Battle of Mu'tah

Battle of Mu'tah

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{{Campaignbox Campaigns of Muhammad}} {{Campaignbox Byzantine-Arab Wars}} {{Campaignbox Campaigns of Khalid ibn Walid}} The '''Battle of Mu'tah''' ({{lang-ar|معركة مؤتة , غزوة مؤتة}}) was fought in [[629]] (5 [[Jumada al-awwal]] 8 AH in the [[Islamic calendar]]), near the village of [[Mu'tah]], east of the [[Jordan River]] and [[Al Karak|Karak]] in [[Karak Governorate]], between an army sent by the [[Islamic prophet]], [[Muhammad]], and an army of the [[Byzantine Empire]]- The Eastern Romans. In Muslim histories, the battle is usually described as the Muslims' attempt to take retribution against a [[Ghassanid]] chief for taking the life of an emissary; it ended in a draw and the safe retreat of both sides, according to Muslim sources, but is recorded as a Byzantine victory by Christian sources. ==Background== [[File:Muta-battle-place.jpg|thumb|left|Ruins of a mosque built in the Mu'tah battle field]] The [[Treaty of Hudaybiyah]] initiated a truce between the Muslim forces in Medina and the [[Quraysh (tribe)|Quraysh]]ite forces in control of Mecca. Badhan, the [[Sassanid]] governor of [[Yemen]], had converted to Islam and many of the southern [[Arab]]ian tribes also joined the rising power in Medina. Muhammad was therefore free to focus on the Arab tribes in the [[Bilad al-Sham]] to the North. Muslim historians say that the immediate impetus for a military march north was the mistreatment of emissaries. Muhammad is said to have sent emissaries to the nomadic [[Banu Sulaym]] and [[Dhat al Talh]] tribes of the north (tribes under the protection of the Byzantines). The emissaries were killed. The expedition sent for revenge was the largest Muslim army raised yet against a non-[[Mecca]]n confederate force and would be the first to confront the [[Byzantine]]s. According to [[Frants Buhl|F. Buhl]], another possible reason "seems to have been that he wished to bring the Arabs living there under his control." ==Mobilization of the armies== According to later Muslim historians, [[Muhammad]] dispatched 3,000 of his troops to the area in [[Jumada al-awwal]] of the year 8 A.H., i.e., A.D. [[629]], for a quick expedition to attack and punish the tribes. The army was led by [[Zayd ibn Haritha]]; the second-in-command was [[Jafar ibn Abi Talib]] and the third-in-command was [[Abdullah ibn Rawahah]]. The leader of the [[Ghassanids]] is said to have received word of the expedition and prepared his forces; he also sent to the Byzantines for aid. Muslim historians report that the Byzantine emperor [[Heraclius]] gathered an army and hurried to the aid of his Arab allies. Other sources say that the leader was the emperor's brother, Theodorus.{{Citation needed|date=January 2010}} The combined force of Roman soldiers and Arab allies is usually reported to be approximately 200,000. When the Muslim troops arrived at the area to the east of Jordan and learnt of the size of the Byzantine army, they wanted to wait and send for reinforcements from [[Medina]]. [[Abdullah ibn Rawahah]] scolded them for their timidity, so they continued marching towards the waiting army. ==The battle== The Muslims engaged the Byzantines at their camp by the village of Musharif and then withdrew towards Mu'tah. It was here that the two armies fought. Some Muslim sources report that the battle was fought in a valley between two heights, which negated the Byzantines their numerical superiority. During the battle, all three Muslim leaders fell one after the other as they took command of the force: first, [[Zayd ibn Haritha]], then [[Jafar ibn Abi Talib]], then [[Abdullah ibn Rawahah]]. [[Al-Bukhari]] reported that there were fifty stab wounds in Jafar's body, none of them in the back. After the death of the latter, some of the Muslim soldiers began to rout. [[Thabit ibn Arkan]], seeing the desperate state of the Muslim forces, took up the banner and rallied his comrades, and managed to save the army from complete destruction. After the battle the troops asked [[Thabit ibn Arkan]] to assume command; however, he declined and asked [[Khalid ibn al-Walid]] to take the lead. Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense that he used nine swords which broke in the battle. Khalid, seeing that the situation was hopeless, prepared to withdraw. He continued to engage the Byzantines in skirmishes, but avoided pitched battle. One night he completely changed his troop positions and brought forth a rearguard that he had equipped with new banners; all this was intended to give the impression that reinforcements had arrived from Medina. He also ordered his cavalry to retreat behind a hill during the night, hiding their movements, and then to return during daytime when the battle resumed, raising as much dust as they could. This also was intended to create the impression that further reinforcements were arriving. The Byzantines believed in the fictitious reinforcements and withdrew, thus allowing the Muslim force to safely retreat to Medina. Military commentators on the battle have often praised the skirmishing tactics of Khalid ibn al-Walid. ==Aftermath== [[File:Madina old.jpg|thumb|left|Medina, the Muslim capital.]] It is reported that when the Muslim force arrived at Medina, they were berated for apparently withdrawing and accused of fleeing. Salamah ibn Hisham is reported to prayed at home rather than going to the mosque to avoid having to explain himself. [[Muhammad]] ordered them to stop, saying that they would return to fight the Byzantines again and bestowed upon Khalid the title of 'Saifullah' meaning 'The Sword of Allah'. Today, Muslims who fell at the battle are considered [[martyr]]s (''[[shahid]]''). Some have claimed that this battle, far from being a defeat, was a strategic success; the Muslims had challenged the Byzantines and had made their presence felt amongst the Arab Bedouin tribes in the region. A [[mausoleum]] was later built at Mu'tah over their grave. ==Non-Muslim accounts== Aside from the Muslim accounts, there may be a reference to the battle in the [[chronicle]] written by ninth century Byzantine monk and chronicler [[Theophanes the Confessor|Theophanes]]. According to Theophanes, the Muslim army intended to attack the local Arabs on a feast day (the word that Theophanes used most likely indicates a pagan rather than a [[Christian]] holiday). However, the [[vicarius]] Theodorus (who might be emperor's brother, in this case ''vicarius augustus'' (emperor's deputy) is meant, i.e. viceroy) learnt about their plans and gathered a force from the garrisons of local fortresses:
He determined from the Saracen the day and hour on which the emirs intended to attack, and attacked them at a place called Mothous. He killed three of them and most of their army, but one emir, Khalid (whom they call the sword of God), got away.
It has been argued by some scholars, such as Walter Kaegi, that this is a reference to the Battle of Mu'tah, but this is not certain. Fred Donner, author of ''The Early Islamic Conquests'', argues that Muhammad sent his troops on numerous raids into Byzantine territory: Dhat al-Atla, Mut'ah, Dhat al-Salasil, Tabuk, and Dumat al-Jandal. Donner writes of Muhammad's aims in these raids: :"He probably had as his immediate objective the subjugation of Arabic-speaking nomadic tribes living in the northern Hijaz and southern Syria, or at least the extension of Medina's influence sufficiently to bring these tribes into alliance with the Islamic state." (p. 102) Donner terms the raid upon Mut'ah a failure. He writes: : 'Both the Bani Judham and the Bani Lakhm were among the Byzantine allies that defeated the Muslims at Mu'tah in A.H. 8/A.D. 629.' (p. 105) ==Islamic primary sources== The event is referenced in many Sunni Hadith collections. The [[Sahih al-Bukhari]] hadith collection mentions that 9 swords of Khalid ibn Walid were broken: {{cquote|Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid: On the day of Mu'tah, nine swords were broken in my hand and only a Yemenite sword of mine remained in my hand.{{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|5|59|565}}}} It also mentions that Jafar should take over as commander if Zaid ibn Haritha was killed: {{cquote|'Abdullah bin 'Umar said, "Allah's Apostle appointed Zaid bin Haritha as the commander of the army during the Ghazwa of Mu'tah and said, "If Zaid is martyred, Ja'far should take over his position, and if Ja'far is martyred, 'Abdullah bin Rawaha should take over his position.' " 'Abdulla-h bin 'Umar further said, "I was present amongst them in that battle and we searched for Ja'far bin Abi Talib and found his body amongst the bodies of the martyred ones, and found over ninety wounds over his body, caused by stabs or shots (of arrows). {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|5|59|565}} }} The event is also referenced in the [[Abu Dawud]] hadith collection as follows: {{cquote|My foster-father said to me - he was one of Banu Murrah ibn Awf, and he was present in that battle, the battle of Mu'tah: By Allah, as if I am seeing Ja'far who jumped from his reddish horse and hamstrung it; he then fought with the people until he was killed.{{Hadith-usc|usc=yes|abudawud|14|2567}} }} ==Online References== *[http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/SM_tsn/ch6s5.html] Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (THE SEALED NECTAR) *[http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/MH_LM/campaign_of_mutah.htm] The Life of Muhammad *[http://www.grandestrategy.com/2007/12/sword-of-allah-chapter-6-mutah-and.html] Sword of Allah ==See also== * [[History of Islam]] * [[Muhammad as a general]] * [[Jihad]] * [[Muhammad and Christianity]] {{coord missing|Jordan}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Battle Of Mu'tah}}