Battle of Asal Uttar

Battle of Asal Uttar

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{{undue|date=October 2011}} {{pov|date=October 2011}} {{Campaignbox Indo-Pakistani War of 1965}} {{Campaignbox Indo-Pakistani Wars}} The '''Battle of Asal Uttar''' ([[Punjabi language|Punjabi]] and [[Hindi language|Hindi]] for ''Battle of Definitive Reply'' or more appropriately ''Fitting Response'') was one of the largest tank battles fought during the [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1965]]. It was fought from September 8 through September 10, 1965, when the [[Pakistan Army]] thrust its [[tank]]s and [[infantry]] into [[India]]n territory, capturing the Indian town of [[Khem Karan]] 5 km from the International Border. The Indian troops retaliated, and after three days of bitter fighting, the battle ended with the Pakistani forces being repulsed near Asal Uttar. Factors that contributed to this were the conditions of the plains, better Indian tactics and a successful strategy. War historians, including Dr. Philip Towle, regard the Indian resistance near Khem Karan as one of the key turning points of the war, one which tilted the balance of the war in favor of India.. Peter Wilson states that the defeat of Pakistan Army in the battle of Asal Uttar was one of the greatest defeats suffered by Pakistan forces in the course of Indo-Pak war of 1965. == Battle == Pakistan's invading force, consisting of the 1st Armoured Division and 11th Infantry Division, crossed the [[International Border]] and captured the Indian town of Khem Karan. After the seizure, the Indian Army regrouped and launched a counter attack. Indian troops flooded the area, which slowed the advance of the Pakistani tanks down and successfully brought them inside a horse-shoe formation, a trap where the advancing Pakistani troops were ambushed and repelled. Almost 100 Pakistani tanks were either destroyed or captured, while the Indians, by their account, lost only 32 tanks during this offensive. == Conclusion == Despite the initial thrust of the Pakistani Army into Indian territory , the battle ended in a decisive Indian victory. The commander of Pakistani forces Maj. Gen. Nasir Ahmed Khan himself was fatally hit in the battle. However, the failure of Indian troops to regain Khem Karan{{Citation needed|date=September 2010}} and further losses in Sailkot led to a strategic stalemate and ultimately caused both parties to call for negotiations. According to military historian Steve Zaloga, Pakistan admitted that it lost 165 tanks during the 1965 war, more than half of which were knocked out during the "debacle" of Asal Uttar. [[Pervez Musharraf]], later Army Chief of Staff and [[President of Pakistan]], participated in this battle as a [[lieutenant]] of artillery in the 16 (SP) Field Regiment, 1st Armoured Division Artillery. The battle also witnessed the personal bravery of an Indian soldier, [[Abdul Hamid (soldier)|Abdul Hamid]], who was honoured with the [[Param Vir Chakra]], India's highest military award, for knocking out seven enemy tanks with a [[recoilless gun]]. This battle led to the creation of [[Khemkaran#Patton_Nagar|Patton Nagar]] (or Patton City) at the site of the battle viz., Khemkaran. This is because a large number of [[Patton tank]]s fielded by the [[Pakistan]]i forces were either captured or destroyed at the scene. == Resources == * 1965 Official War History, Ministry of Defence, [[Government of India]] * Pakistan Military Consortium * [http://orbat.com/site/history/historical/india/assaluttar.html The Battle of Assal Uttar: Pakistan and India 1965] - [[ORBAT]] ==External links== * [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Patton2.html Pictures of the ''Patton Nagar''] {{Military of India}} {{Military of Pakistan}} {{coord missing|India}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Battle Of Asal Uttar}}