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The '''Battle of Welfesholz''' was fought on February 11, 1115 between the Imperial army of the [[Holy Roman Empire]] and a rebellious [[Duchy of Saxony|Saxon]] force.
[[Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor|Henry V]], uncontested [[King of the Romans]] since 1106, had inherited the [[Investiture Controversy]] from his father [[Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor|Henry IV]]. In 1111 he invaded [[Kingdom of Italy (medieval)|Italy]] and, after negotiation failed, seized [[Pope Paschal II]] to enforce his coronation as [[Holy Roman Emperor]].
Having returned from [[Rome]] he was immediately excommunicated by the [[papal legate]] in Germany [[Cuno of Praeneste]], which encouraged the Imperial princes in their rising against the emperor, most of all the Saxon Duke [[Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor|Lothair of Supplinburg]] and Archbishop [[Adalbert of Mainz]], Henry's long-time supporter who after his appointment had deserted him. Though Henry had Adalbert imprisoned at [[Trifels Castle]] and Lothair to submit himself, the conflict smouldering since the days of the [[Great Saxon Revolt]] broke out again in 1113 over the succession of last count of Weimar-Orlamünde, [[Ulric II, Margrave of Carniola|Ulric II]]. Henry had made attempts to confiscate the county as a ceased fief but met obstinate resistance by Ulric's heirs from the Saxon [[House of Ascania]]. The insurgents gathered under the lead of Count [[Wiprecht of Groitzsch]] but at first were repulsed by Henry's troops under his field marshal Hoyer von Mansfeld near [[Thale]].
Meanwhile Duke Lothair, subdued though not deposed, had continued intriguing against Henry, who saw himself confronted with the increasing opposition of the Imperial princes. In October 1114 the conflict again culmulated in violent fights after Archbishop [[Frederick I (Archbishop of Cologne)|Frederick I of Cologne]] had attacked the Imperial troops in October 1114 at [[Andernach]]. Several nobles like the deposed Duke [[Henry, Duke of Lower Lorraine|Henry of Lower Lorraine]] and the [[Bishopric of Halberstadt|Bishop of Halberstadt]] joined the insurgents.
According to the chronicles of [[Pegau|Pegau Abbey]], on February 10, 1115 the forces of the emperor under Hoyer of Mansfeld gathered at [[Welfesholz]] (now in [[Saxony-Anhalt]]) to await the united Saxon troops led by Duke Lothair. The tackling armies of Lothair were victorious, forcing Henry to take flight and denying his power to rule Saxony. Hoyer von Mansfeld was killed in battle by Wiprecht II, son of seditious Saxon Count Wiprecht of Groitzsch. Contemporaneously with Henry's loss of power Lothair's position was stabled, leading to his election as King of the Romans in 1125.