mathematically complete system...
- Theory of everything
A theory of everything is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle....
- Unsolved problems in physics
This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in physics. Some of these problems are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result...
- Unparticle physics
- Technicolor (physics)
Technicolor theories are models of physics beyond the standard model that address electroweak symmetry breaking, the mechanism through which elementary particles acquire masses...
External resources