Balochistan conflict

Balochistan conflict

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The Balochistan conflict is an ongoing conflict between Baloch nationalists and the Government
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with an indirectly-elected President as the Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces, and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the Head of Government. The President’s appointment and term are...

 of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 over Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

, the country's largest province. Recently, separatists have also clashed with Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 over its respective Baloch region, which borders Pakistan.
Shortly after Pakistan's creation in 1947, the Army of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 had to subdue insurgents based in Kalat
Kalat
Kalat or Qalat is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Kalat is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-i-Baloch and Kalat-i-Sewa....

 who rejected the King of Kalat decision to accede to Pakistan, reminiscent of the Indian Army's operation in the Principality state of Hyderabad . The movement gained momentum during the 1960s, and amid consistent political disorder, the government ordered a military operation
Baloch Insurgency and Rahimuddin's Stabilization
The 1970s military operation in Balochistan was a a five-year conflict in which a separatist movement in Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan, engaged with the Pakistan Army after then-Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto ordered a military operation in the region in 1973...

 into the region in 1973, assisted by Iran, and inflicted heavy casualties on the separatists. The movement was largely quelled after the imposition of martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 in 1977, after Pakistan experienced an Economic Boom and Baluchistan witnessed significant development . After insurgency groups again mushroomed in the 1990s and 2000s, the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and the war in North-West Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
The War in North-West Pakistan is an armed conflict between the Pakistan Armed Forces and armed religious groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan , Lashkar-e-Islam, TSNM, Arab and Central Asian militants including Al-Qaeda, regional armed movements and elements of organized crime.The armed...

 exacerbated the conflict, most recently manifested in the killings of non-Baloch settlers in the province by separatists since 2006.

Area of dispute


Historical Balochistan comprised the Balochistan region
Balochistan (region)
Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid, mountainous region in the Iranian plateau in Southwest Asia; it includes part of southeastern Iran, western Pakistan, and southwestern Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch tribes, Iranian peoples who moved into the area from the west...

. Its western region was the southern part of Sistan o Baluchestan province, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. In the east was Pakistani Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

. In the northwest the Helmand province of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. The Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf. It is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of the Arabian Sea. On the north coast is Pakistan and Iran...

 formed its southern border. Although historical Balochistan is the largest (44% of the country's area) region of Pakistan, it is the least populated (only 5% of the population) and the least developed area.

Main characters


There are four distinct parties involved and affected by this conflict:
  • Central government of Pakistan (since 1948)
  • Government of Iran (since 2003)
  • People of the Iranian region
  • Sardars (Tribal chiefs)of Pakistani region

First conflict 1948 (led by Prince Abdul Karim Khan)


In April 1948, Baloch nationalists claim that the central government sent the Pakistan army, which allegedly forced Mir Ahmed Yar Khan to give up his state, Kalat. Kalat was a landlocked British protectorate that comprised roughly 22%–23% of Balochistan. Mir Ahmed Yar Khan signed an accession agreement ending Kalat's de facto independence. His brother, Prince Abdul Karim Khan, was a powerful governor of a section of Kalat, a position that he was removed from after accession. He decided to initiate an insurgency against Pakistan. On the night of May 16, 1948 Prince Abdul Karim Khan initiated a separatist movement against the Pakistani government. He conducted guerrilla warfare based in Afghanistan against the Pakistan army.

Second conflict 1958–59 (led by Nawab Nowroz Khan)


Nawab Nowroz Khan took up arms in resistance to the One Unit
One Unit
One-Unit was the title of a scheme launched by the federal government of Pakistan to merge the four provinces of West Pakistan into one homogenous unit, as a counterbalance against the numerical domination of the ethnic Bengalis of East Pakistan...

 policy, which decreased government represenation for tribal leaders. He and his followers started a guerrilla war against Pakistan. Nowroz Khan and his followers were charged with treason and arrested and confined in Hyderabad
Hyderabad, Sindh
is the second largest city in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is the seventh largest city in the country. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus known as Neroon Kot...

 jail. Five of his family members (sons and nephews) were subsequently hanged under charges of aiding murder of Pakistani troops and treason. Nawab Nowroz Khan later died in captivity.

Third conflict 1963–69 (led by Sher Muhammad Bijrani Marri)


After the second conflict, the Federal government sent the Army to build new military bases in the key conflict areas of Balochistan in order to resist further chaos. Sher Muhammad Bijrani Marri led like-minded militants into guerrilla warfare by creating their own insurgent bases spread out over 45000 miles (72,420.3 km) of land, from the Mengal
Mengal
Mengal is a Brahui / Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan- Demographics :The Mengal tribe is one of the largest Baloch tribe. Mengal people speak Brahui, a Dravidian language that has been heavily influenced by other Iranian languages spoken in the area, especially Balochi...

 tribal area in the south to the Marri
Marri
Marri ) is one of the largest ethnic Baloch tribes in Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. Marri was considered to be a clan of the Rind tribe in the early history of Baloch and Balochistan...

 and Bugti
Bugti
Bugti , is a Baloch tribe located in Balochistan, Pakistan. They are divided into various clans such as Rahija, Mandawani , Kalpar, Nauthani, Masuri, Ferozani, Salamaan Zai, Mundarani, Qasimani, Shambani, Sobazai, Pahi, Maretha and Moharkanzai etc., numbering around 300,000.On a bigger scale the...

 tribal areas in the north. Their goal was to force Pakistan to share revenue generated from the Sui gas fields with the tribal leaders. The insurgents bombed railway tracks and ambushed convoys. The Army retaliated by destroying vast areas of the Marri tribe's land. This insurgency ended in 1969 and the Baloch separatists agreed to a ceasefire. Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash, H.Pk, HJ, S.Pk, psc was the third President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan...

 abolished the "One Unit" policy. This eventually led to the recognition of Balochistan as the fourth province of West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) in 1970, containing all the Balochistani princely states, the High Commissioners Province and Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

, an 800 km2 coastal area purchased by the Pakistani Government from Oman.

Fourth conflict 1973–77 (led by Nawab Khair Baksh Marri)



Citing treason, President Bhutto dismissed the provincial governments of Balochistan and NWFP and imposed martial law in those provinces. Dismissal of the provincial governments led to armed insurgency. Khair Bakhsh Marri formed the Balochistan People’s Liberation Front (BPLF), which led large numbers of Marri and Mengal tribesmen into guerrilla warfare against the central government. According to some authors, the Pakistani military lost 300 to 400 soldiers during the conflict with the Balochi separatists, while between 7,300 and 9,000 Balochi militants and civilians were killed.

Fifth conflict 2004 – to date (led by Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir Balach Marri)


In 2005, the Baluch political leaders Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir Balach Marri presented a 15-point agenda to the Pakistan government. Their stated demands included greater control of the province's resources and a Moratorium on the construction of military bases. On 15 December 2005, Inspector-General of Frontier Corps
Frontier Corps
The Frontier Corps is a federally-controlled paramilitary force of Pakistan, recruited mostly from the tribal areas along the western borders and led by officers from the Pakistan Army...

 Maj Gen Shujaat Zamir Dar and his deputy Brig Salim Nawaz (the current IGFC) were wounded after shots were fired at their helicopter in Balochistan province. The provincial interior secretary later said that "both of them were wounded in the leg but both are in stable condition." The two men had been visiting Kohlu
Kohlu
Kohlu is the capital of Kohlu District in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is located at 29°54'0N 69°15'0E with an altitude of 1183 metres . The Marri tribe is main ethnic group in the city....

, about 220 km (136.7 mi) south-east of Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

, when their aircraft came under fire. The helicopter landed safely.

In August 2006, Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, 79 years old, was killed in fighting with the Pakistan Army in which at least 60 Pakistani soldiers and 7 officers were killed. He was charged by Pakistan's government of a series of bomb blasts, killings of the people he professed to protect and the rocket attack on the President Pervez Musharraf.

In April 2009, Baloch National Movement
Baloch National Movement
The Baloch National Movement is a Baloch nationalist political organization. Ghulam Mohammed Baloch served as the party's president before his murder in April 2009, allegedly by Pakistani security forces. The party is a member of the Baloch National Front, also spearheaded by G.M. Baloch.-External...

 president Ghulam Mohammed Baloch
Ghulam Mohammed Baloch
Ghulam Mohammed Baloch was a Baloch nationalist politician. At the time of his death, he was serving as the president of the Baloch National Movement, as well as the General Secretary of the newly formed Baloch National Front. He had earlier served as a chairman of the Baloch Students Organization...

 and two other nationalist leaders (Lala Munir and Sher Muhammad), were seized from a small legal office and were allegedly "handcuffed, blindfolded and hustled into a waiting pickup truck which is in still use of intelligence forces in front of their lawyer and neighboring shopkeepers."The gunmen were allegedly speaking in Persian (a national language of neighboring Afghanistan and Iran) Five days later on April 8 their bodies, "riddled with bullets" were found in a commercial area.The BLA claims Pakistani forces were behind the killings, though international experts have deemed it odd that the Pakistani forces,, would be careless enough to allow the bodies to be found so easily and 'light Balochistan on fire' (Herald) if they were truly responsible. The discovery of the bodies sparked "rioting and weeks of strikes, demonstrations and civil resistance" in cities and towns around Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

. (See Turbat killings
Turbat killings
The Turbat killings refers to the murder of three prominent Baloch nationalist political leaders in April 2009, allegedly at the hands of Pakistani spy agencies, including the Inter-Services Intelligence and the Military Intelligence...

).

On August 12, 2009, Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat or Khan-e-Qalat is the title of former rulers of State of Kalat. Kalat state is now part of Balochistan, Pakistan. The rulers in Kalat were always subject to the political authority of a larger state, after the Mongol invasion they were subject to the Mughal emperors in Delhi, then...

 Mir Suleiman Dawood declared himself ruler of Balochistan and formally made announcement of a Council for Independent Balochistan. The Council's claimed domain includes "Baloch of Iran", as well as Pakistani Balochistan, but does not include Afghan Baloch regions,and the Council contains "all separatist leaders including Nawabzada Bramdagh Bugti." He claims that "the UK had a moral responsibility to raise the issue of Balochistan’s illegal occupation at international level."

Alleged Foreign Support for Baluch rebels


Pakistan has repeatedly accused India, and occasionally the U.S., of supporting the Baluch rebels in order to destabilize the country and claiming undeniable evidence. India has categorically denied the allegations, pointing to a lack of concrete evidence. Iran asserts that the U.S. provides Jundullah support. Captured Jundullah leader Abdulmalek Rigi confirmed the allegations, though the U.S. government continues to deny providing assistance to Jundullah. Neutral observers[who?] have noted that the Baloch nationalist groups are poorly-trained in military tactics and strategy, and are currently outgunned by the Pakistani state. The groups are mainly armed with small non-automatic weapons and AK-47
AK-47
The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova . It is also known as a Kalashnikov, an "AK", or in Russian slang, Kalash.Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year...

s, which are widely available in Pakistan, and they are not skilled at using Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). The poor state of the force's organization and equipment would seem to indicate that any external support is minimal.

Baluchi rebels in Pakistan are said to receive significant support from the Taliban in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. In the 1980s the CIA, the Iraqi Intelligence Service
Iraqi Intelligence Service
The Iraqi Intelligence Service , also known as the Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence, was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein...

, Pakistani Sunni extremist group Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan is a militant Sunni Deobandi organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party, established in the early 1980s in Jhang by Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi its stated goal is to primarily to deter major Shia influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian...

 and the Mujahedin e-Kalq all supported a Baluchi tribal uprising against Iran.. Pakistan has also accused India of giving citizenship to a senior Baluch Separatist[who?].

Selig S. Harrison
Selig S. Harrison
Selig Seidenman Harrison it is a scholar, journalist, and author who specializes in South Asia and East Asia. He is the Director of the Asia Program and a senior fellow at the Center for International Policy, and a senior scholar of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. He has...

 of the George Soros
George Soros
George Soros is a Hungarian-American business magnate, investor, philosopher, and philanthropist. He is the chairman of Soros Fund Management. Soros supports progressive-liberal causes...

-funded Center for International Policy
Center for International Policy
The Center for International Policy is a non-profit public policy research and advocacy think tank with offices in Washington, D.C. and New York City. It was founded in 1975 in response to the Vietnam War. The Center describes its mission as "promoting a U.S...

 has called for dividing Pakistan and supporting an independent Baluch province as a means of weakening any alliance between Islamabad and Beijing. Relations between the two countries have warmed, with Pakistan granting China access to a naval base at Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

. Similar views have been promoted by Ralph Peters
Ralph Peters
Ralph Peters is a retired United States Army Lieutenant Colonel andauthor. As a novelist he has sometimes written under the pen name Owen Parry.-Personal:...

, a strategic affairs analyst, former U.S. Army officer, and an expert on the Middle East and the Islamic world.

The biggest attacks of the terrorist group Jundallah in Iran

  • 2007 Zahedan bombings
    2007 Zahedan bombings
    The 2007 Zahedan bombings occurred from 14-17 February in Zahedan, Sistan-Baluchestan Province, Iran. While Jundallah claimed responsibility, the Iranian government has accused the governments of Pakistan and the United States of complicity. The first bombing occurred at 6:30 a.m...

    : 18 people were killed.
  • 2009 Zahedan bombing: 20 people were killed.
  • 2009 Pishin bombing
    2009 Pishin bombing
    The 2009 Pishin bombing occurred on October 18, 2009, when a suicide bomber detonated explosives at a meeting in the southeastern Iranian town of Pishin in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. The attack killed at least 43 people including several notable Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution...

    : 43 people were killed.
  • July 2010 Zahedan bombings
    July 2010 Zahedan bombings
    The 2010 Zahedan bombings were two suicide bombings on 2010 that targeted Shia worshippers in Iran, including members of the Revolutionary Guards. The bombings targeted those celebrating the birthday of a Muslim saint at the Jamia mosque in Zahedan, Sistan-Baluchestan...

    : 27 people were killed.
  • 2010 Chabahar suicide bombing
    2010 Chabahar suicide bombing
    2010 Chabahar suicide bombing was carried out on December 14, 2010, by two suicide bombers, who blew themselves up in the crowded Shiite Muslim mourning procession in Southeastern Iranian coastal city of Chabahar outside Imam Husain Mosque...

    : 38 people were killed.


Among the deaths in the Pishin bombings were two Iranian Revolutionary Guards generals: Noor Ali Shooshtari, the deputy commander of the Revolutionary Guards' ground forces and Rajab Ali Mhammadzadeh, the Revolutionary Guards' Sistan and Baluchistan provincial commander.

Economic Effects and Shortage of Skilled Workers


Chief Minister of the Province has said
"A large number of professors, teachers, engineers, barbers and masons are leaving the province for fear of attacks,This inhuman act will push the Baloch nation at least one century back. The Baloch nation will never forgive whoever is involved in target killings.
He said the government has approved three university campuses, three medical colleges and hospitals for Turbat, Mastung, Naseerabad and Loralai districts but there was shortage of teachers in the area"

Development and Human Rights Issues


The Government of Pakistan has repeatedly stated its intention to bring industrialization to the province, and continues to claim that progress has been made and introduced a Economic Package called "Aghaz-e-Haqooq-e-Balochistan". This is vehemently challenged by Baloch nationalist groups, who argue the benefits of these policies have not accrued to the native Baloch residents of the province. Baloch nationalist groups continue to highlight the extraction of natural resources, especially natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, from the province, without discernible economic benefit to the Baloch people. Nonetheless, the government of Pakistan continues to insist that industrial zones are planned along the new Gawadar-Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 highway. According to the government, this development is envisaged to bring accelerated progress in the future for the Baloch. On the third of May 2004 Three Chinese engineers working on a hydropower project that would enable irrigation for poor Baloch farmers as part of Pakistani government's initiatives to develop Baloch agricultural capacity were killed while another 11 injured in a car bomb attack by BLA. China called back her engineers working on the project in Balochistan. The progress in the hydro-power sector has been slow since then. However, the people of the region have been largely forced to maintain a nomad
Nomad
Nomadic people , commonly known as itinerants in modern-day contexts, are communities of people who move from one place to another, rather than settling permanently in one location. There are an estimated 30-40 million nomads in the world. Many cultures have traditionally been nomadic, but...

ic lifestyle due to extreme poverty
Poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

, illiteracy and inability to respond to changing modern environment. The indigenous people are continuously threatened by war and other means of oppression
Oppression
Oppression is the exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner. It can also be defined as an act or instance of oppressing, the state of being oppressed, and the feeling of being heavily burdened, mentally or physically, by troubles, adverse conditions, and...

 which has resulted in loss of thousands of innocent lives for many years. Presently, according to Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organisation whose stated mission is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated."Following a publication of Peter Benenson's...

, Baluch activists, politicians and student
Student
A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term is reserved for those who attend university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called a pupil in English...

 leaders are among those that are being targeted in forced disappearance
Forced disappearance
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the...

s, abduction
Kidnapping
In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or transportation of a person against that person's will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a confinement without legal authority...

s, arbitrary arrests
Arbitrary arrest and detention
Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law...

 and cases of torture
Torture
Torture is the act of inflicting severe pain as a means of punishment, revenge, forcing information or a confession, or simply as an act of cruelty. Throughout history, torture has often been used as a method of political re-education, interrogation, punishment, and coercion...

 and other ill-treatment.

The resources of the local inhabitants such as natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, mineral
Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not...

s, ocean
Ocean
An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas.More than half of this area is over 3,000...

s and others have been used to produce energy for Pakistan and generated. Balochistan gets Rs32.71 per unit on account of gas revenues which includes a royalty of Rs13.90, excise duty of Rs5.09 and gas development surcharge of Rs13.72. Also many private individuals with gas storages on their land also receive payments. Many Balochs argue that such royalties are too low. In response in 2011 Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani announced a further Rs. 120 billion ($2.5 USD) under Balochistan gas development surcharge and royalty part of the "Aghaz-e-Haqooq-e-Balochistan" package The royalties often do not trickle down to the common people in Balochistan due to corruption and welath-hoarding of Baloch tribal chiefs. This has hindered the growth of infrastructure.

Multiculturalism and immigration
Skill is imported from other regions, due to shortage of skilled workers in the region. The arrival of skilled workers means new industries can develop and boost the local economy however nationalist argue that this creates resentment amongst the local inhabitants. Previously,Sindhi people had been the indigenous people of the city Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 in Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 but after migration from Balouchistan, Central Asia, Iran, East Asia and particularly India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

, large number of immigrants were settled in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

  thus the local inhabitants (Sindhis) became a minority in the largest city of their province. Nationalists argue against multiculturalism and non-Baloch immigration. Karachi city
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 has been playing a key role as a financial hub for Pakistan and its economy has exploded to become on the major cities in Asia as a seaport
Port of Karachi
The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo . It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the main business district and several industrial areas. The geographic position of the port places it in close...

. However the city continues be a home for ethnic
Ethnic violence
Ethnic violence refers to violence expressly motivated by ethnic hatred...

 and sectarian
Sectarian violence
Sectarian violence and/or sectarian strife is violence inspired by sectarianism, that is, between different sects of one particular mode of ideology or religion within a nation/community...

 violence. Balouch nationalist argue that migration leads to such events, and they are opposed to similar situation in Baluchistan. Mir Suleiman Dawood claims that the people in Balochistan remain deeply resentful of Pakistan's policies in the region and he,apart from other,rather militant,Baloch nationalist organizations have openly called for India's assistance in Balochistan's separation from Pakistan. On August 12, 2009, Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat or Khan-e-Qalat is the title of former rulers of State of Kalat. Kalat state is now part of Balochistan, Pakistan. The rulers in Kalat were always subject to the political authority of a larger state, after the Mongol invasion they were subject to the Mughal emperors in Delhi, then...

 Mir Suleiman Dawood declared himself ruler of Balochistan and formally made announcement of a Council for Independent Balochistan. The Council's claimed domain includes "Baloch of Iran", apart fron Pakistani Balochistan,but does not include Afghan Baloch regions,and the Council contains "all separatist leaders including Nawabzada Bramdagh Bugti.".

Supreme Court Investigation into Balochistan


There are more than 5,000 cases of ‘forced disappearances’ in Balochistan. The chief Justice of an apex court of Pakistan asked about the situation and said situation was going out of control in Balochistan..The Supreme Court is currently investigating the "missing persons
Missing persons (Pakistan)
Missing persons is the term used in Pakistan to refer to the ostensibly hundreds or thousands of people in Pakistan who have been forcefully disappeared. Reports of forced abductions by the Pakistani state first began arising in 2001, in the aftermath of the United States invasion of Afghanistan...

" and issued an arrest warrant for the former president Pervez Musharaff

External links