Beauty contest

Beauty contest

Overview
A beauty pageant or beauty contest, is a competition that mainly focuses on the physical beauty
Beauty
Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning, or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture...

 of its contestants, although such contests often incorporate personality
Personality psychology
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include:* Constructing a coherent picture of the individual and his or her major psychological processes...

, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The phrase almost invariably refers only to contests for women and girls; similar events for men or boys are called by other names and are more likely to be body building contests.
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Encyclopedia
A beauty pageant or beauty contest, is a competition that mainly focuses on the physical beauty
Beauty
Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning, or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture...

 of its contestants, although such contests often incorporate personality
Personality psychology
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include:* Constructing a coherent picture of the individual and his or her major psychological processes...

, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The phrase almost invariably refers only to contests for women and girls; similar events for men or boys are called by other names and are more likely to be body building contests. Winners of beauty contests are often called beauty queens. Children's beauty pageants mainly focus on beauty, gowns, sportswear modelling, talent, and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup, hair and gowns, swimsuit modelling, and personal interviews. Possible awards include titles, tiaras or crowns, sashes, savings bonds, and cash prizes.

History


Choosing symbolic kings and queens for May Day
May Day
May Day on May 1 is an ancient northern hemisphere spring festival and usually a public holiday; it is also a traditional spring holiday in many cultures....

 and other festivities is an ancient custom in Europe in which beautiful young women symbolized their nations' virtues and other abstract ideas.
At the Eglinton Tournament of 1839
Eglinton Tournament of 1839
The Eglinton Tournament of 1839 was a re-enactment of a medieval joust and revel held in Scotland on Friday 30 August.It was funded and organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, and took place at Eglinton Castle, near Kilwinning in Scotland...

 - a re-enactment of a medieval joust
Jousting
Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two knights mounted on horses and using lances, often as part of a tournament.Jousting emerged in the High Middle Ages based on the military use of the lance by heavy cavalry. The first camels tournament was staged in 1066, but jousting itself did not...

 and revel held in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 in which many distinguished guests took part and which gained much public attention at the time - a Queen of Beauty was chosen, Georgiana Sheridan, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset
Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset
Sir Edward Adolphus Seymour , 12th Duke of Somerset, etc. KG, PC , styled Baron Seymour until 1855, was a British Whig aristocrat and politician, who served in various cabinet positions in the mid-19th century...

 and sister of noted author Caroline Norton
Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Norton
Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Norton was a famous British society beauty, feminist, social reformer, and author of the early and mid nineteenth century.-Youth and Marriage:...

.

The first modern American pageant was staged by P. T. Barnum
P. T. Barnum
Phineas Taylor Barnum was an American showman, businessman, scam artist and entertainer, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus....

 in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down by public protest. He previously held dog, baby, and bird beauty contests. He substituted daguerreotypes for judging, a practice quickly adopted by newspapers. Newspapers held photo beauty contests for many decades: In 1880, the first “Bathing Beauty Pageant" took place as part of a summer festival to promote business in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
Rehoboth Beach is a city in Sussex County, Delaware, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population is 1,327, a decrease of 11.2% from 2000...

.

Contests became a regular part of summer beach life, with the most elaborate contests taking place in Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City is a city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, and a nationally renowned resort city for gambling, shopping and fine dining. The city also served as the inspiration for the American version of the board game Monopoly. Atlantic City is located on Absecon Island on the coast...

 (“Fall Frolic”) and Galveston, Texas
Galveston, Texas
Galveston is a coastal city located on Galveston Island in the U.S. state of Texas. , the city had a total population of 47,743 within an area of...

 ("Splash Day"), where the events attracted women from many cities and towns.

Universal produced a newsreel of the Texas Centennial Celebration beauty pageant in 1935, which shows models attempting to fit into life-sized cutouts of the Centennial Committee's concept of the "perfect figure."

Purpose


When beauty pageants began, they were viewed as “trivial events whose interpretation required no scholarly effort.” Miss America, the first pageant of its kind, has made an effort to ensure that it does not appear as a "stereotypical" pageant.

Pageants may be multicultural or racially specific, such as the Miss Chinese International Pageant
Miss Chinese International Pageant
Miss Chinese International Pageant or MCI for short, is an annual international beauty pageant, organized and broadcast by TVB, a leading network television station in Hong Kong.-Composition:At its inception in 1988, delegates comprise of either winners or runner-ups of regional Chinese...

, Miss Black America or Miss Indian America
Miss Indian America
Miss Indian America was a pageant from 1953 to 1985 that was part annual All-American Indian Days festival in Sheridan, Wyoming. Each contestant was assessed on the basis of her appearance, communication skills, knowledge and practice of her culture, knowledge of tribal, federal and state...

.

Another stated goal of pageants is promoting self-esteem and public-speaking abilities of the contestants. Winners of these pageants have said that they feel a sense of accomplishment.

Pageants may be aligned with community or social organizations to raise money for charities. The “clubs” that each contestant supports may be referred to as “platforms.”

Some pageants award college scholarships, to the winner or multiple runners-up.

Types of pageants


In beauty pageants, there are 3 main types.
  • A glitz pageant typically features the contestants wearing heavier makeup and crystal-embellished attire; often there is a swimwear component, or "outfit of choice" modeling segment. Oftentimes the participants in glitz pageants wear a "flipper". The flipper is essentially a set of "detachable dental veneers" that are placed on top of one's natural teeth. To create a flipper, an impression is made from a special putty which is placed on top of a person's teeth. After the mold has been set, this impression kit is then sent to a dental technician, and made into the slip on veneer.
  • A semi-glitz pageant is somewhat similar to glitz, only certain details may not allowed. For example, contestants may have points taken off if they wear a flipper or hair piece. This criterion is typically mentioned in the pageant rules and guidelines. Often, semi-glitz pageants do not permit the contestants to be artificially tanned. Additionally, there may be restrictions on the amount of make up that is permitted.
  • Natural pageants allow very little or no makeup, no flippers, and limited amounts of embellishments on the gown or dress. Contestants may not wear hair pieces, or points will be taken off or the contestants may be disqualified.

International Pageant of Pulchritude


In May 1920 promoter C.E. Barfield of Galveston organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island. The event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions. The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually. The event quickly became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the "International Pageant of Pulchritude." This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants. It featured contestants from England, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe." The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression (the international competition was revived briefly in Belgium).

Around the globe



Major international contests for women include the yearly Miss World
Miss World
The Miss World pageant is the oldest surviving major international beauty pageant. It was created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951...

 competition (founded by Eric Morley
Eric Morley
Eric Douglas Morley was born in Holborn, London, England. He was the founder of the Miss World pageant. He was married to now head of the pageant Julia Morley from 1960.-Life and career:...

 in 1951), Miss Universe
Miss Universe
Miss Universe is an annual international beauty contest that is run by the Miss Universe Organization. The pageant is the most publicized beauty contest in the world with 600 million viewers....

 (founded in 1952), Miss International
Miss International
Miss International is an annual international beauty pageant held since 1960.The current Miss International is Fernanda Cornejo, from Ecuador...

 (founded in 1960) and Miss Earth
Miss Earth
Miss Earth is an annual international beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness. Miss Earth is also one of the most publicized beauty contests in the world....

 (founded in 2001 with environmental awareness as its concern). These are considered the "Big Four" pageants, the four largest and most famous international beauty contests. Minor contests, such as the Miss Bondi contest in Australia, are common throughout the world in the summer months. During the 1950s, pageants thrived to promote county fair
County Fair
"County Fair" is a song written by Brian Wilson and Gary Usher for the American rock band The Beach Boys. It was originally released as the second track on their 1962 album Surfin' Safari. On November 26th of that year, it was released as the B-side to The Beach Boys' third single, "Ten Little...

s and local products. For example, some of Raquel Welch
Raquel Welch
Jo Raquel Tejada , better known as Raquel Welch, is an American actress, author and sex symbol. Welch came to attention as a "new-star" on the 20th Century-Fox lot in the mid-1960s. She posed iconically in a animal skin bikini for the British-release One Million Years B.C. , for which she may be...

's titles included " Maid of San Diego County", " Maid of California" "Miss Photogenic" and "Miss Contour." Women from around the world participate each year in local competitions for the chance to represent their country's international title.

2002 was a year remarkable for its number of winners from countries with a majority Muslim population. In that year Miss Lebanon, Christina Sawaya
Christina Sawaya
Christina Sawaya , born 16 August 1980, is a Lebanese beauty queen.As part of her modelling career, Christina entered a series of pageants between 1998 and 2002 in which she became the winner of "Miss University" Lebanon in 1998, and was chosen as "Top Lebanon Model 1999".In 2001, Sawaya competed...

 won the Miss International pageant, Miss Turkey, Azra Akın
Azra Akin
Azra Akın is a Dutch born Turkish model and actress. She is a beauty pageant titleholder who was crowned Miss World 2002 and Miss Turkey 2002.-Biography:...

 won Miss World, and the original winner of Miss Earth for that year was Džejla Glavović
Džejla Glavovic
Džejla Glavović is an international beauty queen and a Bosnian fashion model. She was crowned in the Philippines as the second Miss Earth representing her country Bosnia and Herzegovina and became the first Bosnian woman to win a major international title in beauty contest.-Miss Earth...

 from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 (before being replaced by Winfred Omwakwe of Kenya). In 2006, the Muslim nation of Pakistan crowned its first Miss Bikini Universe, Mariyah Moten
Mariyah Moten
-Biography:Mariyah was born in Karachi, Pakistan. She moved to the US with her family at the age of 5 and currently resides in the United States.Mariyah Moten graduated from University of Houston in with a degree in hotel management.-Beauty pageants:...

, which later became a controversy worldwide.

Some beauty pageants have taken a less conventional route in modern times. In 2011, Dirty Beer Hole, a website that is popular among the users of social-media giants Twitter
Twitter
Twitter is an online social networking and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read text-based posts of up to 140 characters, informally known as "tweets".Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched that July...

 and Facebook
Facebook
Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. , Facebook has more than 800 million active users. Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as...

, began seeking contestants for its irreverent, yet entertaining, Miss Cheap Beer beauty pageant. Additional online beauty pageants are certain to follow in this trend of online competitions.

Selecting a "beauty queen"


Beauty pageants are generally multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. International pageants involve hundreds, sometimes thousands, of local competitions. In the United States, there is now a commercial beauty pageant industry that organizes thousands of local and regional events for all ages for profit, supported by magazines like The Crown Magazine and Pride of Pageantry.

Criticism


Critics of beauty contests argue that such contests reinforce the idea that girls and women should be valued primarily for their physical appearance, and that this puts tremendous pressure on women to conform to conventional beauty standards by spending time and money on fashion
Fashion
Fashion, a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially in clothing, foot wear, or accessories. Fashion references to anything that is the current trend in look and dress up of a person...

, cosmetics
Cosmetics
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and...

, hair styling and even cosmetic surgery. They claim that this pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves.

Some beauty pageants have also been found to be fraudulent. The promoters charge large fees, require additional photos or specific attire that must be purchased from a sponsor, and in some cases award a prize to a confederate within the contest.

See also


  • List of beauty contests
  • Bride-show
    Bride-show
    The bride-show was a custom of Byzantine emperors and Russian tsars to choose a wife from among the most beautiful maidens of the country.Notable marriages resulting from a bride-show: Theophilos and Theodora, three wives of Ivan IV of Russia, Peter the Great's mother Natalya Naryshkina.-Further...

  • Concours d'Elegance
    Concours d'Elegance
    A Concours d'Elegance dates back to 17th Century French aristocracy, who paraded horse-drawn carriages in the parks of Paris during Summer weekends and holidays...

  • Child beauty pageant
    Child beauty pageant
    A child beauty pageant is a beauty contest featuring contestants up to 18 years of age. Divisions include talent, interview, sportswear, casual wear, swim wear, western wear, theme wear, outfit of choice, decade wear, and evening wear, typically wearing makeup as well as elaborate hairstyles...

  • Living Dolls: The Making of a Child Beauty Queen
    Living Dolls: The Making of a Child Beauty Queen
    Living Dolls: The Making of a Child Beauty Queen is a 2001 HBO documentary on Child beauty pageants. It was directed by Shari Cookson.- Synopsis :...


  • Related events for men:
    • Mr. Universe
      Universe Championships
      The Universe Championships are an annual bodybuilding event organised by the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association . It has a number of competitions: NABBA Amateur Mr. Universe, Miss Figure, and Miss Toned Figure....

    • Mr. World
    • Manhunt International
      Manhunt International
      Manhunt International is an international male beauty pageant which began in 1993, though the roots of the pageant go back a few years more to when one single national preliminary was held in Singapore...

    • Mister International
      Mister International
      Mister International is an annual male beauty pageant founded in 2006. It is owned and organized by the Mister Singapore Organization which also organizes the annual Mister Singapore pageant.-Ranking:-External links:* *...


  • List of beauty contests website :
  • http://www.pageant-gossip.com Pageant Gossip
    • Miss World
      Miss World
      The Miss World pageant is the oldest surviving major international beauty pageant. It was created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951...

    • Miss Universe
      Miss Universe
      Miss Universe is an annual international beauty contest that is run by the Miss Universe Organization. The pageant is the most publicized beauty contest in the world with 600 million viewers....

    • Miss Earth
      Miss Earth
      Miss Earth is an annual international beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness. Miss Earth is also one of the most publicized beauty contests in the world....

    • Miss International
      Miss International
      Miss International is an annual international beauty pageant held since 1960.The current Miss International is Fernanda Cornejo, from Ecuador...