Austro-Hungarian Army

Austro-Hungarian Army

Overview

The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy
Dual monarchy
Dual monarchy occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing...

 from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee - Common Army - recruited from all parts of the country), the Austrian Landwehr
Landwehr
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to large scale, low strength fortifications...

 (recruited from Cisleithania
Cisleithania
Cisleithania was a name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. The name was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status...

), and the Hungarian Honvédség (recruited from Transleithania).

In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

 and Hungarian nationalists
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

 during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many of the European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas...

, and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas.
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Encyclopedia

The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy
Dual monarchy
Dual monarchy occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing...

 from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee - Common Army - recruited from all parts of the country), the Austrian Landwehr
Landwehr
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to large scale, low strength fortifications...

 (recruited from Cisleithania
Cisleithania
Cisleithania was a name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. The name was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status...

), and the Hungarian Honvédség (recruited from Transleithania).

In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

 and Hungarian nationalists
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

 during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Hungarian Revolution of 1848
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 was one of many of the European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas...

, and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being. It existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 in 1918.

The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" (kaiserlich und königliche Armee or k.u.k.) units were generally poorly trained and had very limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire often preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k. regiments had four.

The long standing white
White
White is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the human eye in nearly equal amounts and with high brightness compared to the surroundings. A white visual stimulation will be void of hue and grayness.White light can be...

 infantry uniforms were replaced in the latter half of the 19th century with dark blue
Blue
Blue is a colour, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 440–490 nm. It is considered one of the additive primary colours. On the HSV Colour Wheel, the complement of blue is yellow; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal...

 tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey
Grey
Grey or gray is an achromatic or neutral color.Complementary colors are defined to mix to grey, either additively or subtractively, and many color models place complements opposite each other in a color wheel. To produce grey in RGB displays, the R, G, and B primary light sources are combined in...

 uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform color.

The last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler
Franz Künstler
Franz Künstler was, at age 107, the last known surviving veteran of the First World War who fought for the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Following the death of 110-year-old Ottoman veteran Yakup Satar on April 2, 2008, he was also the last Central Powers veteran of any nationality...

, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107.

Planning and operations


Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. Nevertheless, the general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers, especially Italy, Serbia and Russia.

In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897. Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were also used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902.

The most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović
Josip Filipović
Josip Filipović, Freiherr von Philippsberg, also Josef von Philippovich or Joseph Philippovich was a Croatian high-ranking general in the Austrian army....

 and Stjepan Jovanović entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there. Despite setbacks at Maglaj
Maglaj
Maglaj is a town and municipality in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It is situated in the northern part of Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the Zenica-Doboj canton. The city lies south of the city of Doboj, the regional trade, education, culture, entertainment, and business centre. The municipality of Maglaj is one of...

 and Tuzla
Tuzla
Tuzla is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the time of the 1991 census, it had 83,770 inhabitants, while the municipality 131,318. Taking the influx of refugees into account, the city is currently estimated to have 174,558 inhabitants...

, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Sarajevo |Bosnia]], surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans....

 was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders.

Size and ethnic and religious composition


In 1868 the number of active-duty troops in the army was 255,000, and the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was significantly less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the turn of the century Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia and 0.75% in France. The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912, which allowed for an increase in annual conscriptions.

The ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire the army served; in 1906, out of every 1000 enlisted men, there were 267 Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

, 223 Hungarians, 135 Czechs, 85 Poles
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

, 81 Ruthenians
Ruthenians
The name Ruthenian |Rus']]) is a culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context in which it is used. Initially, it was the ethnonym used for the East Slavic peoples who lived in Rus'. Later it was used predominantly for Ukrainians...

 (or Ukrainians
Ukrainians
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

), 67 Croats
Croats
Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

 and Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

, 64 Romanians
Romanians
The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

, 38 Slovaks
Slovaks
The Slovaks, Slovak people, or Slovakians are a West Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia...

, 26 Slovenes, and 14 Italians
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

.

From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Catholics. In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Catholics, 86 Protestants
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

, 84 Jews
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, 39 Greek-Orthodox
Greek Orthodox Church
The Greek Orthodox Church is the body of several churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity sharing a common cultural tradition whose liturgy is also traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament...

, and one Uniate. Of the pre-World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy was about 5%, Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in later years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hotzendorf and Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was also accused (by Conrad) of discriminating against Protestant officers.

Funding and Equipment


Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who generally regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség. In 1867 the military budget accounted for about 25% of all government spending, but the economic crash of 1873 hit Austria-Hungary hard and foreign observers questioned whether the Dual Monarchy could manage a major war without subsidies. Despite increases throughout the 1850s and 1860s, in the last half of the century Austria-Hungary was still spending less on its army than other major European powers were. While the budget continued to rise--from 262 million crowns in 1895 to 306 million in 1906--this was still, on a per-capita basis, far less than the other major European states, including Italy, and about on par with Russia, which had a much larger population. Further contributing to the monarchy's military weakness was the low rate of conscription: Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany and 0.75% in France. Attempts to increase the yearly intake of recruits were proposed but repeatedly blocked by officials in Budapest until an agreement was reached in 1912.

In the emerging field of military aviation
Military aviation
Military aviation is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling warfare, including national airlift capacity to provide logistical supply to forces stationed in a theater or along a front. Air power includes the national means of conducting such...

, Austria-Hungary lagged behind other European states. While balloon
Balloon (aircraft)
A balloon is a type of aircraft that remains aloft due to its buoyancy. A balloon travels by moving with the wind. It is distinct from an airship, which is a buoyant aircraft that can be propelled through the air in a controlled manner....

 detachments had been established in 1893, they were mostly assigned to the fortress artillery, except for a brief period from 1909 to 1911 when they were under command of the multifaceted Verkehrs Brigade. Realization that heavier-than-air machines were necessary or useful came late, and Austria-Hungary acquired only five airplanes by 1911. In 1914 the budget for military aviation was approximately 1/25th the amount spent by France. Austria-Hungary entered the war with only 48 first-line aircraft.

Austro-Hungarian Army in July 1914

  • 30,000 Officer
    Officer (armed forces)
    An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

    s
  • 410,000 NCOs and troops
  • 87,000 horses (estimate)
  • 1,200 artillery pieces


Official designations were as follows:
  • regiments of the joint army were designated Imperial and Royal (German: "kaiserlich und königlich" (k.u.k.); Hungarian: "Császári és Királyi")
  • Austrian Landwehr regiments were Imperial/Royal (German: "kaiserlich/königlich" (k.k.) (which stands for Imperial Austrian / Royal Bohemian (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)); Hungarian: "császári/királyi")
  • Hungarian Honvéd regiments, or "Honvédség", were called Royal Hungarian (German: "königlich ungarisch"; Hungarian: "Magyar Királyi")

After the war was declared, 3.35 million men (including the first call-up of the reserves and the 1914 recruits) gathered for action.

The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Army was officially under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, Emperor Franz Josef
Franz Josef
Franz Josef or Franz Joseph is a given name.People known solely by the name:* Franz Joseph I of Austria , Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary and King of Bohemia...

. By 1914, however, Josef was 84 years old and the chief of staff, Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, effectively had more power over the armed forces. Conrad favored an aggressive foreign policy and advocated the use of military action to solve Austro-Hungary's territorial disputes with Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWinAustria.htm

Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen was a member of the House of Habsburg and the Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I.-Early life:...

 was appointed Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian army by Franz Joseph on July 11, 1914. It was thought he would not interfere with the operational and tactical plans of Conrad von Hötzendorf. Friedrich remained Supreme Commander until February 1917, when Emperor Charles I decided to assume the office himself.

The common Army (k.u.k. - Kaiserlich und königlich)


  • 16 Corps
  • 49 Infantry Divisions - 76 Infantry Brigades - 14 Mountain Brigades
  • 8 Cavalry Divisions - 16 Cavalry Brigades
  • 102 Infantry Regiments (four battalions each) - 4 Bosnian-Herzegovinian
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

     (Bosnisch-Hercegowinische) Infantry regiments (four battalions each)
  • 4 Imperial Tyrolian
    Tyrol (state)
    Tyrol is a state or Bundesland, located in the west of Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical region of Tyrol.The state is split into two parts–called North Tyrol and East Tyrol–by a -wide strip of land where the state of Salzburg borders directly on the Italian province of...

     Rifle Regiments (Tiroler Kaiserjäger) (four battalions each)
  • 32 Rifle-Battalions (Feldjäger) - 1 Bosnian-Herzegovinian Rifle Battalion (Bosnisch-Hercegowinisches Feldjäger Bataillon)
  • 42 Field Artillery Regiments (Feldkanonen-Regimenter) - 14 Field Howitzer Regiments (Feldhaubitz-Regimenter)
  • 11 Mounted Artillery Battalions (originally named Reitende Artillerie Division) - 14 Heavy Howitzer Battalions (originally named schwere Haubitz-Division)
  • 11 Mountain Artillery Regiments (Gebirgsartillerie Regimenter)
  • 6 Fortress Artillery Regiments (Festungsartillerie Regimenter) - 8 independent Fortress Artillery Battalions (selbst. Festungsartillerie Bataillone)
  • 15 Regiments of Dragoons (Dragoner) - 16 Regiments of Hussars (Husaren) - 11 Regiments of Lancers (Ulanen)
  • 16 Transportation Battalions (Railroad)
  • 23 Engineers
    Military engineer
    In military science, engineering refers to the practice of designing, building, maintaining and dismantling military works, including offensive, defensive and logistical structures, to shape the physical operating environment in war...

     Battalions (Sappeure/Pioniere) - 1 Bridge Construction Battalion (Brücken Bataillon) - 1 Railroad Regiment (Eisenbahn-Regiment) - 1 Signal Regiment (Telegraphen-Regiment)


k.k. Landwehr (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)

  • 35 Landwehr Infantry Regiments - 3 battalions each (Landwehr Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 6 Landwehr Regiments of Lancers
  • 8 Landwehr Field Artillery Battalions (Feldkanonen) - 8 Landwehr Field Howitzer Battalions (Feldhaubitz)


The Mountain Infantry with the following units:
  • 2 Landwehr Mountain Infantry Regiments (Gebirgsinfanterie-Regimenter) No. 4 and No. 27
  • 3 Tyrolian Fusiliers Regiments (Tiroler Landesschützen Regimenter) - since January 1917 named Kaiserschützen
  • 1 Mounted Tyrolian Fusiliers Battalion (Reitende Tiroler Landesschützen)
  • 1 Mounted Dalmatian Fusiliers Battalion (Reitende Dalmatiner Landesschützen)


k.u. Honvéd (königlich ungarische Landwehr)


A part of the Royal Hungarian Landwehr was the Royal Croatian Landwehr
Royal Croatian Home Guard
The Royal Croatian Home Guard was the Croatian army section of the Royal Hungarian Army , which existed from 1868 to 1918. The force was created by decree of the Croatian Parliament on December 5, 1868 as a result of the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement....

 ( Kraljevsko hrvatsko domobranstvo ), which consisted of 1 infantry division (out of 7 in Honved) and 1 cavalry regiment (out od 10 in Honved).
  • 6 k.u. Honvéd Landwehr Districts (Distrikte)
  • 2 k.u. Honvéd Infantry Divisions (Infanterie Truppendivisionen)
  • 2 k.u. Honvéd Cavalry Divisions (Kavallerie Truppendivisionen)
  • 4 k.u. Honvéd Infantry Brigades (Infanteriebrigaden) - 12 independent k.u. Honvéd Infantry Brigades
  • 4 k.u. Honvéd Cavalry Brigades (Kavalleriebrigaden)
  • 32 Honvéd Infantry Regiments (Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 10 Honvéd Regiments of Hussars (Husaren-Regimenter)
  • 8 Honvéd Field Artillery Regiments (Feldkanonen Regimenter) - 1 Honvéd Mounted Artillery Battalion (Reitende Artillerie Abteilung)


The infantry regiments of the k.u.k. army had four battalions each; the infantry regiments of the k.k. and k.u. Landwehr had three battalions each, except the 3rd Regiment of the “Tiroler Landesschützen“ (Tyrolian Fusiliers), that had also four battailons.
In 1915 units that had nicknames or names of honor lost them by order of the War Ministry. Thereafter units were designated only by number. For instance, the k.u.k. Infanterie-Regiment (Hoch und Deutschmeister) No.4 became Infanterie-Regiment No. 4.

Medals (Example)


The following were the medals awarded to a Zugsführer (Staff-Sergeant) of the 2nd Regiment of the Tyrolian Imperial Rifles (later transferred to the 30th High Mountain Company), who saw action at:
  • Galicia
  • the Carpathian Mountains
    Carpathian Mountains
    The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe...

     (Romania
    Romania
    Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

     - Hungary
    Kingdom of Hungary
    The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

     eastern border area.)
  • Col di Lana - Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

    -Italian
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

     border
  • Monte Piano
    Monte Piana
    The Monte Piana is a 2,324 tall mountain in the Sexten Dolomites and located on the border between the provinces of South Tyrol and Belluno. The smaller Northern summit of the mountain is named Monte Piano ....

     - Austria-Italian border
  • bei Lafraun (Lavarone/seven communities area) - Austria-Italian border
  • Monte Pasubio - Austria-Italian border
  • Sextner Dolomiten Mountains - Austria-Italian border
  • Ortler Mountain - Austria-Italian border
  • Hohe Schneid (Ortler
    Ortler
    Ortler is, at above sea level, the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range. It is the main peak of the Ortler Range. It is the highest point of the Southern Limestone Alps, of the Italian province of South Tyrol, of Tyrol overall, and, until 1919, of the Austrian-Hungarian...

     Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Tonale Paß (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Cima Presena (Mountain (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Busazza Mountain (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border


He received the following decorations:
    • Silver Medal of Bravery 1st Class (Kaiser Karl I.
      Karl I of Austria
      Charles I of Austria or Charles IV of Hungary was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, the last King of Bohemia and Croatia and the last King of Galicia and Lodomeria and the last monarch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine...

       / after January 1917)
    • Silver Medal of Bravery 2nd Class (Kaiser Karl / after January 1917)
    • Bronze Medal of Bravery Emperor Franz Joseph / before January 1917)
    • Karl-Cross (for a minimum of 12 weeks in active fight)
    • Casualty Medal
      Wound Medal (Austria-Hungary)
      The Wound Medal was a decoration of the Empire of Austria-Hungary. It was established on August 12, 1917 by Emperor Karl and was the last medal to be officially founded in the empire....

       (after January 1917) (wounded on 9/20/1918 at the Zigolon Mountain near the Adamello)
    • Medal of Honor of the State of Tyrol to its defenders

Ranks and rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army

The different colors of the rank patches and buttons on the tunic are the marks for identifying the infantry regiments (except Generals)
Infantry Cavalry Artillery Rifles Rank insignias Rank insignias mountain rifles
Gebirgsjäger
Gebirgsjäger, in English Mountain Riflemen, is the German designation for mountain infantry. The word Jäger is the traditional German term for rifleman...

Troops
Infanterist /
Honvéd
Military of Hungary
The Hungarian Defence Force is the national military of Hungary. It currently has two branches, the Hungarian Ground Force and the Hungarian Air Force....

(Hung.)
(Private)
Dragoner
Dragoon
The word dragoon originally meant mounted infantry, who were trained in horse riding as well as infantry fighting skills. However, usage altered over time and during the 18th century, dragoons evolved into conventional light cavalry units and personnel...

 
Husar
Hussar
Hussar refers to a number of types of light cavalry which originated in Hungary in the 14th century, tracing its roots from Serbian medieval cavalry tradition, brought to Hungary in the course of the Serb migrations, which began in the late 14th century....

 
Ulan
Lancer
A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance. Lances were used in mounted warfare by the Assyrians as early as and subsequently by Greek, Persian, Gallic, Han-Chinese, nomadic and Roman horsemen...

 
Kanonier
Gunner (rank)
Gunner is a rank equivalent to Private in the British Army Royal Artillery and the artillery corps of other Commonwealth armies. The next highest rank is usually Lance-Bombardier, although in the Royal Canadian Artillery it is Bombardier....

 
Jäger
Rifleman
Although ultimately originating with the 16th century handgunners and the 17th century musketeers and streltsy, the term rifleman originated from the 18th century. It would later become the term for the archetypal common soldier.-History:...

Gefreiter
Gefreiter
Gefreiter is the German, Swiss and Austrian equivalent for the military rank Private . Gefreiter was the lowest rank to which an ordinary soldier could be promoted. As a military rank it has existed since at least the 16th century...

 /
Őrvezető (Hung.)
(Private 1st Class)
Gefreiter Vormeister
Főtűzér
Patrouillenführer
Járőrvezető
(NCO's)
Korporal
Corporal
Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. It is usually equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-4....

 /
Tizedes (Hung.)
Kapral (Polish)/Desátník (Czech)
(Corporal)
Korporal Geschütz-Vormeister Unterjäger
Zugsführer
Master Corporal
Master Corporal , in the Canadian Forces and the Royal Canadian Army Cadets is an appointment of the rank of Corporal in the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Airforce...

 /
Szakaszvezető (Hung.)
(Master Corporal)
Zugsführer Zugsführer Zugsführer
Feldwebel /
Őrmester (Hung.)
(Sergeant)
Wachtmeister Feuerwerker Oberjäger
Kadett-Feldwebel / Kadétőrmester (Hung.)
Hadapród)
(Cadet-Sergeant, since 1908 Cadet)
Kadett-Wachtmeister
(Kadett)
Kadett-Feuerwerker
(Kadett)
Kadett-Oberjäger
(Kadett)
Stabs-Feldwebel
Staff Sergeant
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in several countries.The origin of the name is that they were part of the staff of a British army regiment and paid at that level rather than as a member of a battalion or company.-Australia:...

  /
Törzsőrmester (Hung.)
(Staff Sergeant since 1913 - insignias until 1914)
Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger
Stabs-Feldwebel /
Törzsőrmester (Hung.)
(Staff Sergeant, insignias after 1914)
Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger
Offiziersstellvertreter (seit dem 6. Juni 1915) /
Tiszthelyettes (Hung.)
(Warrant-Officer)
Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter
Officers-Candidates
Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter
Hadapród-Tiszthelyettes (Hung.)
(Cadet-Warrant-Officer) (until 1908)
Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter
Fähnrich (ab 1908) /
Zászlós (Hung.)
(Officers-Candidate) (since 1908 - replaced the CWO)
Fähnrich Fähnrich Fähnrich
Low Grade Officers
Leutnant
Lieutenant
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

 /
Hadnagy (Hung.)
(Lieutenant)
Leutnant Leutnant Leutnant
Oberleutnant
First Lieutenant
First lieutenant is a military rank and, in some forces, an appointment.The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations , but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior and junior rank...

 /
Főhadnagy (Hung.)
(1st Lieutenant)
Oberleutnant Oberleutnant Oberleutnant
Captains
Hauptmann
Hauptmann
Hauptmann is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officer's rank in the German, Austrian and Swiss armies. While "haupt" in contemporary German means "main", it also has the dated meaning of "head", i.e...

 /
Százados (Hung.)
(Captain)
Rittmeister
Rittmeister
Rotamaster was the military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in charge of a squadron , the equivalent of O3 or Captain, in the German-speaking armies, Austro-Hungarian, Polish-Lithuanian, Russian and some other states.The exact name of this rank maintains a variety of spellings in different...

 
Hauptmann Hauptmann
Staff-Officers
Major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

 /
Őrnagy (Hung.)
Major Major Major
Oberstleutnant /
Alezredes (Hung.)
(Lieutenant-Colonel)
Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant
Oberst
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 /
Ezredes (Hung.)
(Colonel)
Oberst Oberst Oberst
Generals
Generalmajor /
Vezérőrnagy (Hung.)
(Major-General equiv. to Brigadier-General)
Feldmarschalleutnant /
Altábornagy (Hung.)
(Lieutenant-Field-Marshal equiv. to Major-General)
General der Infanterie
Gyalogsági tábornok (Hung.)
(General of the Infantry)
General der Kavallerie
Lovassági tábornok
(General of the Cavalry)
Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister was a military rank in various European armies , especially in the artillery. It was commonly used in the 16th or 17th century, but could even be found in the beginning of the 20th century in some European countries...

 /
Táborszernagy
(General of the Artillery)
General
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

oberst /
Vezérezredes (Hung.)
(Colonel-General) (since 1915)
Feldmarschall /
Tábornagy (Hung.)
(Field-Marshal)



Note


The ranks displayed after the "/" are the Hungarian equivalents of the Austrian ranks, since they were used in this format in the Magyar Királyi Honvédség / königlich ungarische Landwehr (Royal Hungarian Home Defence Forces).
The English equivalents are from the Austrian Bundesheer's homepage. The general ranks are equivalent of today's NATO standard.

See also



  • Army Slav
    Army Slav
    Developed to help with language barriers in Austria-Hungary, Army Slav was a rump language consisting of about eighty key words...

  • Austro-Hungarian First Army
    Austro-Hungarian First Army
    The Austro-Hungarian First Army was an Austro-Hungarian field army that fought during World War I.The First Army was formed in 1914 as part of Austro-Hungarian mobilization following its declaration of war on Serbia and Russia. The First Army was put under the command of Gen. Viktor Dankl von...

     in World War I
  • Army ranks and insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army
    Army ranks and insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army
    Rank insignias as worn by the Austro-Hungarian Land Forces after the reorganisation in 1867 until 1918-Ranks:-Note:The ranks displayed after the "/" are the Hungarian equivalents of the Austrian ranks, since they were used in this format in the Magyar Királyi Honvédség .- Ranks and rank insignias...

  • Comparative military ranks of World War I
    Comparative military ranks of World War I
    The following table shows comparative officer ranks of the principal Allied and Central powers during World War I. For modern ranks refer to Comparative military ranks.See also: Comparative military ranks of World War IIMajor participants not shown:...

  • List of Austro-Hungarian field marshals
  • Organisation of the Austro-Hungarian Land Forces (German)
  • The k.u.k. Army (German)
  • Weapons of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • The Good Soldier Schweik

External links